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G R A M M A R 





Professor of Literary History in, and Librarian to, the Uah erjify 
of Copeuhageu &c. &c. 

nyvwvv%iv\ vwww»/» 



Wvv^.^A(vv wwi. vjw 




Honorary Member of (hc Icclaiidic Literary 
Society of Coi)enbagen, 


FbINTED by ^l L. MøLLKR, 


P R E F A c E. 

X he Anglo-Saxon Language, as well as its litera- 
ture, holds unquestionablj" a rank inferior to the 
ancient Scandinavian , in respect both of intrinsic 
excellence, and of interest and importance, at least 
to the inhabitants of the North. It belongs to 
another, though nearly allied, fatnily, namely, the 
Teutonic; it has a simpler structure, and fewer in- 
flections, thereby discovering itself to be a younger 
or, at least, more mixed, and less original, language, 
and consequently beaf s a less degree of value in an 
etymological point of view* In its literature, we 
valnly seek for an Edda'), aNjåla^), aHeims- 

*) Tliere are two vvorks l)eatmg tliis title : 1) Edda S æ mund- 
ar hins FtoiSa.^ a Gollection o£ tlie oldest Scandinavian 
songs^ mythological and lieroic. It has been twice pulilished 
entire, viz, at Stockholm, 1818 in 8vOj by A. A. Afzelius^ 
after the text o£ Rask , and at Copenhagen , in 3 vol„ 4to, 
1787—1828 ; with a Latin translation, notes, vocabularies S^c^ 
This Edit. was completed by Prof, Finn Magnusen. 2) 
Snor r a-Edda, together with the Skal da (an Icelandic 
jirs Poettca)^ published entire, for the first time, at Stock- 
holm, by Rask, in 8vo 1818; containing Scandinavian My^ 

®) Njåla, aBiography of thé celebrated tcelander, Njall por- 
geirsson, and his sons» It is considered a masterpiece, both 
for its veracity and style, it was published, in Icelandic, 
at Copenhagen in 1T72, 4to. The Latin vers^ion did not 
appear till 1809. 

IV P R E F A c E. 

kringla "), or a Kongsskuggsjå^); mstead of 
which, we find, for the most part, Translations 
from the Latin, Chronicles, Homilies, and Treatises 
upon subjects which, in the present times, are but 
of little value. Nor, when considered with regard 
to style, do these works possess any great claim 
to attention, as they seem, almost without excep- 
tion, deficient, both in taste ^ and peculiarity of 

Yet, of all the old Teutonic dialects, this is 
perhaps the most important to us Scandinavians; 
Firstly, because it has been considered, by some 
elder writers, as the fountain of the present nor- 
thern tongues, at least of the Danish, whence it 
indeed necessarily follows that it must also be that 
of the Norwegian (which is the same as Danish), 
and of the Swedish, which so nearly resembles it, 
that, when written or spoken, it is easily under- 
stood both by Dånes and Norwegians: and a dia- 
leet which some very learned men have considered 

Heimskringla, the title of Snorre Sturleson's great 
work, being a biograpliical liistoi-y of tlie Kings of Norway 
from Odin. It was published, witli a Latin and a Swedish 
translation, by Peringskjold, ni ,2 vol. folio, Stockh. , 1697; 
and witli a Latin and a Danish translation , by Schonning 
and Thorlaciiis, in 3 vol. folio, Copenhagen 1777 — 1783, and 
continued by the younger Thorlacius, and Werlauff, in 3 
volumes, 1813—1826. 

Kongsskuggsj å, or Royal Mir ror. This is a view of 
human life, with rules for the conduct of its varioiis piir- 
snits and professions. It is in the form of dialogue, and is 
supposed to be the work of Sverre, King of Norway. It 
was published in Icelandic, Danish and Latin, in 4to, Soriøf 
1768, by Halfdan Einarsen, Author of a Literary History 
of Iceland. 

P R E F A c B. V 

as the source of our mother tongue, ougbt cer- 
tainly not to be indifferent to any Dåne or Swede 
aspiring to a thorough knowledge of his native 
language. Secondly, the Anglo-Saxon is, geogra- 
phically, the nearest to us of all the Teutonic dia- 
lects, it being an historical faet, that the Angles 
dwelt in the south of Sleswig, and in Holstein, and 
that the Saxons, who passed with them into Bri- 
tain, were their nearest neighbours. Thirdly, the 
Anglo-Saxon literature being from an earlier, and, 
in part, much earlier, period than the Icelandic, 
we are enabled, as it were, to retrograde consider- 
ably into remote times 5 we find here an advan- 
tageous resting place in our researches into the 
origin of our nation and tongue. 

The Anglo-Saxon literature too, though not 
to be compared with the Icelandic, is to us of the 
highest interest. Its amplitude enables us to ac- 
quire a complete knowledge of the language, with 
respect both to its structure and vocabulary; and 
as it is very difficult to judge and make use of 
that which we know but partially, this is a great 
advantage which the Anglo-Saxon enjoys over the 
other ancient Teutonic tongues, viz. the Old-Saxon, 
the Frisic, the Francic, the Allemannic, and the 
Mæsogothic : for all these we know only from 
small, detached, pieces, or rather fragments; it is 
not possible therefore to form, from any of them, 
a complete grammar, much less, a dictionary: only 
by laboriously collecting, and comparing, such 
small fragments, can we form some conclusions as 
to their structure, versification &c. The Anglo- 
Saxon is the only old Teutonic tongue which we 

VI P R E F A c E. 

caii be said to possess entirej it is therefore, for 
the sake of grammatical , but more especlally of 
etymologicai, illustration, of the highest moment 
to us. 

But tbis circumstance renders it still more 
necessary to German scholars : to them the Anglo- 
Saxon is almost what the Icelandic is to those of 
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway; not because the 
German and Dutch can, strictly speaking, be con- 
sidered as derived from it, but because, of the 
Old-Saxon, and other ancient, exstinct, dialects, 
from which they are derived, such small fragments 
are transmitted to us, that they must, in great mea- 
sure, be explained and illustrated by the aid of the 
Anglo-Saxon^ to which tongue recourse may be 
had, where the others completely desert the phi- 
lologist^ for the Icelandic lies more remote for 
Germans, though quite as interesting to them, as 
Anglo-Saxon to Scandinavians. 

But it is to the English philologist that the 
Anglo-Saxon, as being his old national tongue, is 
of the greatest moment. To him it is precisely 
what Icelandic is to the modern Scandinavians, 
and Latin to the Italians. The English language 
consists, it is true, of many foreign components, 
particularly French and Latin; but these tongues 
are sufficiently known, and the origin of words 
borrowed from them is easy to trace ; while all the 
original part of the language is derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon, and can, for the most part, only be 
satisfactorily illustrated by its aid j though the other 
Teutonic tongues, as well as the Icelandic, are, in 
this respect, of great utility. Of this the celebrated 

P R E F A c E. VII 

Lexicographer, Dr. Samuel Johnson, was likewise 
aware, and he endeavoured to assign briefly the 
Anglo-Saxon, or generally, the Gothic, origin, to 
the Gothic portion of the language. J. Serenius 
also, in the 2^^^ Edition of his Anglo-Swedish Dic- 
tionary, has given the derivation of several English 
words, from the Gothic tongues, but as his know- 
ledge of the ancient dialects was superficial, his 
illustrations are borrowed at second, or third, hånd, 
and are sometimes false, always doubtful. Dr. Ja- 
mieson has likewise, in his Dictionary of the Scot- 
tish Language, acknowledged the importance, and 
availed himself, of the Gothic dialects in his eluci- 
dations : but as the Anglo-Saxon, in particular, has 
hitherto been so little, and so unsatisfactorily cul- 
tivated, it still promises a very rich harvest, both 
to English and Scottish students. 

The Anglo-Saxon literature possesses, in many 
respects , even for its own sake , no small degree 
of interest. The numerous ancient laws throw 
considerable light upon the laws of the old Ger- 
mans, and Scandinavians, as well as upon their cu- 
stoms and civil institutions. The old Chronicles 
and Genealogies are important sources for the 
ancient history of thé Low German, and the Scan- 
dinavian nations. The various Documents illu- 
strate much in English history. Even the theolo- 
gical remains, shewing the constitution and doc- 
trine of the ancient Church, are not devoid of va- 
lue for-cecclesiastical history, especially to the mo- 
dem English and Scottish Churches. The trans- 
lation of several parts of the Scripture may like- 
wise be advantageously employed in biblical re- 

s pi V R E F A C E. 

searches. But of all^ the ppetical pieces ara the 
most interesting, especially the great Anglo-Saxon 
Poem, in forty three Cantos, published at Copen- 
hagen in 1815, hy the Royal Archivarius G. J. 
Thorkelin, which, from its cpmmencement, he has 
aptly entitled Scyldingis '). This is perhap? the 
only Anglo-Saxon piece possessing value on ac- 
count both pf its matter and style, particularly for 
the nations of the North ^ the principal hero being 
Swedish or Gothic, though the action lies in Den- 

But greater indeed would be the importance 
of this latiguage and its literature, if it were really 
the source of the present northern tongues^ it is 
thereiore incumbent upon us closely to investigate 
this contested point. 

It is an acknowledged faet that nations bring, 
their languages with them from , the countries 
whence they migrate; thus the Phænicians brought 
the Punic tongue to Africa 5 the Greeks, the Greek 
to Magna Græcia; and the Scandinavians, the old. 
Northern (Norræna) to Iceland: but there exists 
no trace of our forefathers having migrated to our. 
present settlements from England 5 on the contrary,. 
ii: is known, with much greateij.certainty^ that Den-, 
mark, Swedeiji, ar\d Norway were inhabited by 
Scand. tribes long before the passing of the Anglo- 
Saxons into Britain, and that it was only after this 
emigration that th^y became united into one people, 
speaking a common language. It is theraefcre not 
to be conceived on what historical autHeri'ty the 

^) In conipliance witit general iisage, this poem is, in tlie 
present Edition, quoted by the title of Beowulf. 


present Scandinavian tongues can be derived from 
the An^lo-Saxon, which was never spoken out of 
England. On the contrary, we are told, by the 
Anglo-Saxons themselves, that they removed to 
England from the southern parts of Sleswig, and 
neighbouring tracts of Germany, so that, wIth 
much more reason, we might assume the converse 
of the proposition , and say that the Anglo-Saxon 
is derived from the old Danish: this however has 
not, to my knowledge, been asserted by any one; 
it would moreover be absurd and false j as it was 
not the Dånes themselves, but their neighbours, 
who migrated; it was therefore not the Danish 
language, but their own Teutonic dialects, which 
they to ok with them. 

It is also known, that these emigrants con- 
sisted of three distinct Gothic races, viz. Saxons, 
Angles, and Jutes. Whether the Angles, or the 
Saxons were more numerous, is not known with 
certainty, but the Angles finally conquered a larger 
portion of the country, and gave their name to 
the whole nation. It was they perhaps who were 
especialiy invited by the Britons^ yet it is remark- 
able that the English, to the present day are cal- 
led, both by the Britons in Wales, and the High- 
landers of Scotland (in Kymric and Gælic)^ not 
Angles^ or Englishmen, but Saxons, The emigrant 
Saxons also founded three kingdoms 5 but whether 
we suppose the Saxons or the Angles to have 
been the more numerous^ is is certain that the 
Jutes were the fewest: this is evident from a re- 
markable passage in the Saxon Chronicle, A^- 449, 
where it is said: 

X P R E F A c E. 

t.Of Idtum comon Cant- ^^From the Jutes came 

ware and Wihtware, pæt is ^^^ inhahitants ofKent, and 

^ » . V T . , V of WiaM , that is the race 

seo raæi$, pe nu eardaS on "^ ® 

^Æ«^ worø dwells in JFight, 

Wiht, and pæt cynn on West- j .7 , . .7 .7 

^ "^ «wa rfiar m6e among the 

Sexum, ^e man gyt hæt Iiit- West-Saæons , which is yet 

nacynn. Of Eald-Seaxum called theJute trihe. From 

comon East-Seaxan and SuS- ^^e Old-Saxons came the 

Seaxan, and West- Seaxan. ^^^t ' ^^^^ons , and South- 

Saxons. From the Angle's 

Of Ånde comon (se å si^^an ,7/7.77 , 

^ ^ land [ivhtch has always since 

sted westig betwix Iiitum ^tood tvaste hettvia;t the Ju- 
and Seaxum) Eåst- Engle, tes and Sasons) came the 
Middel-Angle, Mearce, and Fast- Angles, Middle-AngleSy 
ealle Nor^ymbra." Mercians, and all the North- 


Thus the Jutes constituted a very inconsi- 
derable portion of the emigrants, and even this 
was separated into three bodies; so that also upon 
this ground, we Scandinavians can ascribe to our- 
selves a very small share in the language 5 for whe- 
ther the Angles are assumed to have been Scan- 
dinavian or Teutonic, the utmost we can thence 
conclude is, that the Danish tongue was introdu- 
ced into the Anglo-Saxon, and not vice versa, as 
the Angles never returnedj nor could the Dånes 
have mingled with any that remained behind; for 
it is expressly said that their emigration was so 
complete, that the land stood waste between the 
Jutes and the Saxons. That the Saxons were Teu- 
tonic, and not Scandinavian, seems evident beyond 
a doubt, from their whole history, from their an- 
cient habitation, and from the accounts left us by 
King Alfred, and other Anglo-Saxons. By a parity 

P R E F A c E. XI 

of reasonmg, the Danish cannot be deri ved from 
the language of the emigrant Saxons; nor can the 
Dånes, and their language, be said to be descended 
from those Saxons before their emigration j for 
there is not, as far back as history reaches, the 
faintest trace or hint of any Saxon emigration to 
the north; on the contrary, the Dånes are, from 
the remotest times, distinguished from the Saxons, 
with whom they were in a state of constant war- 
fare; so that when the Swedish King Adils re- 
quested aid of Rolf Krage, King of Denmark, 
against King Ale, in the Uplands of Norway, Rolf 
Krage, as we learn from Skalda^ Chap. 44, could 
not go himself, because he was engaged in a Saxon 
war. The Dånes are moreover, from time imme- 
morial, described as a great and powerful nation, 
that often threatened the independence of their 
neighbours; as in the times of Ivar Vidfadme, Rag- 
nar Lodbrog, Canute the Great, the Valdemars, 
and Queen Margaret 5 and cannot therefore, with 
the faintest shadow of probability, be considered 
as a Saxon colony. They are besides so clearly 
distinguished from the Saxons that, as we are in- 
formed, there dwelt a small tribe of Angles be- 
tween them. That these Angles were Teutonic, it 
is reasonable to infer, from the circumstance of 
their being so closely connected with the Saxons, 
that the whole of them accompanied the latter in 
their emigration, whereas it can only have been 
detached families from Jutland, who, having heard 
from report of the fortunes that were to be acqui- 
red, joined the others, in the hope of sharing the 
spoil. That the Angles were a Teutonic race is 

XII P R E F A c E. 

not only probable, but almost certain, from the 
faet that the dialect of these invaders so soon coa- 
lesced into one common tongue, and assumed a 
character so decidedly Teutonic that, with the ex- 
ception af a few normanisms, introduced in later 
times, there is scarcely a vestige deserving notice 
of the old Scandinavian, or of Danish, strncture to 
be found in Anglo-Saxonj so that in this respect, 
even the Old-Saxon bears a closer resemblance to 
the Scandinavian tongues. 

This difference of structure, between Danish 
and Anglo-Saxon, is very striking in several essen- 
tial points. In the simple order of nouns, the 
Anglo-Saxons inflect the plural and the definite 
form of the adjectives alike, viz. in -auy -um, -enay 
as: se nama the name, pi. |)å naman &c. , like 
se g 6 d a the good, (mase.) pi. {> å g 6 d a n ; as in 
German, der Knahe^ pi. die Knahen^ is declined like 
der gute^ pi. die guten, This analogy in the plu- 
ral, between the simple elasses of the nouns and 
the definite form of the adjectives, is constantly 
found, in all genders, both in Anglo-Saxon, and 
German 5 e. g. , die Herzen^ die Ohren, die Nahmen, 
die Strahlen, die Frauen, die Wellen, like die zar- 
ten^ die langen, die berilhmten^ die hellen^ die scho- 
nen, die luallenden k.c, Whereas in Danish this 
analogy does not exist, e. g. Hjærter^ Øren, Fyr^ 
ster, Stråler^ Koner, Bølger^ hut de omme, de lange, 
de skonne, de brusende. In Swedish also, hjerta 
forms in the plural hjertan^ stråle, strålar^ qvinna, 
qvinnor &c.,- but de omma, Ijusa, skona (or de om- 
me^ Ijuse, skone). Nor does it exist in Icelandie, 
hjarta, for instance, forming in the plur. hjortuj 

P R E F A c E. 


geisli, geislarj kona, konur (konor)^ but 
{>au, |>eir, J)æråstu6ligu, bjortu, vænu &c. 
The Anglo-Saxons have, like the Germans, 
only one definite article, which is always placed be- 
fore die substantive oradjective; while the Dånes, 
Oli the contrary, as in Swedish and Icelandic, have 
a second definite article, which is affixed to all 
subvStantives. Anciently the terminations, both of 
the substantive and the article, were preserved, 
but in the modern language, the genitive is ex- 
pressed in the article only, as: 

A, S. pæt li'f Ban. Liv-et the life, 

pæs li'fes Livs-ens or Livets of the life, 

se dea5 Død-en the cleath, 

{)æs deåSes Døds-ens or Dildens of the death, 

seo wiice Uge-n the week, 

f ære wucan Uge-s (Uge-ns^ of the tveek, 

Ja wucaii Uger-ne the iveehs, 

pæra Avuceiia Uger-s (JJger-nes') of the weeics. 

The Anglo-Saxons made no distinctlon of 
gender in the nominative of adjectives, excepting 
in a few feminines that end in u^ while in Danish, 
the neuter has its appropriate termination t, and, 
in the old language, the masculine terminated in 
er, as: unger Svend, feder Hest &c.; but the femi- 
nine never had any peculiar termination : the x\. S. 
b r å d answers theref ore both to bredt (latiim) to 
the ancient breder, and to bred (latus^ Iata)y 
god is both godt {bonuni)^ goder arid god {bo- 
nus^ hond)\ min both mit (meuni)^ and min {meas^ 
med); lire both vort (jiostrum)^ and vor (jioster, 
nostrd)'^ whereas the Danish, in these cases, per- 
fectly coincides with the Swedish and Icelandic, in 

XIV P R E F A c E. 

the latter of which there is a marked distinctlon 
between breitt, breiSr, and breiS; gott, 
goSr, and goSj mitt, minn, and minj vort 
and vor. 

In Anglo-Saxon, the third person present of 
the verbs differs from the second, the latter end- 
ing in st^-the former in -d^ like the Ger man -st, 
-t^ while in Danish, as in Swedish and Icelandic, 
they are always alike, and terminate in -r. In the 
plural of the present, the Anglo-Saxon verbs, in 
all the persons, end in -as', in Danish in -e, an- 
swerlng to the Swedish -e, -g/z, a. In old Danish 
and Swedish, the plural has a distlnct termlnation, 
for each person, vlz. -ojii (um) , -et (-en), -e (a), 
eorresponding to the Icelandic -um, -id', -a, but 
totally unlike the Anglo-Saxon, As in German, 
the Anglo-Saxon infinitives terminate in -n: the 
Dånes terminate theirs in a vowel, generally -e, 
anciently -æ, -a, as in Swedish and Icelandic. In 
Anglo-Saxon there is no passive form, which the 
Dånes, in common with the Swedes and Icelan- 
ders, have had from the remotest times. In Anglo- 
Saxon, most short nouns, derlved from verbs, 
which seem indeed often to be their root, are, as 
in German of the mascullne gender, w^hlle in Da- 
nish, Swedish, and Icelandic, they are neuter. The 
same conformlty w4th the German, and deviation 
from the Danish, may be found also in the gender 
of many other words, (of which see examples pp. 
24 and 106J, In the general sound too of the 
words, a strlking contrast prevails bet\veen Anglo- 
Saxon and Danish j the former, in this respect also, 

P R E F A c IL 



■ the other Teutonic tongues ^ the latter, 

the other Scandinavlan, 


Angl. Sax, 











lifa (pron, lera) 
















létt (neut.) 




rétt {neut.) 




frosum {mase.} 










same relation 

exists, for the most part. 

when the 

words are different, as: 







Kød {Huld] 

kjot (hold) 









slap an 









machen \ 
thun ) 







byrja, ber. 




1 gegiuim, 




1 millum. 

If we now call to mind that the Angles and 
Saxons were our immediate neighbours, and that 
a considerable number of Dånes accompanied them 
in their emigration, this striking contrast, between 
the two languages, will appear very remarkable, 
and seems, together with the historical facts, com- 
pletely to decide that the Danish cannot be deri- 
ved from any Teutonic tongue, since it differs so 


wlflely from that whichis geographically the nearest 
to it, and in the formation of which the Dånes 
themselves hore a part. The Anglo-Saxon, like 
the other Low German dialects, has inflectlons, 
which the Danish has not, e. g., the feminine of 
some adjectives, and gerund of the verbs &c.; and 
is, on the other hånd, defective in many, which 
have existed in Danish from the earliest times, e. g. 
the neuter and masculine of adjectives, as in the 
Upper German dialects. The Anglo-Saxons have 
other rnles of euphony than those required by the 
Scandinavians, and reciprocally reject those which 
have been carefuliy cultivated in the North, from 
the earliest ages. It seems therefore against all 
sound philology to derive either of these tongues 
from the other, while many circumstances indicate 
a close relationship between the Danish, and the 
dialects of Upper Germany, and others, as the pas- 
sive form of the verbs, shew a striking similitude 
to the Slavonian and Phrygian languages, and all 
historical accounts, concerning our foreiathers, 
point, as it were, to the eastern, or south-eastern, 
parts of Europe. 

To the above we may add, that the Danish 
language is, and has been, from time immemorial, 
80 like to the Norwegian, and the Swedish (it 
being, in faet, almost the same) that it cannot pos- 
sibly be derived from any other sources. The 
Norwegian has, as is well known, for several cen- 
turles, and especially since the Danish became a 
fixed and regular tongue, been identical with it^ 
and this common dialect has perhaps been as much 
settled and polished by Norwegians, as by natlves 

P R E F A c B. XVII 

of Denmark. The only deviations are the several 
provincial dialects in Norway, as well as in Den- 
mark, where one province terminales its verbs in 
a, another distinguishes all the three genders, while 
a third has preserved a vast number of old words 
and inflections, which to the other are unintelli- 
gible &c. But as the long conne^^ion between 
Denmark and Norway may have greatly contri- 
buted to this identity^ which in faet we may date 
from the reformation, we shall desist from any 
further comparison with the Norwegian. The 
Swedish has, on the contrary, almost from the in- 
troduction of Christianity, even during the Calmar 
Union '), and in the time of Gustavus I., been a 
distinct tonguej a comparison therefore with the 
Swedish is more to the present purpose. I will 
first give a specimen of old Danish, from a beau- 
tiful M. S. on vellum, of homilies, or meditations, 
on the Passion, cailed the Jærtegnspostil, be- 
longing to the Royal Swedish Historiographer af 
Hallenberg, who kindly aliowed me the use of this, 
as v\^ell as of many other rare hooks, for the pre- 
sent publication. It is VN^ithout date, but from a 
memorandum on the first leaf, its age may be nearly 
determined. The memorandum is as follows: 

Tlieniie bog haiFwer tilhørdt Iiogboriie og allereddel- 
ste førsthiiide frw Christine met gudts Nåde vdj fram- 
faren tliiid Daiim. Swerigis , Norgis h. c. Drotiiiiig &. c. 

') A. D. 1397, wKen fhe tliree Kingdoms were united unicr 
one chief 5 Queen Margaret, daughter and Successor of Val- 
demar IV., liaving married Hagen VI. , o£ Norway, and re- 
duced Sweden to subjection, which continued under the 
Danish Dominion, till the reign of Christian II. 



oc er iiw aff Stormegtugiste oc woffwerwinligste herre oc 
første Her Christiernn. aif samme. Nåde Daiira. Swerigis, 
Norgis &. c. Koiiing &. c. sendt oc giffweii Erlig oc for- 
nurastig qwinua Jehanne Albrecth van Gocks hwstrw, at 
hwn Schall bede fore hennes nådes o c alle christne siæilé 
till then aldsoraegtugiste gud Amenn. 

J. Broclimann. 
From the text of the book, I will give the 
conclusion of a discourse upon the taking of Christ 
from the cross, and the beginning of the follow- 
ing one: 

Ther æifther drogh nichodemus then annen spiger 
pa vinstræ handli, oc fæk han sammeledes iohannes. Si- 
dlien foor nichodemus nether, oc foor op at ien liden 
stige, och togli spigene af fødærnæ, mædæn iosep hiolt 
pa ligommæt. væl var iosep sææl , som verdugædæs so 
om fegnæ vors herræ ligomraæ \ Sidhen spigern var 
iidhæ, foor iosep saktelige nether, oc allæ toge veder vors 
herræ ligomme, oc lagdæ'n nether paiordæn; æn vor frwæ 
(oc the andræ hulpæ henner) togli oc lagde'n i siit skiødli, 
och raagdalena vara ee vether fødhernæ, vedh Invilkæ 
hun værdugæs faa so stor nadæ; the andræ stodæ om- 
kring, oc allæ gioræ stor grædh owær han, so bittærli- 
ghæ som owær egnæ søn. 

Aff vors herræ pinæ 
thenkilsæ om natsange thimæ. 
En stwndh æffter at vor herræ var nether taghæii 
aff korsset, oc natten hun naikædes, bad ioseph vor frwæ, 
at hun skulle ladæ swøpæ'næ i iet linnædæ kledæ oc 
iordæ'n; æn hun gat icki ladæt hanom fra sægb, oc saghe 
til there : myn kiæræ vænnær! tager ikke myn søn so 
skiøt aff mægh, vare tliet moghælight ath i iordedæ ma^k 
med hanom ! lion grædh oc feltæ taræn vthen lissæ, vi- 
thær ath Imn so uudænæ bodæ i sidænnæ oc handomen, 
nw iet oc nw annet, skodæ anletit oc hoffdit hans, so 
smæligæ oc vhouelicæ hannet, so thornæ stionglieuæ, 

P R E F A c E. XIX 

skiegget vt plukket, anlitit alt smittit aff blodæt och 
thieræ spittæ oc afF grædh. 

This like all that is older tlian the Reforma- 
tion, differs v/idelj from the present Danish, but, 
at the same time, approaches very lltde to the 
Anglo-Saxon, or to any other Teutonic dialect. 
It has many inflections now obsolete, but which 
are also wanting in Anglo-Saxon, and to be found 
only in old Swedish and Icelandic; many antlquated 
words and phrases, but which are quite at vari- 
ance with the Teutonic usage, and accord wIth the 
ancient Scandinavian , e. g. then annen, Icel. 
{)ann annan, A. S. J)one o|)erne^ fæk han 
sammeledes i oh an n es, Icel. fékk hann 
(naglann) savmuleiSis (honum) Johannes, 
Angl. deliver ed it (the nail) in like manner to John^ 
sidhen, Icel. siSan^ i en for en is still used in 
Jutland, also in Upland, and Dalecarlla, in Sweden, 
A. S. ån oncj æn, Icel. enn, A. S. ae hut^ hen- 
ner, Icel. henni, A. S. hire her; ee, Icel. æ, 
A. S. å always; grædh, Icel. gråtr, A. S. wop 
ivail. Han is here inflected in all its four cases: 

Old Danish. Icelandic. -^^g- Sax, 
Nom. han hann he 

Acc. han hann hine 

Dat. hanom hånom him 

Gen. hans hans his, 

The accusative han is contracted into -æn or 
'n, and becomes a sort of affix to the verbs, as: 
lagde'n, for lagde han laid him; iordæ'n 
hury him. This contraction, which is still common 
in Sweden, has scarcely ever found its way into 
A. S. or German, for hine, Germ. f/zzz, and the 

XX P R E F A c E. 

like, having longer vowels, are not so well adapted 
to undergo this aphæresis. Nal kædes, Icel. 
nålgaSist, Sw. nalkades, A. S. geneålæhte 
approached^ saghe til there, Icel. sagSi til 
{)eirra, A. S. cwéS to him said to them^ ta- 
ger ikki myn søn so skjøt af mægh, Icel. 
takiS ekki minn sun so skjott af mer take 
not my son so quickly from me-y taræn, Icel. tår- 
in ihe tears^ so, Icel. så, A. S. seåh saiv^ si- 
dænnæ, Icel. siSunni latere^ handom-en, Icel. 
hondon-om manihus ^ a n n e t , Icel. & Sw. a n - 
nat, A. S. o{>er thc othcrj smælighæ, Icel. 
smånarlighæ, Sw. smædeligt shamefully ^ an- 
litit alt, Icel. andlitit allt the ivhole face, 

An old Swedish document, issued by King 
Magnus Smék, in 1354, deserves notice in this 
place; it begins thus: 

Wi magiius, med guds iiadh Sverikis konimg, nor- 
ghis oc skåne, wiliom at tliet scal allom maiinom witer- 
likt wara, at wi afF wara serdelis nadh hafvvm viit bergx- 
mannomeii a noi'eljerge tliæiiiiæ ræt oc stadhga, som liær 
æpter følger: iFørst Iiafwm wi stat oc skipat, at tolfl" skulu 
wara tlie som fore berghcno sciiiu staiida oc tliera rææt 
wæria oc fulfølghia i allom liitom &c. 

This, althongh above a century older, great- 
ly resémbles the preceding specimen, and is scar- 
cely distinguishable from Danish of the same period. 
The cases are indeed more carefully attended to, 
and there are several terminations in a, which the 
old Danish forms in æ^ though æ is found for a 
in other ancient Swedish docutnents^ for instance, 
it occurs every Avhere in the West-Gothland Laws 
(which are sapposed to be the oldest monument 

P R E F A c E. XXI 

€xtant In the Sweclish language), and very fre- 
quently in the Upland Laws, according to the most 
ancient M. S. S. in the Royal Library at Stock- 
holm 5 for, in the printed copies, a is often used 
instead, according to the more modern Swedish 
pronunciation. The inflection of the article, in 
composition with the nouns, is the same in old 
Danish and in Swedish 5 in the Danish piece al- 
ready quoted, forinstance, we have handom-en; 
in Swedish we have mannom-en &c. 

The resemblance between the Danish and 
Swedish words and inflections is very striking, in 
the following ancient document (see Danske Magaz, 
2^ Fol.J. 

Wii Erick metli gutlis iiathe Danmarks, Suerghes, 
Norghes-kouing gøre witerlikt alle the, tliette brefF see 
eller høre, at \vi af vor serdelis Nadhe for Hr. Eiicfc 
Nielssøiis wor elschelike tro mans og radhs bøn sculd 
sva oc for troscap oc willich tieniste unne oc giue ha- 

iiura friihet oc frelsse med suadane wapen som 

her vnder nedhen vtmaledh sta datum 1433. 

But if we go further back, to the language 
of the old Danish Laws, we there recognize nearly 
the entire s.tructure of the earliest Swedish and the 
Icelandic, though not always stricdy adhered to, 
as the language in those unhappy and turbulent 
times, which preceded the Calmar Union, under- 
w^ent in Denmark what may be termed its fermen- 
tation, somewhat earlier than in the other states. 
By way of proof, I will give a speclmen from the 
conclusion of the Ecclesiastical Laws of Zealand * , 

*) See Thorkelins Samling' af Danske KirkQlove , Copenhagen 
1787, åto. 


P R E F A c E. 

with a Ilteral Icelandic translation, for the sake of 
comparison : 

Old Danish. 

Sattær w ar ræt thænne . . . 

tvéin wintruni oc fæm ukura, 

si'dæn Rø war wnnin til Cri- 

stendoms af Waldemar ku- 


Settr var réttr {)essi (acc. 

rett {)enna) tyeim vetrum oc 

fimni vikura, siSan Ro var 

unuin til Cristindoms af Val- 

i„-,i,+ +,*i C4'i.w,r,c diraar kominci,oclo":S(wew^. 
nungi, o c laght til fejalanzs = ' ^ ^ 

lagt) til Sjålanz biskupsdoms 

biscopsdora(s) af Walderaare 
kunungi oc Alexaiidær paue. 
Wåro fråii tliéni dage, ær 
hc'men war skapader, o c til 
tliæs dags, ær ræt tliænni 
sattær war, sjax thiisaiid 

(-dæmis) af Valdiraari kon- 
lingi oc Alexandri påiia. Våro 
fra {)eim degi er heimrinn 
var skapa$r oc till {)ess dags 
er (rétt fenna) settr var 
sex pusund vetra {nom. vetr) 

wiiitær oc thry hundrad oc oc {)rju hundruS {sing. 

sju tjiigh færa månadiim ImndraS) oc sjo tygir fimm 

minni oc tlirem ukura oc månu^um miuni oc {)rein 

twe'in daglmm. Æn sidau vikura oc tveim dogum (davg- 

cud >var boren i thæiinæ um). En si'San guS var bor- 

héra war logh tbæsæ sat in» i {>enna heira, våru (var) 

timsande wintrum oc hun- 1»S t^ssi sett ^usund vetra 

dradæ oc sju tjughæ oc sju (^etrura) oc hundra^i oc sjii 

månadum oc tolf dagum. ^^'^i oc sjo måiiutSura oc tdlf 


The few deviations from the Icelandic bear, 
for the most part, a strong resemblance to the 
Swedish, as: sattær for settr, Sw. satt; ku- 
nung for konungr, Sw. kung^ thusand for 
J) usund, Sw. tusan^ sju for sjo, Sw. sju; but 
not to the Anglo-Saxon, where we have geset, 
cyning, J)usend, seofonj only ukæ is the 
A. S. uce or wuce: the Swedish vecka on the 
other hånd, answers to the Icelaqdic vika. 

But the oldest remains of the Danish language 

P R E F A c E. XXin 

are to bé fotind on our Runic stone monumentsj 
and here at length it perfectly coincides with the 
fearliest Swedish, Norwegian and Icelandic. As an 
fexample, I will merely notlce a Runic inscrlption 
from Lolland {fVorm p. 252), which appears evl- 
dently to have been cut by a native: it is as fol- 
lows: Toki risti runar eftir (|)6ru) goSa 
stjupmoSur sina, which is pure, regular Ice- 
landic. A little peculiarity in the article, to be met 
with on some Dano- Runic stones^), (viz. |)ensl 
or Jjansi for J)enna) is a mere variation of dia- 
leet^), examples of which occur every where; this 
variation is however neither general, nor peculiar 
to this country, though most frequent on the 
Runic stones of Denmark. 

Thus the Anglo-Saxon cannot, with the fain- 
test semblance of truth, be assumed as the foun- 
tain of the Danish: such an hypothesis w^ould be 
at variance with all historical accounts, and against 
all internai evidence derived from the structure of 
the language itself. On the contrary, the Danish 
is closely allied to the Swedish, and both, in the 
earliest times, lapse into the Icelandic, which ae- 
cording to all ancient records, was formerly uni- 
versal over all the North, and must therefore be 
considered as the parent of both the modern Scan- 
dinavian dialects. 

Another theory has, in more recent times, 

^) For additional examples, see Pref. to my Icelandic Grammar, 

Stockh. 1818. 
*) It is worthy o£ remark tliat the modern Danish has denne. 

instead of J)ensi or |)ansi-, the Icelandic, in this instance, 

h^ving prevailed over the provincialism. 

XXIV P R E F A c E. 

been advanced by the late Professor Riihs of Ber- 
lin, which would also, if well founded, give great 
importance to the Anglo-Saxqn tongue. He main- 
tains, firstly, that all the Icelandic metres are bor- 
rowed from the Anglo-Saxons, and, secondly, that 
neither the Icelandic metres, nor mythology, have 
ever been universal, or national, in Denmark, Nor- 
way, or Sweden. These assertions, advanced ra- 
ther dogmatically , are contained in a long intro- 
dnction to his German translation of Professor 
Nyerup's and my own Danish version of Snorre's 
Edda, and repeated in some controversial pieces, 
to which they gave bir th ^ ). 

With respect to the first proposition, it seems 
extremely rash to conclude, from the resemblance 
between a few poetical Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon 
words, that all the poesy of the one nation is bor- 
rowed from the other; for, in the first place, se- 
veral of the words quoted are purely prosaic^ and 
of daily use in Icelandic at the present day^ such, 
for instance, as klefi a small inclosed place, or 
closet (e. g. s m j o r k 1 e f i) 5 f 1 a u m f light, concourse ; 
logr liquor, jluid^ bland, orrusta, greip, bol, 
blekkja &c. , secondly, many of these words are 
familiar to the comm^on people in Denmark, Nor- 
way, and Sweden j for instance, und or n dinner 
time, is universal in Jutland, Funen, and Swedish 
Norrlandj vam a spot, hlemish (on the hody), is 
general in Norway; not to mention such words as 
gremja, Dan. græmme; grenja, Sw. grånjaj 

^) See a small treatise, by the same autlior, entitled, tlbcr den 
Ausgang der Islåndischen Poesi aus der Angelsåchsischen, 
Berlin 1813, l2mo. 

^^™ <:» xr b- r« 

P R E F A C E* 


eykr, Dan. Øg, Sw. ok; siS, Icel. smn, Dan. 
Sinde a time^ used in formlng some of the Da- 
nish numerals, as firsindstyve eighty, fec^ and, 
thirdly, most of the really poetic words, which the 
Icelandic has in common with the Anglo-Saxon, 
are to be found likewise in the Old-Saxon, the 
Franclc, and the Mæsogothic, e. g. 

Ang. Sax. Icelandic. Mæsogothic, 


arabatt a fem. slave, 








nar (jpron. naur) 




iiiSr {pi, iiiSjar) 


Ti in, 












Ti -an, 


drott satellitium, 




{)yr a fem. slave, 






tree, wood. 

Several of these poetical words are moreover 
so interwoven, as it were, in the Scandinavian lan- 
guages , that it is evident . they must be as old in 
the North as the nations themselves; for instance, 
from am.bått comes embætti, Sw. embete, 
Dan. Embede (an Office^ employment)^ Embeds- 
broder, Embedsmand, Embedspligt, and 
many others. J) j 6 6' a n comes from {> j 6 6 a na- 
tion^ from når comes någanl, nåfolr, nå- 
grima, nåhljoS &c.; arfi is common in old 
Swedish laws and documents; from gu mi is deri- 
ved bruSgumi, Sw. brudgumme, Dan. Brud- 
gom (hridegroom) j from {>yr, we have Danish 
Tyende (servants), Why then shall the Icelan- 
ders, more than the Mæso-Goths , or any other 
Gothic nation, be thought to have borrowed these 


expressions from the Anglo - Saxons ? It seems 
much more probable tbat such poetic words, as 
well as the ancient poesy in general, were common 
to all the Gothic tribes, from the remotest ages. 
The Anglo-Saxons may incleed, as Hickes suppo- 
ses, have borrowed from the Scandlnavians, dur- 
ing the long continued sway of the latter in Eng- 
land , but the converse seems of very rare occur- 
rence. It is moreover incomprehensible why the 
Icelanders should borrow from the Anglo-Saxons, 
more than the other Scandinavian nations, for it 
was not Icelanders, but Dånes and Norwegians, 
who warred against, and at length subdued, thQ 
country. The Icelanders went only occasionally, 
and in inconsiderable numbers, to England, for the 
purpose of taking part in the wars, either for or 
against, according to circumstances. They never 
cariied on war with England as principals, and 
their chief traffic and navigation were to Norway 
and Denmark, not to England ^ whence the phrase 
at fara iitan became synonymous with to sail to 
Norway, or Denmark^ and the word ytra {out^ 
heyond scd) expresses nearly the same as Copen- 
hagen, Besides several of the poetical words, com- 
mon to both, are as poetical in Anglo-Saxon as in 
Icelandic, and have their undoubted root just as 
often in the one as in the other, or in neither: e. g. 
hæle <2 man, Icel. halr; wer|)e6d folk^ Icel. 
ver|>i6å, from wer man, and J>e6d, Icel. ^joS 
a nation. Ver is universal throughout the North, 
on Runic inscriptions, and in old writings^ J)i6S 
is the common Icelandic expression for a nation, 
and is still in daily use. DarraS a spear ^ Icel. 


darraSr, from d6rr, gen. darrar; eormen- 
^rund the earth, Icel. jormungrund. Many 
of these poetical words are besides common to the 
Greek and Latin, e. g. dorr, Gr. Jb^u; wer^ 
Mæsog. vair, Lat. vir^ burr, Lat. -puer, Dorice 
TToi^'y klefi, "Lat. conclave ^ eykur, Lat. equus: and 
who shall decide, in which of the Gothic tongues, 
the words are oldest? Some of the Icelandic forms 
seem to approach nearest to the Mæso-Gothic, and 
are then perhaps to be explained rather as a relic 
.of the language of a tribe of emigrants from the 
Black Sea, into the north of Europe, than as bor- 
rowed from the Anglo-Saxon. 

But those poetical words, which the Icelan- 
dic has in common with the Teutonic dialects, 
constitute a very inconsiderable part of the poeti- 
cal language of Scandinavia, of which the expres- 
^ions are innumerable, forming an almost separate 
dialect, with the richness of which, the Anglo-Saxon 
cannot, by any means, enter into competition. A 
King, for instance, is named after any celebrated 
royal house, in Scandinavia or Germany, e. g. 
skjoldungr, lofSungr, doglingr, ynglingr, 
ylfingr, bragningr, volsungr, buSlungr 
&c. How could these appellations have been bor- 
rowed from the Anglo-Saxon? In like manner, a 
fish, a tree &c. are denoted by the specific name 
of almost any hird, fish, tree &c. Of this practice, 
traces still exist in the daily language of the Ice- 
landers, for instance in the proverb, eplit fe lir 
ekki langt fra eikinni the apple falls not far 
from the tree (the oak!) Thus also the name of 
every island is applied to any land in general, of 


every river, to any river or water. Such a prac- 
tice must necessarily have Its ground in the pecu- 
liar nature and genius, both of the people and 
language, and would, if received from foreigners, 
be quite uninteiliglble. The Icelandic poetic dia- 
leet contains also a vast number of nouns substan- 
tive, formed from words in common use, and with 
common terminations, which nevertheless cannot 
posslbly be translated into, or rendered intelligible 
in, any other tongue^ thus, a king is called vi si, 
mildingr, mæringr, oSlingr, {>j68an, fylk- 
ir, drottin, IjoSij from visa to showy lead &c. 
mlldr munificenty element, mær illustrious, oSuIl 
richy |>i65, drott, IjoS people. Such words 
prove an exceedingly high cuhivation of the poe- 
tic dialect to have prevailed among the people 
themselves in their very infancy, which all the poets 
of the universe might unite themselves in vain to 
introduce afterwards. 

But the Scandinavian poetry possesses also an 
immense treasure of primitive words, or, at least, 
of vv^ords of extremely obscure derivation, for in- 
stance, a king or prince is called jofur, gramr, 
harri, beingill, tiggi, ræsir, si klingr; a 
woman is called s van ni, fljoS, sprund, dros, 
snot^ svarri, ristill, rygr^ and a horse fåkr, 
i 6 r, V i g g , g o t i, 1 u n g r. How could such words, 
the number of which is almost countless, and which 
are totally unconnected with the rest of the lan- 
guage, have ever been introduced, and rendered 
intelligible to a whole nation^ if they did not ori- 
mnate with the lan^nas-e and the nation itself, as 
remnants of the dialects of the old tribes, of which 

P R E F A c E. XXIX 

it has been composed? They are moreover so 
completely a national property, that they are still 
universally understood by the common people of 
Iceland, and employed by all the Skalds^ they are 
even sometimes to be heard in daily conversation, 
for instance, jofur, dros, fåkr, jor &c. , and 
they will certainly never perish, imtil the language 
and poetry are entirely lost and forgotten. It is 
only words like the lastmentioned, which the Angio- 
Saxon, and other old Teutonic dialects, have, 
in a small degree, in common with our ancient 
tongue: the other two kinds of poetical expres- 
sions, as also a great portion of the last, are quite 
peculiar to the Scandinavian; at most, only a few 
trifling instances are to be found in other languages. 

This old poetic dialect has morcover numer- 
ous pecnliarities of structurej e. g. the composi- 
llon of the pronomis with the verbs, and the ne- 
gative terminations of pronouns, verbs and par- 
ticles, as: tjåSomk they hel ped mcy lætk I let^ 
munat will not^ skalattu thou shalt not^ v ar- 
kattak I was noty J)atki not that^ svågi not 
so &c. 5 of all which not the faintest trace exists 
among the Anglo-Saxons, though many are to be 
found among the inhabitants of Caucasus. 

But besides isolated word and inflections, the 
poetic dialect of the Icelanders contains an incre- 
clible number of periphrases for the most common 
objects, as: man^ looman^ sword^ poetry ^ horse, gold^ 
Silver, king, hero, hattle, sea^ ship &c. , derived from 
the old Scandinavian mythology and history: thus 
the earth is cailed Odin's wife, gold is called Æger's 
(the sea's, river's, wave's) light or fire 5 because 


P R E F A c E. 

Æger, when he entertained the Ases, illuminated 
his hall with gold instead of candles. The Edda 
abounds in similar examples. I will quote merely 
a few lines from the Old Bjarkamål, in which 
the king's munificence is described by many such 
mythic periphrases for gold: 

Gramr hinii gjoflasti 
gæddi hiré sina 
Fenju forverki, 
Fafiiis ini^gar^i, 
Glasis glo-barri 
Graiia fagr-byr^i, 
Dravpnis dyrsveita, 
diini Grafvitnis 

Ytti avrr hilmir, 
aldir viS-tokii, 
Sifjar svar^-festuni 
svelli dal-naii§ar 
tregura otrs-gjolduru 
tarura Mardallar, 
eldi Oronar 
I§ja glys-målum. ^) 

These, and similar, periphrases, which are 
employed by the Skalds to the present day, cannot 
possibly be understood without an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the old mythology. They are 
sometimes obscure to us, from our having lost that 
knowledge in part, and from our ideas having taken 
an entirely different directlon^ but the ancients, in 
the times of paganism, and even long after, found 
an indescribable pleasure in, and placed so high a 
value on them, that, at length, nothing was looked 
upon as poetry that did not abound in such peri- 
phrases. But of all this, not a vestige is to be 

^) The noble prince 
gifte (i his people 
with Fenja's lahour, 
Fafner's earth. 
Glaseres glitter ing leaves, 
the fair burthen o f Gråne, 
Dropner's precious sweat, 
the Dragon's hed^ 

The munificent king gave 

{the ivariors accepted it) 

Sifs head-gear (false hair), 

the ice of the hånd, 

the extorted otter-mulet, 

Freya's tears, 

the fire of the flood, 

the giant's glitter ing words. 

P R E F A c E. XXXI 

found among the Anglo-Saxons, and it has its home 
so completely in the North, that it is not possible 
to imagine it either to have been borrowed from 
the Anglo-Saxons, or even to have originated in 
Iceland itself j for in these cases, such periphrases 
and figures would naturally have been derived from 
the hero es and ancient histories of England and 
Iceland ; whereas, on the contrary, scarcely a single 
instance of this is to be found. But how could 
it occur to the Icelanders to call gold after a Jot- 
nish prince of Lessø, or a Swedish slave girl in 
Lejre*), had those persons and events not been 
universally known, and the poetic dialect formed, 
before the emigration to Iceland? How too, let 
me ask, could those mythic periphrases and images, 
which constitute nearly the half of this dialect, have 
been borrowed from the Anglo-Saxons, who had 
embraced Ghristianity some centuries before the 
discovery of Iceland? 

Nor does this singular hypothesis throw any 
light upon the metrlcal system of the Icelanders; 
for of all the Icelandic metres (which exceed a 
hundred) there are found, in Anglo-Saxon, no evi- 
dent instances of more than two or three. 

To explain all these peculiarities as unnatural 
excrescences on the language, which arose with 
the decline of taste in Iceland, is also an exceed- 
ingly unsatlsfactory shiftj as they are to be found 
as far back as the poetry itself can be traced, be- 
fore the colonization of Iceland, down to the pre- 

*) Tlie laistory o£ these, as well as of the other persons^ ser- 
ving to form the periphrases in tJie preceding extracty is to 
be fouiid in the Scalda. 


sent day, viz. in Bjarkamål'), the fragments o£ 
Brage the old^), also in Thjodolf from Hvi- 
ne^), and in Eivind Skaldespilder ^)5 both 
Norwegians^ as well as among the more recent 
Skalds,and in the Færøiske Kvæder^); though, 
like every ihing else connected with language and 
literature, employed with an unequal degree of taste 
and art* Much better do they seem to accord 
with the oriental, particularly the Persian, style of 
poetry^ for the Persians highly esteem such pom- 
pous and artificial circumlocutions, of which the 
celebrated Sir William Jones, in his ^firammar of 
the Persian Language'', as well as in his ^.Commen" 
tarius de Poesi Asiatica'' gives several fine examp- 
les. Herewith also, the accounts of our forefa- 
thers themselves agree, namely that Odin introdu- 
ced Religion, Language, Poetry, and Alphabetic 
Characters, from the Don. If therefore we as- 
sume, what seems to be reasonable, that the Go- 
thic tribes, before his time, had begun to migrate 

') Bjarkamal li in fornu The Old Bjarkamdl a very an- 
cieiit poem, of v.'hich. several fragments are extant in the 
Scalda, Snorre, and some of the Sagas, 

-) He lived in Denmark and is supposed to have been the au- 
thor of Ragnar Lodbroks deathsong. 

3) Thjodolf from Hwine ^vas Scald to Harald Hårfager. Snorre 
has preserved many fragments of his writings. He was the 
author of a poem called Ynglinga Tal. 

^) Eivind Skaldespilder was Scald to Hakon the Good. He was 
the author of the Håkon arm ål, on the death of his ma- 
ster, whose reception in Valholl (although a christian) he 
mentions; also the reproof he received from Odin, for his 

5) Thcse Ferroic Ballads, were collected, and translated into 
Danish, by H. C. Lyngbye, Randers 1S;22, one Vol. 8vo. 

p R E F A c ]^. xwni 

into tlie North, across the Baltic, and to displace 
the old Jotnish inhabitants, this simple hypothesi;^ 
presents itself; that the language did not becomé 
formed till after the arrival of this last colony^ 
which also introduced the Buddhite religion, thé 
oriental taste in poetry, and the Runic characters, 
used in those remote regions. And how, let mé 
ask, can any man, I will not say of learning, but 
of conimon understanding only, assume it as pos-- 
sible, that a poetical language, differing so widely 
in its vocabulary, its inflectlons, and its idioms,- 
from the common tongue of the people, is an ar- 
tificial invention, and, what is more, that the ima- 
ges and periphrases, with which it is adorned, are 
borrowed from a fictltious pagan mythology, which 
must naturally appear prophane, and be unintelli- 
gible to the majority, and that it not only meets 
with the approbation of the people among whom 
it w^as invented, but also in three or four foreign, 
powerful, and Christian, States; and that this taste- 
maintains itself for several hundred years! 

But we come now to the other question; whe- 
ther the old, northern poetry and mythology have 
flourished only in Iceland, or have likewise been 
national in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden? The 
answer is indeed implied in what precedes: but, 
says Professor Riihs, we do not find this poetry, 
these kinds of verse, with alliteration, line rime &c. 
Csee Grammar Part V.)^ on the continent of Scan- 
dinavia; and, in the old Danish and Swedish po- 
pular superstition and poetry, an entlrely different 
spirit prevails. He seems to have forgotten the 
already cited Bjarkamål hin fornu, which is 



known to us, both from Snorre and Saxe, as well 
as from the Skalda, Hrolf Krake's, and Bodvar 
Bjarke's Sagas. It is also known, that Ejvind 
Skaldespllder, author of the pagan poem Håkon- 
ar mål, which seems to have been considered as 
the flower of the old Scaldic pieces, was a Nor- 
wegian, and that he composed a panegyric on the 
Icelanders, on which account, at a public assembly, 
they collected silver money, and caused a curious 
ornament to be made of it, which they sent to 
him, but that his poverty, and a famine that hap- 
pened, reduced him to the necessity of selling it 
for food: on which occasion he has left us some 
lines, preserved by Snorre. How can such an 
event, which must have been public over all Ice- 
land and Norway, be thought a mere invention, 
and the invention of an Icelandic Skald, who at 
the same time, does not cite even a single line of 
the panegyric upon his nation! We are likewise 
informed that the Norwegian King, Harald Hårdrå- 
de, composed some verses, which are to be found 
in Snorre, but that he was dissatisfied with them, 
because they were too simple, being not sufficiently 
adorned with periphrases, and poetic images. I 
will not enlarge upon Ragnar Lodbrok's Death 
Song ^), though it shews that the Icelandic poe- 
try was understood and favoured in Denmark, in 
those days. That such was the case in Sweden, 
at a much later period, is incontestably proved by 

*) LoMbrokar Kvi^a, or Kråku Mål (from the name o£ 
his Queen). The original text, with Dan., Lat. å{ Fr. trans- 
lations, copious notes, and a specimen of the old Music, 
v,as published by Prof. Rafn, 8vo, Gopenh. 1826. 


the well-known Gunnlogs Saga '). In Sverres Sa^ 
ga ^) are to be found the poetical pieces of two 
Norvvegian factions, one of which parod^ the other's 
versesj and in the prose narrative of Saxe, the 
the names of the heroes, who took part in the 
battles, occur in such order, that they evidently 
appear to have been taken from a poem written 
in FornyrSalag, or narrative metre^ entlre stan- 
zas of which may yet be arranged, with their ex- 
act alilteratlon. I am indebted for this observation 
to Professor Finn Magnusen, who will, it is to 
be hoped, publish an account of so interesting a 
discovery^). In short, all our ancient memorials 
abound in proofs and instances, that the Icelandic 
poetry and, consequently, mythology, so intlmately 
blended with it, were common to all the Scandi- 
navian nations. Even the Icelanders themselves 
very honestly give the credit of some of the finest 
pieces to foreigners, and acknowledge as their own, 
many very indifferent ones. They moreover ne- 
ver make either Iceland or Norway the theatre of 
their mythology, but constantly Denmark or Swe- 
den. Nor can it be a fiction that a species of 
verse, called StarkaSarlag derives itsnamefrom 
Stærkodder, and that two poems in the Edda, viz. 
AtlakviSa hin Grænlenzka and Atlamål 

^) Sagan a£ Gimnlaugi Ormstungu ok Skåld-Rafni, 
Icel. &; Lat. with notes and excursus, and a copious voca- 
bulary, 4to, Cop. 1775. A remarkably well edited book. 

») Sverres Saga forms the 4th Vol. of Schonning ^ Thor- 
lacius's edit. of the Heimskringla 5fc. 

3) See Lextcon Mythologicum , subjoined to the 3d Vol, o£ 
SæmundsEdda, p. 573, note, 



hin GræiilenzkujaswellasGrænlenzki håttr- 
inn (a species of verse mentioned in the Skålda), 
derive their names from the Norwegian district 
Gronland (or J)Otn). What then should induce 
the Icelanders to give to old Jotnish champions 
and Norwegian provinces, the honour of their in- 
ventions and noble poems, which thej^, on other 
occasions, do not forget to claim for themselves. 

Yet nearly all these accounts, and all these 
remains of the ancient Scandinavian poetry, having 
heen preserved to us by the Icelanders, may be 
liable to suspicion; though the circumstance , In 
itself, is just as natural, as that almost all our other 
ancient literature should be preserved by them, 
during the middle ages, and delivered to us, after 
the revival of letters: but we have also native re- 
lics of the ancient poetry, which, in Scandinavia 
itself, have escaped the destroying hånd of time, 
and the barbarism of the middle ages. Ou an old 
Runic Staff, preserved among the collections of the 
Royal Museum of Antlquities at Copenhagen, we 
find, after an introduction of three or four words, 
a perfect stanza of eight lines in the DrottkvæOi 
metre (see Gram. p. V.), with alliteration, line rime, 
and every other requisite characteristic. 

An entire stanza of this description is also 
to be found on the Karlevi Monument, at Øland, 
an engraving of which is given in Bautil, N<>- 1071, 
as well as in P. Thams Bref till några Danske Lår- 
de, These verses are read thus, by the late skil- 
ful Antiquary, M. F. Arendt of Altona ')• 

*) The Svvedisli Archivarius, J. G. Liljegren has collected many 
Other specimens, and in other metres, especially FornyrtJa- 


Folgiiiii liggr hins fylgdu Muii-at reid vidur råda 

(flæstr vissi fat) mæstar ryggsterkr i Danmerku 

deydir ddlga friidar Vaiidils iærraiingruiidar 

draugr i {)eimsi haugi: ur graiidara landi. 

The interpretation presents difficulties, which 
I, who have never seen the stone, will not attempt 
to explain; but the arrangement of the metre is 
evident enough to any one, w^ho has read a line 
of the DrottkvæSi species. 

It was natural that the anclent versification 
should disappear in Scandinavia, together with the 
ancient language, with which it is so inseparably 
connected: nevertheless alliteration lasted very 
long, even after the language was entirely chang- 
ed, and had nearly passed over into the modern 
Danish and Swedish. It was not indeed so strict- 
ly observed in those later times, for sometimes 
each line has two alliterations, and, at others, a 
line passes without any: but it occurs so repea- 
tedly, and is so evident, as to prove incontestably 
it existed, in the national feeling and taste : and, as 
it were, forced itself upon the poets, even uncon- 
sciously to themselves. As an example, I will 
give the following lines, from the Danish Rime 
Chronicle (relating to Gorm Haraldsson): 

Som «ndræ konger toghe them tyl «dh 
i orloiF oc krij at øffuæ, 
saa ^og leg meg foræ vdlii myn djdh 
behendeligh dugh at prøffuæ. 

lag, in his valualole treatise on Verses occurring on Rimic 
Monuments in the Transactions of the Scandinavian Lite- 
rary Society, Vol. 17. 

XXXVIII P 11 E F A c E. 

Jeg spurde ther bodhe en risæ i nøør 
meget righ paa kostelligliæ eyæ, 
thet sade roeg ^orkyld myn ^iaener føør 
han wisiæ wel thertijl i;eyæ. 

Geruth saa hedh then iætthe rig, 
(ther) rwcte gik afF saa widhe 
tijl Åannnra hade ieg meghen figh 
ey cndhet kunne ieg edhæ. 

Thi lodh ieg rede raeg j^olkæ tree 
met Æwder saa wel betacthæ, 
och dundrede men i Awer afF thee 
ther Aædhen tha mwnne ieg acthæ. 

Saa ^eglde ieg hedhen wdi then søø 
paa hyn syde norgis rigæ, 
£aa lengæ /eg kora tijl en øø 
ther bode saa crghæ tigæ. 

Throughout ihese twenty lines, an alliteration 
may be traced, which, in some piaces, is very re- 
gular. In the second stanza, I have, it is true, 
substituted risæ for iætthæ, Grundtvig, in his 
Dannevirke^ reads kempe in this place, which cor- 
responds to kostellighæ^ in the following line. In 
this extract, there are many Icelandlsms, e. g. be- 
hendeiigh, in the neut. plur. , without any ter- 
mination; idhæ^ Icel. iSja to do, undertake^ kunne^ 
Icel. kunni could^ seglde, Icel. sigldi sailed, ti- 
gcBp Icel. tikr hitches. 

Even the bookseller's note, at the end of the 
volume, is of the same discription: 

Eth tusend fixe hundrede hal/æmtæ sinnæ tyvæ 
paa /ærathæ aar, ieg will ey lyvæ, 
tha wor thenne, Kronnicke ^ryckt alf ny 
wed Érodfrid aff g^hemen i K^ørbraannehafFn by. 


The Kæmpeviser ') contaifi immer ous relics, 
of a similar description 5 for instance: 

Kongen stander ved JSorgeled 
vdi sin J?rynie saa ny: 
hisset kommer ^Sivard snaren <Svend, 
han fører os ^Sommer i By. 

Z^er gaar Z^antz paa Bratingsborg , 
der <?antzer de stercke Heldte, 
der dantzer iSivard den starblinde iSuend, 
med Æ/egen wnder sit Belte. 
Det Jonner under Ross; 

de /danske Hoffmænd, naar de Dysten ride. 

The case Is precisely the same with the old 
Swedish popular poetry. A ballad which exists 
in M. S. in the Royal Library at Stockholm, be- 
gins thus: 

Tårckar sittar i sina-Sate, rimmar om sin Werldh; 
Trolletram Æaer hans dammer stuhlet, dath war en 

vsel ferd 
2%orer famjer fåhlen sin i ^omme. 

The nature of the verse often admits of each 
line being divided into two, by which arrange- 
ment the whole assumes a closer resemblance to 
the Icelandic versification 5 let us take, for instance, 
the next stanzas of the same song: 

^) The Kæmpeviser or Heroic Ballads form part of a collec- 
tion, coiisisting originally of a hundred pieces, printed first 
at Ribe, in 1591, by Andreas Sorensen Vedel. In 1695, Ve- 
dels edit. was reprinted by the royal Philologist Peder Syv, 
with a hundred additional pieces ; but: the last and best 
edit. is that of Abrahamson, Nyerup, and Rahbek, in 5 Vol. 
l2mo, Cop. 1812 — 14, which besides being considerably en- 
larged, contains some curious notes , and the melodies to 
several of the pieces. 

ja J? B JB F A c B. 

,ZDkl lloex du Ifocke JJoye^ 

/egejlrangen min! 
du skall flyge all /and omkring, 
ocli /ete raich hammarn igen. 
Thover ^amjer Fahlen sin 

i ^orame. 
Dåtli war Zocke Loye 
han fatte sigh giore Guldvingar, 
flyger han i Trolle^raras gård, 
yroUetramen stodh og smidde. 
T/iorer ^amjer Fåhlen sin 

i ^omme. 
I have purposely chosen these examples from 
the Danish Rime Chronicle, and the Sweclish ballad 
of Trold Trym, about whom there is also a po- 
pular ballad, in P. Syv's Collectlon; because they 
prove that the inythological tales, in both the 
Eddas, have been preserved, among the people of 
Scandinavia, till now, that is, through a Christian 
perlod of elght hundred years. That their origi- 
nal character has, during this space, sustalned some 
injury, can surprize no one who thinks justly. 
They prove at once the universallty of the ancient 
poetry and mythology, over all the North, also 
how deeply both were rooted among the nations 
of Scandinavia. 

In the foregoing, I have confined myself 
chiefly to arguments of a philologlcal nature: but 
Vi^hoever wishes to see the same subject histori- 
cally treated, may consult the last sectlon of Pro- 
fessor P. E. Mullers Ahhandlung ilber den Ursprung 
und Verf all der Islåndischen Histuriographie y Co- 
penhagen 1813. 

Thus then the assertions above quoted 3ink 

F R E F A c E. XLI 

into mere conjectures, improbable and groundless 
in themselves, and at yariance with many knOAvn 
and proved facts. The Anglo-Saxon poetry can 
therefore be no more assumed as the parent of 
the Icelandic, or old northern, than the Anglo- 
Saxon language can be considered as the original 
of the Danish, and other Scandinavian dialects. 
On the more modern northern tongues, it has, 
however, had great influence. It was the frequent 
expeditions of the Scandinavian nations into Eng- 
land which, next to the introduction of Christiani- 
ty, gave the first blow to the ancient language in 
the kingdoms of the North. The Dånes continued 
their course of wars and victories the longest, and 
most steadfastly; their language has consequently 
undergone the greatest changej and from Canute 
the Greaf s conquest of England, we may date the 
decline of the Icelandic in Denmark. The court 
was now often in England j the army lay there a 
considerable length of time, and all laws, and pu- 
blic acts, relating to England, were issued in Anglo- 
Saxon; while our own Scandinavian forefathers 
had, at the time, nelther grammar nor dictionary, 
nor did they make their language an object of 
learned applicatlon. Every barbarism was there- 
fore but too easily propagated. Intercourse with 
those Dånes and Norvv^egians, who were previously 
settled in Northumberland , and other provinces, 
and had formed for themselves a mixed dialect, 
opened the way to this corruptlon. Canute made 
himself master also of Norway, and although that 
kingdom was soon lost again, there was a great 
mutual intercourse among the northern kingdoms, 

XLII 1?^ K E F A C E. 

and with England. Thus the Anglo-Saxon became 
as it were a secondary source to these tongues, in 
in their later state. 

From the Icelandic (the ancient Norræna, 
or Danska tunga) springs the great stream of 
those languages and dialects, which are spoken 
from the coasts of Grænland to thcse of Finland, 
from the Frozen Ocean to the Eider: but from 
the Anglo-Saxon came a branch, which, having 
combined itself with the main stream, contributed 
to form its present course, though several stream- 
lets from the South have, in later times, had con- 
siderable influence on it. The Anglo-Saxon is 
therefore highly worthy of our attention, not only 
on account of its resemblance to the ancient com- 
mon language- of Scandinavia, of its richness, of 
the perfect state, in which it has been transmitted 
to us, and of the historical knowledge recorded 
in itj but also as being the chief of all the secon- 
dary sources of the more modem northern ton- 
gues. Gram, in his treatise of old Danish words 
explained by the Anglo-Saxon, sufficiently proved 
its importance to Dånes. As examples of the Swe- 
dish words to be found in it, I will cite only 
stupa to f all (in warj^ A. S. stup i an to stoop^ 
and this perhaps from st e åp^ stcep^ såmre ivorse^ 
A. S. sæmre, dristig hold, daring, A. S. dyr- 
stig, from durran to dare^ Sw. toras; for- 
kofra to amend, improve, A. S. a-cofran conva- 
lesccre^ ehvad, eho, anciently æhvad, A. S. 
æ g h w æ t, æ g h w å ivhatever, whoeuer. The Anglo- 
Saxon prefix æg is general in such words, but is 
never found in the old Scandinavian. The same 


holds good of all words beginning with the par- 
ticle bcy which are borrowed either from the Anglo- 
Saxon, or the German. The Anglo-Saxon is be- 
sides, by no means, a superfluous study to those 
who would acqulre a thorough knov^Iedge of Ice- 
landic, it being, as we have before remarked, the 
nearest to it of all the Teutonic tongues, and it 
often happening that what, in Icelandic, is rare 
and poetical, is common in Anglo-Saxon, and vice 
versa: bautinn slain (beaten)^ for instance, is an 
unusual participle, in Icelandic, without a verb, 
but the A. S. beåtan (beot, beaten) is a com- 
mon prosaic expression. Thus also the word 
lind in A. S. poetry is a not uncommon appella- 
tion of the shield ^). Hence may be ascertalned 
the true sense of several passages in the old Scand. 
songs, hitherto much misinterpreted, f. i. Voluspå, 
str. 50. in my edit. of Sæmund's Edda: 

Hrymr ekr austan, Hrymus curru venit ex ortente, 

hefiz lind fyrir. clypeo prætenso. 

Likewise Rigsmål ib. v. 32. 34. Hence it is suffi- 
ciently evident, that this language, as well as its 

^) Although this is given expressly as the signiffcation of the 
word in Scalda, see my ed. of Snorre's Edda p. 216, also in 
Bjdrn Haldorson's Dictionary, 5f even adopted in the Swed. 
translation of Sæmnnd's Edda by the Revd. Mr, Afzelius in 
all the piaces above mentioned, yet in other translations it 
has been much misunderstood. Mr. Price has shown incon- 
trovertibly in his edit. of Warton's History of Engl. Poetry 
vol. 1. p. 89, that shield is the true meaning of the word 
in many passages of A. S. poems. It appears that as ålmr 
{elm) was the bow, and a s k r {ask) the spear, so lind was 
by the scalds applied to denote the shield and never any 
other kind of arms. 


literature IS, by no means, void of interest for the 
nations of the North, though its influence and 
appllcation are to be confined within the limits 
which truth prescribes. 

As the Anglo-Saxon, from what we have 
now seen, deviates so widely from the Danish and 
other Scandinavian dialects, so, on the other hånd, 
it is intimately alhed with the Teutonic: of this, 
proofs have already been given, which it is the 
less necessary to repeat, as no one has yet cailed 
so palpable a truth in question, though by many it 
has been axaggerated , who have considered the 
Anglo-Saxon, and the Old-Saxon, as the same ton- 
gue, though the difference between them is as 
great as that between Spanish and Italian; but that 
they should bear a close resemblance to one ano- 
ther, is extremely natural, as the two nations were 
immediate neighbours, and both belonged to the 
same subdivision of the Teutonic stock. For the 
great Gothic family divides itself into two chief 
branches — The Scandinavian, and the Teu- 
tonic, or Germanic: this latter is subdivided 
into the Upper and the Lower Germanic. 
To the Upper belong the ancient extinct tongues, 
the Mæsogothic, the Allemannic, and the 
Francic5 to the Lower, the Old-Saxon, the 
Fris i c and the Anglo-Saxon. They differ 
from each other chiefly in this, that the Upper 
Germanic is harsher and fuller, the Lower, softer 
and more flexible. All of them possess those cha- 
racteristics which so decidedly distinguish the Teu- 
tonic languages from the Scandinavian, namely, 
that they have no passive voice, and do not join 

P R E F A c E. XLV 

the article to the nouns &c. They have also a 
fixed, regular, and beautlful, grammatical strupturej 
which although somewhat more artificial in the 
declensions, and simpler in the conjugations, than 
that of the Greek and Latin, yet, in other respects 
bears much resemblance to it. This structure was 
destroyed during the middle ages, when foreign 
words were introduced , the terminations were 
shortened, and assumed the vowel e^ many were 
confounded together and, at length, totally for- 
gotten^ and it was not tlll after this fermentation, 
which lasted between four and five hundred years 
that, at about the period of the Reformation, the 
modern tongues, viz. the German, the Dutch, 
and the English, displayed themselves. Nearly 
the same process took place in the North, though 
the Teutonic nations were far more fortunate than 
the Scandinav.ian, having instead of six anclent 
tongues (and perhaps more 5 though we have no 
evident remains of any, besldes those already men- 
tioned) acquired three new and simple, but co- 
pious, and excellent, languagesj one for each of 
the three great nations, into which they had dis- 
solved: whiie the Scandinavians , though greatly 
inferior in number, have, for one ancient language, 
which was formerly echoed from Holmegård to 
tjVinland hit gode" '), acquired three leading ton- 

^) Holmegård is the Scandinavian name for Cholmogori, the seat 
of the ancient Scandinavian princes of the northern parts 
of Pvussia. From these princes and their followers probably 
the name of Russians was derived, after their native place 
in Swedish Upland, Ros-^lageiiy which, from being an ap- 
pellation given to the princes, and Varangi who accom- 


gues: namely, the ancient Scandinavian^ 
which continued in Iceland, the Danish culti- 
vated in Denmark and Norway, during the long 
and happy union of the two kingdoms; and the 
Swedish, which extended itself to Finland, and 
where it still continues to be the mother tongue 
of the cultivated classes. The difference however 
between the modern Scandinavian tongues, is not 
greater than between Attic and Doric, Spanish and 
Portugueze, so that whoever understands the one 
may profit by the literature of both, and needs be 
at no loss in any of the Scandinavian countries. 

But to return to the Anglo-Saxon. It ap- 
pears then to have been, in its orlgin, a rude mix- 
ture of the dialects of the Saxons, the Angles, and 
the Jutes, but we are not acqualnted wIth it in 
that State, these dialects having soon coalesced 
into one language, as the various kindred tribes 
soon unIted to form one nation, after they had 
taken possession of England. With the introduc- 
tion of Christianity, and the Roman alphabet, their 
literature began, and continued during all the wars 
and dreadful devastations , which our rugged and 
■w^arlike forefathers spread over the land; the na- 

panied them , was afterwards applied to the native people, 
who had previously been called Slavojiians. By these names 
{ffOiaiit and c/Åu^tvigt) the two races and languages are still 
distiuguished by the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, 
about Ao. 950. Vinland was the name given, by the first 
Scandinavian navigators, to the coast of Labrador, from 
some berries resembling grapes, which they found there* 
It was discovered circa Ao. 1000 by Greenlanders. A very 
interesting and credible account of the discovery is given 
by Snorre in his History of Olaf Tryggvason. 


tion itself, notwithstanding all its revolutions and 
misfor tunes, having preserved a certain degree of 
integrity. Even under the Danish Kings, all laws 
and edicts were promulgated in pure Angio-Saxon, 
in which, with the exception of a few single words, 
no striking influence can be traced of the old Scan- 
dinavian, or Icelandic, spoken by our forefathers, 
at that periode On the contrary, the Anglo-Saxon 
rather exercised an influence on the old language 
spoken in the three northern kingdoms, particu- 
larly in Denmark. It was not till after the Nor- 
man Conquest, that French and Latin were intro- 
duced, as the languages of the Courtj while the 
Anglo-Saxon was despised, and sank into a dialect 
of the vulgar, which, not till it had undergone a 
complete transformation, and been blended with 
the language of the old northern settlers, and 
with the French spoken by the conquerors_, where- 
by the ancient structure was almost entirely lost, 
and after an interval of some centuries, reappeared 
as a new tongue — the modern English. We 
thus find here the same changes, which to ok place 
in the languages of Germany and the North, though 
no where was the transition attended with such 
vlolence as in England, and no where has it left 
such manifest and indelible traces as in the Eng- 
lish language. We h^ve here an ancient, fixed, 
and regular tongue, which, during a space of five 
hundred years, preserved itself almost without 
change; for King Ethelbert adopted Christianity 
about 593 or 596, and his laws, which we may 
refer to about the year 600, are perhaps the oldest 
extant in Anglo-Saxon. In the year 1066, William 


the Bastard conquered England, but the highly 
cultivated, deep-rooted, ancient, national tongue 
could not be immediately extirpated, though it 
was instantly banlshed from the court. This King's 
laws even were issued in French. A fragment 
of the Saxon Chronicle, published by Lye con- 
cludlng with the year 1079, is still in pretty correct 
Anglo-Saxon^ but in the contlnuation of the same 
Chronicle^ from 1135 to 1140^ almost all the inflec- 
tions of the language are either changed or neg- 
lected, as well as the orthography, and most of 
the old phrases and idioms. We may therefore 
fix the year 1100, as the limit of the Anglo-Saxon 
tongue, whose structure we shall consider in the 
following work. About the same period, the an- 
cient Scandlnavian began to be corrupted in Den- 
mark, Norway, and Sweden^ it remalned however 
imchanged in Iceland; but the Anglo-Saxon was 
preserved no where but in ancient writings, and 
therefore is, and long has been, a dead language, 
not very accessible to the learned themselves. 
The confusion that prevailed after 1100 belongs 
to the old English perlod. The J) and D were 
indeed long preserved, as well as the other mon- 
klsh characters, but the language was no longer 
the same, nor*indeed is it alike in any two authors, 
during this whole perlod which may be extended 
to the epoch of the Reformation in 1550, or, to 
give a round number, to 1600. During this in- 
terval, the older writings naturally bear much re- 
semblance to the Anglo-Saxon, and the later to 
the present English. The case is simllar with the 
old Norwegian, the Swedish, and the Danish, also 

P R E F A c s. XUX 

the German and the Dutch. These three periods, 
which have a totally different, and almost opposlte, 
character, ought in all these tongues to be accu- 
rately distinguished; it is therefore, among many 
others, a serious fault in Lye, Schilter *), and Wi- 
arda^), that they have confounded the two for- 
mer in their Lexicons, thus rendering them ex- 
ceedingiy perplexed, and to a certain degree use- 
less, to those who do not previously understand 
Allemannic, Francic, Anglo-Saxon, and Frisic. 
Wachter ^ ) and Ihre ^), on the other hånd, are not 
entirely free from the charge of having mingled 
the two latter periods; though it is the second to 
which they have devoted their chief attention^ 
which being that of an inceptive regeneration, is 
more intiraately connected with their present state 
of maturity, than their earliest and purest form is 
with the period of its dissolution. 

The chief auxiliaries in the study of the 
Anglo-Saxon language, whose vicissitudes we have 
now smnmarily considered are the follow^ing: Ge- 
orgii Hickesii Thesaurus Linguarum Veterum Sep- 


^) Thesaurus Antlquitatum Teutonicarum, 3 Tom. folio, Ulm. 
1728. The 3d vol. contains Glossartum Linguæ Francicæ 
et Ælemannicæ. ' 

') Alt- Friesis ckes Worterhuch, 8vo, Aurich 1786, 

3) Glossanum Germanicum, fol, Lips, 1737. 

^) Glossartum, Suio-Gothicum, 2 Tom. fol. tJpsaliæ 1769. 

The only work N-vhich embraces, and accurately pourtrays, 
the German of the middle age, in any fixed shape , is L, 
Arndts Glossar ium zu dem Urtexte des hiedes der Niebetun^ 
gen und der Klage, nebst einem kurzen Abriss einer Alt- 
Deiitschen Grammatik , Liineb. 1815 ■, NYhich is particularly 
adapted to von der Hagen's edit. of the original text, 



tentrionalium^ Oxon. 1705; in five parts (generally 
3 volL folio). The first part conslsts of Gramma- 
tica Anglo-Saxonica et Mæsogothica ^ a work far 
from faultless, as well by reason of the unfortu- 
nate idea of treating the two most dissimllar of 
the Teutonic tongues together, as in the execution 
of its respective parts 5 for instance, in the 2"^ or- 
der of verbs, or those which are monosyllabic in 
the imperfect, all of which he considers as irre- 
gular, and despatches in less than two pages. It 
nevertheless displays throughout great erudition, 
unwearied industry and, sometimes, successfull 
investigation. It is, as well as the whole work, 
enriched with numerous engravings of ancient 
monuments, Runic inscriptions, and the like; also 
with noble collections of documents, and various 
specimens of poetry , that are not elsewhere to be 
found in print. The fourth part contains Dissertatio 
Epistolaris de Veterum Linguarum Septentrionalium 
Usuy cum Numismatibus Saxonicis^ and is also 
richly furnished with Anglo-Saxon collections, and 
engravings. The fifth part , H, Wanlei Librorum 
Veterum Septentrionalium Catalogus ^ is equally va- 
luable and meritorious. Of the rest of the work 
it is not necessary to speak in this place. The 
next work is Edvardi Lye Dictionarium Saxonico 
et Gothico-Latinum^ edidit O. Manning, Lond. 1772^ 
2 Voll. folio j the first voiiime preceded by a Gram- 
matica Anglo-Saxonica in usum Tyronum^ the se- 
cond containing a supplement of some interesting 
A. S. pieces. Besides the same unfortunate bland- 
ing of Anglo-Saxon and Mæsogothic, languages 
which no more admit of being treated together 

P R E F A c E. LI 

than Hebrew and Arabic, or Greek and Latin^ many 
Old-Saxon words from ihe Harmonia Cottoniana^ 
and old English, from the continuation of the Saxon 
Chronicle, are inserted, thoiigh this continuation 
cannot, by any means, be considered as Anglo- 
Saxon. The worst however is that the whole 
compilation proves such a want of all critical and 
grammatical knowledge, that it is quite astonishing 
how so indifferent a dictionary could appear after 
Hickes had so ably led the way to the cultivation 
of this tongue. The same verb, for instance, which, 
in its various forms, requires a change of vowel, 
is sometimes inserted in five different piaces, e. g. 
arnian — urnan — urnian — yrnan — ær- 
nan fo run. Here also two different words are 
confounded, viz. ærnan io let run, and yrnan 
to run, which vary like b æ r n a n and b y r n a n {Gr. 
p. 7i & p. 88). I shall forbear quoting other 
instances of this fault, which, it is said, are to be 
ascribed to the editor Manning, as I shall have 
occasion to revert to the subject hereafter. ') 

^) In faet, both these splendid works abound in errors, which 
teiid to create a very unfavourable opinion of their authors' 
acquaintance with the structure of the language, and with 
that of the other Gothic tongues. To cite a glaring exam- 
ple : both Hickes andLye give |>ær there as a nom. fem. of 
the article, i. e. as a variation of seo, vvith which it has 
no connexion whatever ; having been misled by a form of 
expression, very common in the Gothic languages, e. g. J)å 
com J)ær ren, where it is not very difficult to perceive 
that J)ær is not an article, but an adverb. An equally 
gross error is committed by Lye, under the word J>æt (the 
neut. of the art.), which, according to him, is used before 
both mase. &^ fem. nouns, in nom, and acc. •, in support of 



Another work is also highly deserving of 
mention in this place, vlz. Somneri Dictionarium 
Saxonico- Latino -Anglicum, cum Ælfrici Abbatis 
Grammatica Latino-Saxonica^ et ejusdem Glossario, 
Oxon. 1659 folio 3 which although eclipsed by the 
larger and more splendid Lexicon of Lye, bears 
honourable witness to the learning and industry of 
its author. The Grammar of Ælfric is a relic, 
curious in itself, and valuable to the Anglo-Saxon 

These were my auxiliaries in the execution 
of the present work , and though I have availed 
myself of them to the utmost of my power, I have 
nevertheless followed my ow^n course throughout, 
in which the Icelandic has been my surest guide. 
It w^as not my design to give an epitome, or super- 
ficial sketch, but a faithful analysis of the tongue, 
and, as far as my own knowledge would permit, 
such a one as the subject deserved and demanded. 
I have laboured at it as long as I have studied the 
language itself, and during that period have fre- 
quently revised it: that it is not so extensive as my 
Icelandic Grammar , is a natural consequence of 
the simpler structure of the Anglo-Saxon. 

The variations from the text of the printed 
edition of Beowulf^, which I have introduced in 
a few piaces, are by no means conjectural, but 
were selected from readings communicated to me 
long since, by the late learned and celebrated edi- 

tliis assertion, Iie quotes as examples |)æt c ild in fans; 
|)æt fole popnlus ; Jiæt wii femina; |)æt blod sang-uis: 
all which, like the German Kind, Volk, JVeib, Bhit, are iii 
A. S. of the neuter gender! 

P 11 E F A c E. LIII 

tor. Should therefore any of these readings meet 
the approbation of scholars , it is to the liberality 
and candour of him, who gave us the first com- 
plete edition of the poem, that they are indebted 
for them. The arrangement of the verses only, 
where it differs from the printed text, is my own. 
In the other pieces contained in the Praxis, all 
deviations from the printed editions, are founded 
on my own conjecture. The Spell (p. 189) has 
great difficulties , and is, in itself, of Httle impor- 
tance, but in the absence of all mythology, I 
thought a specimen of the superstitions of the na- 
tion sufficiently interesting to deserve a place in 
the Praxis. 

With respect to the manner in which I have 
exhibited the structure of the tongue, some will 
perhaps be startled at the change of order in the 
cases and gendersj but the arrangement which I 
have adopted is natural, and indeed necessary, in 
Greek, Latin, Icelandic, German, Russian, Polish, 
in short, in every European language of the Jape- 
tic family, possessing grammatical infiections. Ne- 
vertheless, I felt doubtful whether I might venture 
to deviate so widely from the form, according to 
which all grammars of the European tongues have 
been hitherto arranged, until I saw that this just 
and natural order had, from the earliest times, 
been adopted by the Brahmins, in their treatises 
on the the Sanskrit &C.5 also that several Euro- 
peans had followed their example, in the compo- 
sltlon of grammars of the various Indian languages. 
From that moment, I was confirmed, both in my 
conviction of its justness, when applied to all the 


Japetic tongueS; and in my resolution of employ- 
ing it in the Gothic. In the Icelandic, and other 
Scandinavian dialects, this arrangement is not un- 
attended with difficulties^ but, in Anglo-Saxon and 
German, as requiring no alteration in the dictio- 
naries, it ought to be the less delayed. 

In illustration of the above, I will take an 
example from the irregular words of the Latin 
tongue, the inflections of which are not unfre- 
quently more clearly distinguished, and display their 
mutual affinity more evidently, than those of re- 
gular words, being derived from different elements. 























From this example, it appears. 1) That the 
accusative ought not to be separated from the no- 
minative, because, in the neuter, these two cases 
are alike^ and, in the feminine, eam is clearly de- 
rived from ea, not from ei or ejus. 2) That the 
ablatives eo and ea belong to the same element as 
ewn, eam, and therefore should not be separated 
in the paradigm. 3) That ejus is formed from ei, 
by the addition of the Greek termination -o?, not 
vice versa; ejus should therefore be placed after ei, 
not before it, nor between eum and eo. 4) That 
the masculine bears a great resemblance to the 
neuter, being distinguished from it in two cases 
only. 5) That the neuter should be placed first. 

P R E F A c E. LV 

as the simplest of the three genders, having its 
nominative and accusative alike, and seeming, like 
the Gothlc hit, het, to contain the oldest ele- 
ments of this pronoun. 

The adoption of the Roman alphabet, in the 
present work, is the result of mature deliberation. 
The written Anglo-Saxon characters, as they ap- 
pear in M. S. S., being themselves a barbarous, 
monkish, corruption of the Roman, and the print- 
ed ones, a very imperfect imitation of the M. S. S. 
To persist therefore in the use of them (however 
venerable their appearance) seems to be without 
good reason ; for though cailed Anglo-Saxon, they 
are no other than thbse employed, at the same 
time, in the writing of Latin 5 if therefore we 
would be consistent, we ought to employ types to 
represent every variation of the monkish charac- 
ters, throughout the middle ages 3 as the hand- 
writing underwent many changes, before the dis- 
covery of printlng, and the restoration of the 
Roman alphabet. 

The J) and D only, representing distinct 
sounds, have been retained. Their rejection from 
the English alphabet is to be much regretted. 




Upusculum meum de Lingua Anglo-Saxonica 
iterum emittens, quo potissimum modo nova hæc 
editio comparata sit, quaejue ratione a præcedente 
differat, paucis te, Lector benevole, monendum 
existinio. Nam priore Holmiæ absoluta, dum Rus- 
slam magnamque Asiæ partern peragrabam, studium 
Linguarum Gothicarum, quas inter non ultimum 
locum tenet Anglo-Saxonica, nunquam penitus in- 
termisi, idque potius egi, ut, nostratibus linguis 
cum Asiaticis, qua fieri poterat diligentia, compa- 
ratis, illarum orlginem, affinitatem, indolem, struc- 
turam, harum investigatione clarius et ipse perspi- 
cerem, et aliis melius rectiusque explicarem. 

Neque pauca ad emendandam et stabiliendam 
rationem grammaticam, hac inita comparatione, in- 
venire mihi visus sum, e quibus maxime comme- 
moranda videtur affinitas quædam inter Gothicas 
linguas et eas quæ vulgo Semiticæ vocantur; no- 
minatim Anglo-Saxonicam inter et Arabicam; ne- 
que ea tantum jamdudum observata inter singula 
quædam vocabula, v. c. saccus &c. quæ, a Baby- 
lonica gentium dispersione, immutata fere omnium 
memoriæ inhæsisse olim credidit eruditorum co- 
horsj sed flexionum et classium vocum, vel uni- 
versæ interioris structuræ quasi communio , quæ 
non, nisi ex antiquissimo illo et communi illarum 
gentium vinculo atque cognatione repetita, recte 
explicari posse videtur. Sic (ut his exemplis utar) 
substantiva verbalia breviora masculini generis sunt, 


eademqne cum præteritis verborum sæpe conve- 
niunt, sæpe quoque, ut loquuntur Grammatici Ara- 
bici^ in accusandi casu posita, i. e. syllaba an aucta, 
infinltivos efficiunt. Quld? quod Anglo-Saxonica 
secundi ordinis verba singulis fere Arabicorum 
classibus respondere, præsertim vero 3^^^ conjuga- 
tionis 2^^^^ et 3^^^ classis cum verbis concavis, ut 
dlcuntur apud Arabes, coincidere videntur: e. g. 

Præsens, Præteritum. 

Arab. ja-ris-u rås-a superhivit, 

A. S. a-ri's-t a-rås surreæit. 

Ouæ alibi pluribus exponere in animo est. 
Hine patet verba Gotbicarum gentium impura ne- 
que pro irregularibus babenda, ut voiult J. C. 
Adelung, quum toti fere systemati verbali Semi- 
ticarum respondeant; neque primo loco, funda- 
menti instar totius conjugationis, ponenda, id quod 
nuper faciendum esse censuit V. CL J. Grimm, 
fortia ea nominans, bisque (fortibus) dehilia post- 
ponens, speciosius quam verius, nam verba pura 
(sive, si placet, debilla) qulppe multo piura, regu- 
lls magis adstricta, et ad partern cujusvis Gotbicl 
nominis linguæ majorem et primariam, scll. Indo- 
Græcam vel Japeticam, pertinentia, re vera funda- 
mentum systematis verbalis efficiunt. 

His ita inventis, quum ad harum llterarum 
studium persequendum magnopere excitarer, in pa- 
triam ex India redux, maxima lætitia inteilexi li- 
teras Anglo-Saxonicas in Anglia et Germania mini- 
me neglectas jacere, sed indiem fere nova capere 
incrementa, etsi Grammatici antiquæ Danicæ, sive 
hodiernæ Islandicæ, linguæ, unde sæpissime auxi- 


lium petendum, minus gnari ^), ideoque recentiore 
Anglica vel Germanica, in multis mutata, pronuncia- 
tione et simplicitate structuræ, facile in errorem 
inducti, meum systema, ejusque ad justam et per- 
spicuam linguæ Anglo-Saxonicæ cognitlonem obti- 
nendam necessitatem , haud satis intellexisse vide- 
bantur. Obstabat illud quoque, opinor, quod Gram- 
maticain meam Danice edideram, fortasse etiam 
quod quædam haud satis luclde explicaveram, quæ 
vitla ipse, majore studio adhibito, observavi, et 
pro virlli tollere conatus sum. 

Optato igitur mihi accidit ut Linguarum Sep- 
tentrionalium assiduus cultor B. Thorpe de libello 
meo Anglice vertendo mecum egerit, id quod sum- 
mo studio, summaque fidelitate, neque faclli labore, 
ita perfecit, ut (systemate nulla in re mutato) male 
collocata in ordinem meliorem redigeret, obscuris 

^) Ne nuperrimus quidem Editor Wartoni Hist. Poeseos Anglo- 
rum excipiendns videtur, etsi vir doctissimiis, subsidiis egre- 
giis ex Scandinavia nostra adjutus , multa sane contulit ad 
Poeinata Anglo - Saxonica nielius explicanda : v. c. in notis 
ad Poema de prælio Brunanburgensi (T. 1. p. 9l) dennade 
vel, ut Gibson håbet, dynode recte per Isl. dun di 
explicavit, verbis usus Bjornonis Haldorsonii, in Lexico, 
ubi sub 1. pers. eg dyn facile invenitur; sed geætJele 
(Ib. p. 90) haud invenit, itaque per ajjelo (i. e. æ|)e- 
lo) nobilitas exposuit, quuni tanien æ|)elo gen. fem. sit, 
et a geæSele neut. gen. diversum; scribitur enim hoc 
(ge, more Isl. abjecto) Islandis eiJli, et a Bjornone æque 
recte natura, indoles, genius, vertitur. Sic liond-rond 
(Ib. p. 89) per Angl. hånd round exposuit, quum manuale 
scutum vertere debuisset; rond scil. nihil est aliud quain 
Isl. rond (quemadniodum etiam hond, Isl. hond dicitur), 
quod apud eundeni Bjornonem recte vertitur clt/peiis milita- 
ris, nec quicquam sane cum round Angl. commune håbet. 


lucem affunderet, errata haud pauca sua eruditione 
corrigeret, omissa suppleret: ego vero quæcunque 
vel in India, vel in patria post reditum, ad syste- 
ma emendandum et amplificandum , collegeram, 
lætus lubensque addidi. 

Håbes igitur, Lector benevole, genuinum 
meum opus, sed accuratius et elegantius expres- 
sum multisque auctum, v. c. pleniori enumeratione 
verborum secundi ordinis, meliori explicatione va- 
riorum generum versuum, uberioribus notis in 
Excerpta (Extracts), indice vocum in Grammatica 
explanatarum omnino novo, quorum duo postrema 
Interpreti solo accepta referas. Vereor equidem 
ne in accentibus interdum erraverim, quos tamen 
non temere, sed exemplis ex libris impressis dili- 
genter conquisitis, itemque comparatione cum dia- 
lectis propinquis instituta nisus apposuij verum 
fateor necesse fuisset libros manu scriptos oculis 
lustrare, id quod milii nunquam contigit. His igi- 
tur et talibus, quippe levioribus, vitiis ignoscas 
obsecro, atque omnino, siquid rectius novisti, can- 
didus imperti, si non, his utere mecum. 
Dabam Hafniæ die 12mo Maji 1830. 

Erasmus Rask. 


J_ he present Translation was begun about two 
years since, during a short stay in London, ratlier 
as a relief from anxiety, than with a view to publi- 
cation. After my return to Denmark, my thoughts 
being for a while employed upon objects of a very 
different nature, the unfinished M. S. lay for a 
length of time neglected, and indeed forgotten, 
when, having chanced to find it among other pa- 
pers, I was induced to complete my task, partly by 
the same motive which had prompted me to com- 
mence it, but chiefly in consequence of the highly 
gifted Author not only communicating to me the re- 
sult of his researches subsequent to the publlcation 
of the first edition in 1817, but also consenting to 
co-operate with me in completing the present. 

That my version may contain inaccuracies, 
notwithstanding my anxious desire to render it 
correct, is highly probablej yet I trust that none 
will be discovered of a nature either to impair its 
efficlency in promoting the culture of our ancient 
native literature, or to outweigh the merit of having 
given an English garb to a work so excellent in 
itself, and so important to English Scholars, and 
that it will be found, what its Author made it, a 
faithful analysis of a language, which (not to men- 
tion the numerous venerable and valuable monu- 
ments preserved in it) may, in point of copious- 
ness of expression and grammatical precision, vie 
w^iLh the present German. 

For the explanation of those words in the 
Praxis^ of which no translation is given in the notes, 
the Student is referred to the Verbal Index. 

Copenhagen, May 18S0. B. T. 






Pag. XXIV Line 21 for inclosed read enclosed. 

— 10 Line 11 dele comma after observed. 
for love read live. 

— termtnations r. termination, 

— phycisian r. pJtysician. 

— wratk Y. wrotJi. 

— h å 1 g a r. h å 1 g e. 

— former r. first. 
dele of. 
for båd r. b e d d. 

— toslupe tdslypb' tosleåp r. toslii- 
pe toslyptJ tosleåp. 

insert comma after rules. 
for unsælen r. unsælan. 

— hædenisc r. bæSenisc. 

— unde rJ)e6S Tim r. under J)e6 dum. 
■ — higly r. highly. 

— 167 Running title, for Dialects r. the Species of Verse. 

— 172 Line 30 for Scadinavians r. Scandinavians. 

— 179 — 19 — vij. r. wi^. 

— 11 

— 9 

— 31 

— 20 

— 34 

— 30 

— 46 

— 3 

- 48 

— 20 

— 59 

— 12 

— 68 

— 7 

— 70 

- 33 

— 92 

— 31 

— 97 

- 13 

— 98 

— 15 

— 108 

— 10 

— 114 

— 9 

— 151 

— 33 



The Alphabet. 

1. XjLs some only of the Anglo-Saxon characters 
deviate a little in their form from the Latin, of which 
both they and the Gothic are a corniptioa, or, as it were, 
a peciiliar sort of hånd, which is also used hy the Anglo- 
Saxons, even in the writing of Latin itself ; I have not 
hesitated to adopt, in their stead, those now in general 
lise, retaining only p and D. 

2. The A. S. Alphahet will consist thercfore of the 
foUowing 24 characters, Tiz. 

a « i i 

h be I el 

c ke m em 

d de n en 

G e 

f ef i^ pe 

g ghe r er 

h ha s es 

3. j never occurs as a distinct letter, and k very rarely, as 
tlie Aiiglo-Saxons always used c instead, even before the soft 
vowels æ, e, i, y^ asj cyning or cining, ktng. For qu the 
Anglo-Sax. constantly wrote cio as; cwén, qucen. Of u there 
occurs but one consonant sound, which it may be best to re- 
present hy w , on account of the agreement both with the En- 
glisli, and Old-Saxon, in which the character uu was used, v ne- 
















2 Orthograpliy. 

ver occurritig, except as a calligraphic variation of u. s is 
also not admitted in A. S., its genuine soft sound, as in kasel, 
not existing in the language. Tlie A. Saxens using the hard s 
instead, as hæsel, Icel. hesli, Dan. Hassel. 


4. I have here not made the slightest innovation, 
but, from many uncertain modes of writing, have adopt- 
ed that, which to rae seemed hest to accord with the 
internal character of the tongne, and with other kindred 
dialects, especially the Icelandic. 

5. The A. S. orthography is extremely confused; yet, to judge 
of it from Hickes and Lye, it appear« to be mnch more so, 
than it is in reality : for those scholars were quite ignorant how 
to extract mles for it, and to separate that which is of rare oc- 
currence , or the result of carelessness , from that which is es- 
sential and correct; to reject or, at most, merely to notice the 
former, and constantly to adhere to the latter. On the contra- 
ry, they everywhere present ns with an overwhelming multi- 
tude of ways, in which a word is written, and not unfrequently 
adopt the false, instead of the true spelling. ^ 

6. The most frequent changes in Orthograpliy are 
the following: 

a and æ; as ae and æc afz odk, æcer and ae er a 

o, «, parti cularly before n, in a short syllahle; as 
man and mon man; lang and long lotig; sand 
and s ond sand; and and ond and; an and on 
on ; so also in the terrainations ode and od, 
which are often written ade and ad; this howe- 
Ter is properly an Icelandisra. 

,' ,t ceaster and ces ter, a fortified town, 
burgJi; geaf, gef gave; eahta, ehta eigJit ; 
eåbe and éSe easily ; sceat and s eet shot ; 
te ah, téh drew. 

Orthography. 3 

^' }■ is and ys is; hit and hyt it ; hi' and hy they, 

gehirsum and gehyreum ohedient. 

The former is the more common intercliange, 
as many of the transcribers seem to hare used 3^ 
for i unaccented, and i for the accented i, 

eo, y, e, seolf, self, sylf 8elf ; seondan, sendan 

to send ; sylian, sellanfo give, sell,, (Icel. selja.) 

The same takes place in other languages, as; 

Icel. mjolk, dntch raelk mille, With this may 

he compared the Russian pronnnciation of e as yo. 

eo, Uy w e s c e o 1 o n and s c ni o n we shall ; sweotol 
and swutol evident; especially after w, as; 
sweostor and swustor sister ; sweord and 
s w II r d sword; w e o r 6 , \v u r 6 worth. 

Oy Uy particularly in terminations , gem ær o and ge- 
mæru hoimdaries. 

7. w, (zj) is sometimes found for /; as, h e d u o d , for 
heåfod head; on fullre lune, for liife in 
perfect love; minum wi'ue, for Mife tomy 
wife ; gefauian to consent, admit^ for ge|>a- 

g is often affixed to words ending in i, as; hig or 
h i e , for hi' they ; and, vice versa^ it is often re- 
jected from those ending in i g, as; dri for drig, 
or dryg dry, mihti for mihtig mighty. 

g is also sometimes placed hefore e or «*, and is then 
prononnced like y, as geow for eow yozi; geall 
for eall all. 

ng, ncy ngc, sang and sanc a song; ring and ringe 
a ring, 

h and g^ as sorh and sorg care; eåhura and eågum 

X is not in commou use, but, in raany printed hooks, is 


4 Orthography. 

represeiited by C5, as: ri es i an and rixian to 
retgn; sometiraes by hs^ which seeras however to 
represent a different sound, as ; a h s i a n for a x i a n 
to ask. 

8. Tlie accents, which are so indispensable to the 
pronnnciation , and even to the nnderstanding, of the 
language, are very often neglected by the old transcri- 
hers, and in tlie printed copies, for the most part, left 
out entirely; they are therefore very difFicult to deter- 
mine. But how necessary the accentuation sometimes is, 
in lixing the signification of words, may be seen from 
the foUowing examples: ae but, åc an oak; wende 
turned, wénde expected ; is is, is ice; for for, fdr 
ivent ; (pæt) he bude, {that) he commanded ; he bu- 
de Ae dwelt ; cyst choice, cyst (he) chooses ; æt at, 
set ate. 

9. Analogy with the Icelandic, German, and En- 
glish, throws much light upon this subject; much help is 
also to be derived from the derivation and inflection of 
the A. S. itself , thougli these internal rules of the lan- 
guage, have often been discovered only by collation with 
those tongues: for instance; god deus, and god honus, 
may be inferred from the Icel. goS, goSr^ and the 
Engl. God, good, also from the Germ. Gott, gut-, bryd- 
guma, in like manner, from briiSgumi biidegroom, 
Brdiitigam', hyrde a sivain, herd (as in shepherd §'c.), 
Icel. hir^ir; but hyrde heard^ Icel. heyr^i; sli't- 
an to wear, s lit en worn, from Icel. sli'ta, slitinn, 
and from its analogy with the Engl. hite , hitten, and 
many otlier words of a sirailar nature in Icelandic, Engl. 
and German. Sometimes a double vowel is found in- 
stead of the accent, as; ti id for tid, time, tide; Icel. 
ti'S, Germ. Zeit; also aa for a ever^ {fof) aye ; aad 
for ad a pile; gees, ges geese, and, at others, the 

Orthography. 5 

accentuation is actually obsérvecl, as; an one; s cad an 
to separate; ^ån to go; wa woe; ban bo?ie ; tå toe; 
li kl whole ; fæm deådan to the dead ; eåcniend wif 
a pregnant ivoman ; m é d reward, meed; b é c books ; m i n 
mine ; a b i t e mordeat ; b 6 c hoolc ; b d t mulet 8ec. ; f 6 1 
foot; bl5d hlood; don to do; cii corø; hus house; 
lit oMif/ g eb lin cultivated; fiilfoul, mean. 

It is singular that the accents, which are given in Lam- 
bard's quarto edit. of the A. S. Laws , (reprinted in folio, Gant. 
16M) are omitted in the far superior Edit, in fol. by Wilkins 1721. 

10. Sometimes the acute , and sometimes the cir- 
cumflex accent has been used to denote the long or broad 
sound of the vowels. Dr. Grimra would, in all cases, 
use the circurtiflex, but the acute seems, upon the whole, 
to bie jpreferable ; partly on account of its neåter appear- 
ance in printing, and partly from analogy with the Ice- 
landic, where they write fotr, bdt, hus, ut, vif &c. 
It seems also to agree well with the practice in Freuch, 
where the é ferme has precisely the same sound. In tlie 
Edit. of Cædmon by F. Junius, Amst. 1655, the acute 
accent frequently occurs. 

11. This accentuation, which merely determines 
the sound or pronunciation of the vowel, must not be 
confounded with intonation or the determination of the 
syllaWe, on which the chief tone falls. This has, with- 
out doubt, been, as in German, upon the first radical 
syllable; so that the prefixes ge, a, be, and the like, 
never received the accent. In compounds of two essen- 
tial, significant, words, the tone is generally on the first, 
as may be inferred, from the alJiteration in poetry; e. g. 
in the poem on Beowulf, Intr. 51. 

Hini |)å Scyld gewåt Scyld then left thcm 

to gescæp hwile {and loent) to the appointcd rest, 

Ib. 55. Hi hyne J)å ætbæron Thcij then bore him out 

to brimes war®cJe. to the sca-shore. 

6 Orthography. 

Hero we hare, in the first Instance, se, and in the »c- 
cond, by for aliiterative rliyraes, notwithstanding the ge 
ia geecæp, and tlie æt in ætbebron; wliicli shews 
that these words Iiave the tone on the second syllable. 
Ib, 17. O« pæt him æghwylc Until htm each 

påra ymbsittendra of thosc dwelling about 

ofer hronråde beyond the sea 

hyran scolde. should ohcy. 

Here, in the first place, are the three vowels o, æ, y, 
whicU form aliiterative rhymes, and, in tlie second, h; 
which shows that the first syllable has the accent, in 
the words æghwylc, ymbsittendra, and hronrå- 
de. Agaiu: 

J'a middangeard Then the earth 

moncynnes weard the Guardian of manhind, 

éce drihten the everlasting Lord 

æfter teode. afterwards created. 

In the two first lines, the alliteration ia m, whence it 
appears that the words middangeard and moncyn- 
nes should be pronounced as dactyls, consequently no 
rhyme was audible in the final syllables, which was pro- 
bably theu, as now, considered a fault in blank verse. 

12. As a note of distinctlon, the Anglo-Saxons used 
only a dot at the end of each sentence, or each line 
of a poem, and three dots at the end of a complete dis- 
course; but it seems preferable to adopt the signs now 
in use, in place of those very imperfect ones, 


1^. The Anglo-Saxon rowels seem to have had a 
double sound, yet not to have beeu so hard and broad 
as the Icelandic, but to have approached nearer to the 
Danish, and Swedish, pronunciation , in the mouth of 
well educated persons. 

Fronunciation. 7 

a and d were not only distinguished by the lengtli, but 
d had a somewhat deeper sound, like the Germ. 
« in wahr true; which is confirmed by the cir- 
cumstance that it sometiraes answers to the Engl. 
o, and the Dan. & Sw. d, e. g. sår, Engl. sore, 
D. & S. sdr; bråd broad, The Icelandic df- 
phthongal sound oi aw ii never had, forthis is sig- 
nified in A. S. by aw ov au ^ as: sawul or 
saul, Icel. sål, souL As the Icel. diphthong d 
Iias always the sound of sharp open a before Wj 
and the Ital. att is pronounced in the same man- 
iier; we raay infer that the A. S. aw^ should not 
be accented, f. i. cawl, cabbage, Icel. tal, lat. 
caulis , Ital. cavolo. i 

G and é are distinguished from one another, both in length ^* ... f 
and in sound: e being more audible and open, 
like the French e ouvert, as in aprés, or tlie Engl. 
e in there, at in fair;, é^ on the contrary, deeper 
and broader, like the Germ. e in meJir , or the 
French in armée^ as may be inferred by compa- 
rison; 1) s en dan, 'Kw^l, to send -, which sound is 
also long in A. S. as stel an to steal, Dan. stjæ- 
le, Icel. stela; beran to bear; 2) fedan, Dan. 
føde, to feed, twegen, "^wi.twee, two. Thi s é 
has doubtless had the sound of the Danish e in fede. 
The Germans still constantly use this broad é in- 
stead of ø, when speakiug Danish. An unaccent-^ 
ed e, at the end of a syllable, had very probably 
the open sound, as: beginnan to begin; wuce 
weeJc, as may be inferred from the old Danish or- 
thography, in which the last syllables are writteu 
with æ: ukæ, Danæ &;c. 
i and t diifer from each other, as in Icel. & Dan. in 
the words vi s s, til and vis, ti S. The firstap- 

8 Pronunciatlon. 

proxiraates nearer to é; the latter to ?V or y, as: 
mid with; tin tin; tid time; win wine. 
o and 6, as in the Danish words for and for, (pro- 
nonnce for, fore)^ respecting >vhich it needs only 
to be obserred that the former sound may easily 
become long, as well as the latter, as ord point; 
bogft how {^w.låga); bor en bom; tiår floor; 
f(5t foot, The latter sound was not so broad as 
that of the Icel. d, which the Anglo-Saxons signi- 
fy by om;; as stow, Icel. std, o place» Analo- 
gously with aw we may suppose that ow has also 
had the open o, nearly as in the word power, or 
in the Dutch ou, the Gerra. au, and consequently 
is not to be accented. 
u and ti; of these, the former had, without doubt, the 
sound of the Engl. u in full, pull; the latter, that 
of the Engl. oo in noose^ which is evident from 
the Engl. & Danish, in which the A. S. full an- 
swers to Engl. /mZ/, Dan. fuld; hus to house, 
Dan. Hus; i\\\ foul, Dan. fuL 
y and y, were anciently pronounced as in the Danish 
words Bt/g and Lys (a sound which nearly resera- 
bles theFrench u, and perhaps the v of the Greeks), 
for else this character would never have beea 
used in primitive words, such as bryd a hride; 
fyr fire; herewith also agrees the Jutlandish pro- 
nunciation. Bryd. 
That y cannot originally have had the sound of / is evi- 
dent from its interchange with m, as; Ælfred kuning for 
cyning, Boet. proæm. This character however very early re- 
ceived the sound of é, as in Icelandic, German, and French •, as 
may be inferred from the frequent interchange of y and /. 

14. The long «, as well as the short one, was, as 
has been already remarked, expressed by o without ac- 
cent, and the long Dan. æ hy e without acceiit, as in Icel. 


Pronunciation. 9 

The Å.^.æ coiild not therefore have been pronoun- 
ced like the Danish æ, nor the Germ. and S\v. d (Engl. «/), 
nor perhapsj quite like the Icelandic æ {aj) ^ as may he 
seen hy coraparison , e. g. of g æ s t guest, fæs of the, 
fæåersLS fathers^ with the Icel. g e s t r, J)ess, fe6r; as 
well as from its interchange with e in the A. S. itself. 
But seems to have represented a peculiar, simple, and 
very open sound, approaching to a, 

It may even he snpposed, like the other vowels, to 
have had a donhle pronunciation ; the one like the En- 
glish a in that, glad, as: fæt, glæd; the other longer 
and hroader, or more diphthongal, in which case it shonld 
bear the accent, as: hér hair, hrédan to melt. 

15. It has certainly had a stronger, and more open sound 
than the unaccented e, like that of the English a in many of 
the corresponding words, as: glæs glass, fætt fat S;c. called by 
Walker a\ but which he does not describe accurately, by com- 
paring it with the short a of the Italians; for, in Danish, vve 
have the word man (onCy French on), and men but, with the 
exact Italian sound of those voAvels; but the Engl. man, seems 
to be an intermediate sound between the two Danish words, as 
the a^ in general between the a and open e of the Italians. 
The A. S. æ must therefore have had an open sound like å, 
in the Finnish words karke point, paa head; which is some- 
tinies heard among the vulgar in Denmark, e. g. Lærcd (Lær- 
red) linen: it would not otherwise have been so decidedly dis- 
tinguished from. é open, even when the latter is long, e. g. h e- 
re an army, and her here; but hær hair; hebbe I heave, 
lift; hæbbe I have: nor would it have been used in roots and 
primitives, as: æsc ash, græg gray, æt at; nor would it be 
found so regnlarly interchanged with é open, as it really is in 
the inflections of two classes of verbs, as: metan *o measure, 
Imp. mæton they measured; lætan to let, Imp. le ton they 

That this vowel, as well as the others, had a double na- 
ture; partly sharp and simple; partly broad and diphthongal (in 
which last case, it should bear the accent), we may conclude, 
from the genius of the tongue itself, in the inflection and de- 

10 Pronunciatlon. 

rivation of words; as the æ in hæfde 'had (from habban) 
cannot be supposed to have been exactly like that in lærde 
(Imp, of 1 æ r a n , deri ved from lår lore) ,* nor that in s t æ f a 
staffp letter, pi. s t a f a s , like that in d eé 1 a part, pi. d æ 1 a s. 

A like conclusion may be drawn from a comparison with 
the Icelandic, and other kindred dialects , as : d æ d deed, IceK 
dås, and dælan to divide, deal; Icel, deila, cannot have 
been pronounced with the same sound as cræft science, craft ; 
Icel. kraptr, Germ. Kraft; and flæse Jleshj Icel, flesk, 
Sw. flask. 

Dr. Grimm has observed, the difference between æ and æ, 
but writes the first å, the other æ , but this would be introdu- 
cing a ne^T letter å, and a deviation from the general A. S. rule 
of distinguishing the double sound of the vowels by accent, 

16. æ geldom occurs , and seems quite foreigtt to 
the language; it has probably been introduced by the 
Scandinavians, but has never been naturalised, and in the 
modem English it is unknown. The proper A. S. sound 
for it was e, as dæm an, hetter déraan, to deem or 

17. e is used before a, o, to mark tlie sound of y 
consonant, as in the most ancient Icelandic orthography, 
which was probably horrowed from the Anglo-Saxons : 
e. g. eorl an earl; old Icel. earl, modern, jarl; bed- 
dan; o. I. bed6a, modern, bjoSa, Sw. bjuda to hid; 
eow you; ongean again, Dan. igjen; scean shone^ 
Icel. ske in (pronounce skyein); georne willingly, 
faiTiy Icel. gjarna; ceåp« marlcety bargain; c e ar i an 
to care for, value &c. ; whence it appears that e is in- 
serted after g and c in A. S. as j (or «) is in Icelandic, 
and Danish. Eådweard Æ/f/z^«rfi?, Icel. JatvarSr; Ed- 
tal a n d Jutland, Icel. J 6 1 1 a n d &c. It is probable how- 
ever that this sound of y has been somewhat weaker 
than the strong j in Danish; as it occurs so frequently, 
and is denoted by e rather than i: it has also been laid 
aside in many instancejs; but that it is not a peculiar 

Pronuiiciatiom il 

diphthongal sound that Is expressed by this e before a 
vowel, may be inferred as well from the above-shown 
likeness to the Icelandic, as from its being often, even 
in A. S., interchanged witli i^ as: seé or sid, Icel. 
s ja, s li {thcy fem); heofon or hiofon, heaven; 
leoiS or lio5, Icel. ljo6, song; geong or giuiig 
young; and often left out altogether, after g and c, as: 
sceån or scan shone; lyfigean and lyfigan to 
love; mænigeo and mænigo mani/, a multitude, 

18. i before e or u has the sound of ^, as: lerii- 
salem, iett yet; Iiideas Jews\ iugo6 youth, k gin 
therefore inserted in the present of all verbs in ian ; as 
ic lufige / love, and in the participle lufigende, 
and the like, to shew that these words are of three or four 
gyllables, as they raight otherwise be pronounced luf-ye^ 
luf-yende; but in the infinitive luf i an it is not neces- 
gary, because an a follows, before which, y is expressed 
by e, but i preserves its sound as a vowel in a sepa- 
rate syllable. j (for ^) , as a distinct consonant, has no 
place in A. S. , nor does it occur after another vowel, 
80 as to belong to the same syllable. 

19. u is very seldom used instead of w consonant; 
for which, from the earliest times, the Anglo-Saxons had 
a distinct character; it is therefore to be considered as 
ararc orthographical peculiari ty, when we find saul foir 
sawul or sawl soul, and caul for cawl cole, cabbage, 
&c. In this tongue therefore there exists no sound 
that can be cailed a diphthong, unless perhaps in somc 
foreign words, as: Caius, Aurelius, Europa &c.; 
but, in these cases, the orthography alone is foreign, 
the prommciation , without doubt, having been Cayus, 
Awrelius, Jfiwropa, the w pronounced as in how, power. 

20. The pronunciatioH of the consonants is nearly 
the same as inEnglish; it is however to be observed that 

12 Pronunciation. 

/ at the end of a gyllable, or between two Towels, 
had probaLly not the same sound as in the beginuing of 
Words, but rather resembled v, as in Icel. e. g. heafod 
heady Jceh h<)fii6, 'FtU. hdved, Dan. Hoved, leåf leaf^ 
Icel. lauf, Dan. Løv, &c. Another proof of tlus sound 
is the practice of writing u for /, in the cases of which 
instances have been already given. {^See p. 3, §. 7.) 

21. h had a rery hard sound, as in heord a herd; 
it is found eren before several consonants, as ; I, n, r, e & 
i (for ^ consonant) and w^ as: hwit white, Icel. hvitr; 
hring a ringy Icel. hri'ngr; hlot a lot, Icel. hlutr; 
hnecca the nape, Icel. hnakki. It is also found some- 
times at the end of words; either quite at the end, 
or before other hard consonants: in this position it 
seems to have been pronounced nearly as the Greek ^ 
or the ch of the Germans; e. g. {)urh through, Germ. 
durch; leoht light, Germ. Licht ; dohtor dmighter, 
Dutch dochter, The hardness of its sound may also be 
inferred from its reduplication in the midiUe of words, 
as: teohhian to pull, tug. 

22. g sounds, as in Icelandic, 1) hard before a, o, 
u, as gan to go, god god. 2) Before e, i, y, as tlie Ita- 
lian ghi, or as^ in give, gave., as: geald j!;aiW, fequited; 
g e orne willingly, fain, (in Ital. orthog. ghiorne) ^ gi^ 
fan to give , geaf gave. 3) like y, if placed betweeii 
two of the letters æ, e, i, y; which is evident from its 
being inserted in lufige (for lufie), without chang- 
ing the pronunciation, also in brægen hrains; bégeii 

cg is usually written for gg, as: secgan to say, 
licgan to lie, instead of seggan, liggan. 

23. c is pronounced like k, so tliat the latter is 
superfluous, and of very rare occurrence. 

Pronunciation. 13 

That the modern English cÅ, wliich, in mauy instances, 
has succeeded to the A. S. c, (as cil å child; cidan to chide ; 
cef or ceaf ckaff)^ represents a sound unknown to the Anglo- 
Saxons may be inferred, 1) From the irregiilarity with which it 
has been snbstitnted ; for instance ; w r e c c a is bécbme wretch ; 
although the c was undoubtedly hard ; but c æ g is the English 
key, in which the sound of k is preserved, which is also the case 
with cealf calf, and ceald cold, notwithstanding the insertion. 
pi e. 2) Prom the circumstance that the Icelandic, and other 
ancient dialects, liave the hard k constantly in parallel instan- 
ces, as: ceosan to clioose , Icel, kj6sa; cinn chin , Icel, 
k i n n , Dan. Kind, Germ. Kirin ; c y s s a n to ktss, Icel. k y s s a , 
Dan. kysse ^^c. 3) From the doubtful orthography of the A. S. 
itself, as: cealf, cielf, cyrre, cierre a turn, which have 
hardly been pronoimced otherwise than kyelf, kyerre. 

A similar transition has.taken place in Swedish and Ita* 
lian : in these however the ancient orthography has imdergone 
no change; e. g. the Icel. kénna to know, is in Sw. kan nå 
(pronounced chenna) and the Gr. S^ Lat. ksvtqov , centrum 
(pron. kentrum) is in Ital. c e ilt ro (pronounced chentro). 

24. se follows the same analogy as c, and must have 
been pronounced hard before c, o, u, and at the end of 
words, as fise, Englisc; before the soft vowels æ^ 
e, i, y like sky, also when e {y) comes between the se 
and G, o, Uy as scyt he shoots, from scedtan. 

The e is sometimes inserted and sometimes omitted, as: 
iiscop ovbisceop. Cf. p. 3. 1. 11. 

In the Icel. S^ Danish, the hard k has been preserved. The 
modern English sound of sh does not exist in the ancient dialects. 

25. I and n are often written double or single in- 
discrirainatelj, at the end of monosyllables, but this re- 
duplication falls away when, in lengthening the word, a 
consonant follows, as: well or wei well; eall all, eal- 
ne oinnem; thus also : ic sylle, fu sylst, he syl5, 

I give &c. fenn or fenafen. Hence it appears that 

II and ?m, m this language, have not had the hard Ice- 
landic pronunciation (nearlyas dlj dn) for, in that case, 

i.4 Pronunciatioii, 

it would have been necessary to distiii^ish them accu- 
rately from / and n single. 

26. JS and 6 answer hoth to the English tJi, which 
has 1) a hard sound, as in thingy nearly resembling the 
6 of the Greeks, and the Icel. />, and, 2) a softer sound, 
as in thiSy thozij other, like the modern Greek ^. In the 
old language these sounds -were represented by different 
characters, J^ being used for the hard, as in [nng, and 
fe for the soft as in o^ er. 

Spelman ascribes to tr tlie harder, and to ^ tlie softer sound; 
and Somner, Hickes, and Lye, repeat liis words; thougli, upon 
wliat reason they are grounded I am at a loss to imagine. On the 
contrary, it is evident that (t lias had the softer, and j) the harder 
sound: 1) because tf being undoubtedly derived from d; it is 
reasonable to suppose it to represent the sound approaching near- 
est to that letter. On the other hånd, it is manifest that ^, 
as well as the Icelajidic ]) are taken from the Runic J) , and 
therefore most probably had the same sound. 2) because 9" occurs 
so often at the end of a syllable, and between two vowels, where, 
in English, vve still find the softer sound, and in Icelandic, 
according to the ancient orthography, in like mariner , 3", as : 
s 6 tJ true , old Icel. saiJr; otJre other s , Icel, a ^ r i r ; and in 
Germ. and Dan. a mere rf; for instance br6^or, G. Bruder , 
D. Broder s æ^m vapour, breath. G, Odem, perhaps Icel. eimr, 
where the (f has entirely disappeared : whereas p is mostly found 
at the beginning of words, where the Icelandic always has the 
hard sound, as: ]^e6d a natton , Icel. J)j6tJ; pencean to 
thlnk, Icel. penkja; gejjoht thought; ^æt tJiat ; pus thus. 

27. It is here worthy of remark that at the be- 
ginning of pi'onouns and adverbs , where the English 
have the soft sound of th, the Anglo-Saxons as well as 
the Icelanders, have generally p, as: J)u thou; pær 
there ; except after a vowel, and when the word is, as it 
were, €ontracted with the preceding one, in which case, 
the Icelanders pronounce fj very soft, almost like tS, as : 
eg sé-J)a6 ekki, I see nothi/ig of it; heyr-fii hear 

Pronunciation« 15 

thou; wliere it ought strictly to be written eg sé-8a5 
ekki, and heyr-^ii. 

28. Tliat p had the hard sound in these instances is evident 
from the constant contraction o£ |)æt into p-, t and p being 
often used indiscriminately , when written at fuU. But the 
rules laid down by Grammarians, for the use of these letters, 
being contrary to the genius o£ the language, they have very 
often been confounded with ene another ; so that even the quo- 
tations of particular passages in Lye are frequently found to 
vary in their orthography from that of the passages themselves, 
when we take the trouble of comparing them together. Some 
indeed have considered one of these letters as superfluous, and 
Lye, who however bows to the opinion of Spelman and Somner, 
that & was the hard, and p the soft th, nevertheless considers 
them as the same letter which, in his alphabet, he piaces after 
T, but in his Dictionary, inserts in the place of TA, as if they 
were only an abbreviated form of TA, though this is a later 
latinized orthography, instead of the ancient A. S. elements, 
which are founded in their sound. 

In like manner , in Old-Saxon , th (|)) is always found at 
the beginning of words, where the Icelandic has p; but the 
Cottonian M. S. has commonly a, and the God. Bamberg. a simple 
d in the middle and end o£ words, representing, no doubt, the Icel. 
&. This was most probably the case in A. S. , but as the hard 
sound was always found at the beginning of words, it was easy, 
from the position of these letters, to ascertain the intention of 
the transcribers, some of whom used the & only (see the plate) 
others the j3, as in Sæmund's Edda ; others again p, where, ac- 
cording to the manner of spelling in the southem languages, a 
new syllable begins , as in Snorre's Edda , e. g. g o J) i n , which, 
in Icelandic, is spelt, goJ>-in: in A. S. also, Matt. 5, 2. mufJ, 
tnouth; but, 4, 4. mu|)e in Dat. But these peculiarities of 
orthography in Icel. and A, S. had probably no influence on 
the pronunciation, while the languages were living. 

29. It raay be observed also that, instead of S6 we 
often meet with f^, as s i ]^ S a n, for s i § 5 a n since ; or jjp 
as oJ){)e, op6e for oSSe or, &c, When 5 occurs in 
two successive syllables, the first is usually changcd into 
f>, as cwej)a6 they say, and cyJaS they let know. 


Tlie permutations of Letters. 

30. Permutations both of vowels and consonants 
are necessary in derivation and inflection; the most im- 
portant, wliich the vowels undergo, are the following : 

a into æ short, as: hahban to have^ ic hæbbe / 
have) hræd rapid, hraSe rapidly, dæg day^ 
d a g a s days, 

a and ea short are sometimes, though rarely, changed 
into e, as: mann into menn or men; stan- 
dan to stand, he stent he stands; Angle the 
Land of the Angles^ Engle the Angles, Eng- 
lise AnglO'Saxon; heah high, hehst highest; 
neah ?iear , nehst nearest, ea into y is more 
comraon, as eald old, se yldra theelder; weal- 
dan to govern, direct , he welt or wylt ke 
governs, &c. ; healdan to hold, h e h e 1 1 he holds. 

d into 29, as: stån c stone, stenen formed of sfone; 
hal whole, gehælan to heal; lar lore, doctrine^ 
læran to teach; an one, ænig any. 

ed long into y, as: leas loose , lys an to loosen; ge- 
le å fa faith (Germ. Glaube) ; g e 1 y f a n to helieve. 

e into i or y, as: ren rain, rinan to rain; lecgan 
to lay, licgan to He; c\ve{)an to say, fii 
cwyst (cwist) tkousayest; pen a male ser vant, 
{) i n e n a female servant, 

6 into e, as: dom judgment, doom, de man to judge 
$£C. ; f r 6 f e r comfort, f r é f r i an to comfort ; f 6 1 
foot, fétfeet; b 6 c c hook, plur. béc. 

o, eo into y, as: storm, s tyr man to storm; gold, 
gylden golden; word, a n d w y r d a n to a?iswer, 
(G. antworten); weorc worh, wyrcan to ivork; 
heord a herd, hyrde herdsman; leoht light, 
lyht [ii) shines. 

The Permutations of Letters. 17 

ed into y, as: ne^d need^ nydan to force j campet; 

b e 6 d a n to bid, byt (he) bids. 
u into y, as: sundor asunder, asyndrian to sepa-* 

rate; cu5 knoivn^ cy^an to malce hnown. 
u into y, as : s c r li d « garment , scrydan induere; 

fus promtuSy fysan to drive ^ impeL 
«^2 into y, as: witan to Icnow, nyt an not to hnow; 
willan to wtll, ny lian not to wilL 
31. Among the changes of the consonants, we must 
particularly notice that g is usnally omitted before d 
and S, as: mæden for m æg den a maiden; sæde for 
sægde said', mæS for mæ^^ power; liS forlige [he) 
lieth. Before w, g is either omitted, or gn becomes geUy 
or is transposed to ngy as: wæn c magoUy wain (Dan. 
Vogn); ren (also ren g) rain (Dan. i?e^7«) ; fen amale 
servant (Icel. J)egn), also J)egen or pen g. 
s is sometimes changed into r, as, hreosan to f all 
headlong^ hryre afall; arÅÉ 4irose, ar ær an to 
ratse, rear; forleosan to lose, forloren lost, 
forlorn; ic ceas I chose, {)u cnre. 
bb into/, as: ic hæbbe, be hæf$ he hath; ic lybbe 

/ live, lif life. 
A radical g is often changed into h, when it stands last 
in a word, after a vowel or r, as: sti'gan to 
ascend, ståh {he) ascended; g eb li g an to how, 
g eb e åh he bowed; burh c town, hurgh, in the 
Genit. burge, beorhc mountain, but in plur. 
beo rgas. 
c and CC, before s and S, but particularly before t, are 
often changed into h, as: ahsian for ae si an, 
or axian to ask (to ase still prevails among the 
lower classes); se'h^ for séc6 (he) seeks, from 
sécan, sohte (he) sought; streccan to 
stretch, strehte (he) stretched. Sometimes even 


18 The Transition 6f Letters. 

g is changed in the same way, as: åg an, imp. 
åh te {he) owned. 
S is, particularly in vei'hs, soraetimes changed into d, 
as : s e o 15 a n to hoil, seethe ; soden boiled, sod- 
deft ; i c c w æ t5 / said, f u c >^ æ d e tkou saidst ; 
ic weåriS/ became, f ti wurde tkou becamesf, 
wast ^c. 

The Transition of Letters 

32. from fhe A. S. to other tongues is also very 
important, not only in an etymological , or philogical, 
point of Tiew, but as a means of distinguishing words 
already known to ns from other languages (Icelandic^ 
English, German &c.) , in their Anglo-Saxon garb , and 
of fixing their accentuation, true pronunciation and or- 
thogråphy. Thus ; of the vowels, 

<fe oftén corresporids to c, as f æder, Icel. faSir, Ger. 
Vater; æcer a ploughed field, Icel. ak ur, Dan. 
Ager; fæst fast; {)ær there, Icél. far; hwæt 
what , I. hvat, Dan. hvad; wæl the slam m 
battle^ I. T a 1 r , G. Wahlplatz, D. Valplads, a Jield 
of battle. — Sometinies to c, as: gæst c guest, 
I. gestr; fæs o/^Æe, I. fess. (In most of these 
instahces a simple a is found in German, and the 
kindred dialects.) 
é corresponds to the Icelandic c, æ, et, as: hær 
hair , I. hår; dæd« deed , I. dåt5; J)ræd 
thread, I. |)råSr; lætan to let, I. låta; læran 
to teach, I. læra; lædan to lead, I. lei^a. 
ea to the hard sharp a, as: bearn a child (Scotch 
bairn), I. & D. Barn; ear m j!;oor, I. armr, 
G. arm\ eald old, G. alt; eall all, I. allr; 
fleax, /«jr, G. Flachs, Sometimes also to open 

The Transition of Letters« 19 

>or sharp o and e, as: fearf «eec?, I. {)orf, D. 
Tarv; {)u eart thou art, I. ert; mearh mar- 
row, I. mergr. 

d to er, Dan. long e, n^icå s tre cæsar, G. Katser; éo 
oak, I. eik, D. j&^; tacen a token, I. teikn, 
D. Te^;2; gast ghost , G. Geist; hal whole, I. 
heill, D. iie/; bråd hroad, I. breidr, D. &re^; 
båt (Æe) i/if, I. beit, Dan. i^erf; ham home, 1. 
heim. In these cases, the aecent raay always be 
placed with safety. 

ed to thelcel. au, G. long o, as: leas loose, -less, I. I au s, 
G. los; read red, I. rau^r, G. roth; streåra 
stream, I. straurar, G. Stram; beåh ring, I, 
baugr (perhaps French hague); leån reivard, 
hire, I. laun, G. Lohn; de åd dead, I. dau^r, 
- ' iG. tod; eåre ear^ L eyra, G. Okr. 

y to Icel. ey, Gerra. close and long o, Dan. ø, as: aly- 
san to redeem, I. leysa, G. erloseuj D. for- 
løse; ly fan to allow^ I. leyfa; gyman to 
keep, perserve, 1. geyma; hyran to hear , I. 
heyra, D. høre. In these also, \ve may be sure 
with regard to the accent. 

«t> to short and sharp e, which in Icelandic is sometiraes 
changed into é, jo or ja, as: tveore worJc^ L 
V e r k ; s w e o r d sword^ I. sver6; preost priest, 
I. prestr; eora (/) am, I. em; eor^e earth, 
G. Erde, I.jorS; heord^er^, I. hjorS; beorh 
a montain, I. berg or bjarg; feer far, I. 
fjarr, G. fem; feoll (Jie) felt, I. fell; heold 
ijie) hdd, I. helt. 

ij to short i, as: afyrran to reniove to a distance, L 
firra; hyrde å herdsfnan, I. hirtiir, G. Hirt; 
Jrydda tkird, h {>ri6i. Sometimes to e, as: 

20 The Transition of Letters. 

ylår^ jeldery 1. eldri; yrnan to run , flow , I. 
r e n n a ; s y 1 1 a n ^o g^^^y I. s e I j a ; c y r r a n or 
cyran to turn, G. kehren. 

ed, answers often to the Icelandic jo, jii and y, also to 
the Engl. ee and the Germ. ie ; likewise eoh, 
eow , to the Icel. é (pron. ye) ^ as: cedsan to 
choose, I. kjdsa; dedp deep, I. djiip, G. tief; 
s e d c sick , I. s j li k r , G. siech ; d e d r dear, L 
dyr; {)eowc slave, I. j^yr; wedda weed; 
hredd a reed. Thus also, fe oh cattle, money^ 
I. fe, G. Vieh; treow a tree, I. tre; en eow 
hiee, I. kne, G. Km'e; ged, Lat. oh'm, quon- 
dam. In most of these instances, analogy with 
the other tongues shews that the «o should he 

é to Icel. æ (in the old orthography æ), Dan. long tf, 
soinetinies o, as: fédan tofeed, I. fae^a, D. 
føde; dépan to baptize, dip, D. døbe; ben a 
prayer, I. bæn, D. Boji; dem an to deem, doonty 
I. dæma, D. domme; wépan to weep^ I. æpa; 
wédan to rave, I. æ$a or æ^ast. This é 
comes from the long o, which the A. S. and Icel. 
have in common, as: de man from dom, I. 
ddmr; wépan from wdp, I. op a cry; wé- 
dan from wdd, I. d^r, mad, raving. In these 
cases we may also he sure that hoth the primi- 
tive 6 and the derivative é ought to hear the ac- 
cent. The German has here u and it, as : TFtith, 
33. With respect to the transition of consonants, 

it is chiefly to he ohserved; that 

a donhle consonant often corresponds to a simple one 
folio wed hy ^' in Icelandic, as: willan to ivill, 
I. vilja; sellan to give, sell, I. seljaj settan 

The Traiisidoii of Letters. 21 

to set, I. setja; secgan to say , I. segja; 
fremman to accomplish, do, I. frem ja. 
TC and rd soraetiraes correspond to tlie Icel. kh and dd, 
as: de or c darJc , I. dokkr; ord a jioint , I. 
oddr; brord a sting, I. broddr; bryrdan 
to goad, sting, I. brydda; reord voice, I. r 6 d d. 

nc to kk in Icelandic, as: rincas ivarriors, I. rekkar; 
drincan^o drink, I. drekka; unc iis two , I. 

Two consonants together, at the end of a syllable , in 
Icel. are often separated in A. S. by the insertion 
of a vowel between them, particuiarly of e or o, 
so that the word becomes a dissyllable, as: fyl- 
led, Icel. feldr /e//e^, slain; forbærned 
I. brendr burnt; hræfen, I. hrafn a råven; 
wæter, I. vatn ivater; brægen hrain , fu- 
gol or fugel, I. fngl « hird, fowl; tung ol or 
tungel a star^ I. t li n gi. 

r and s are very frequently transposed in A. S., as: 
gærs grass, I. grås; forst frost; fyrst 
space {of time) I. frestr, Dan. & Germ. Frist; 
flaxe a hottle, flask, I. flaska; axian or ah- 
sian to ask, I. æskja, D. æske; fix as fiskes, 
I. fiskar; bridd bird; er æt cart. 

c, before soft vowels has, in English, passed into ch, as 
c 1 d a n to cliide ; c i c e n (more correctly o y c e ii , 
being derived from c o c') chicken, cc has becoine 
tch; as, feccan to fetch, 

Jit corresponds to the Gerra. cht, Engl. ght, Icel. & S\v. 
tt, which, in most cases, is preserved in Danish, 
(though at the end of words written witli a sin- 
gle t); as: leoht light, G. Licht ; beorht 
hright, I. bjartr; riht right, G, Hecht, I. rettr, 
Sw. råt, D. Ilet; meahte might, G. mochte, I. 

22 The Transition of Letters. 

matti, Sw. & D. mdtte; drihten Lord, I. 
drottin; niht nightj G. Nacht , Sw. natt , D. 

§y before the Boft Towels has in EngHsh passed into y\ 
or ly if in the middle of a \vord, after a vowei; 
as: gedc 3/o/re; geår^ear; fægen/«/«; fæ- 
gér fair; though these were formerly written 
with y: fayne, fayre. 

se, before the soft rowels, or sce hefore the hard, is In 
modern English, become sh, as: sce all shall^ 
sce o Ide should, scedtan to shoot ^ sceån 
shone, scyld shield, s c ir sheer, &c. 

w is preserved in A. S. as well as in the other Tento- 
nic diaiects, hefore o, u, y, where it is rejected 
in Icelandic &;c., as: word word, G. JFort , I. 
or<5, D. Ord; wundor wo7ider, G. Wunder, I. 
undnr, D. Under; wyrra worm, G. Wurm , I. 
o r m r , D. Orm ; wyrceanfo luorh, G. ivirken, 
I. y r k j a. The Anglo-Saxons also frequently place 
IV beforer, as: writan to w rite, I. rita; wrå6 
wrath, I. reibr. 

S corresponds to nn in comraon Icelandic, and to nd in 
Germ. & Dan. This 6 is also soraetimes to be 
found in the most ancieut Icelandic, as: mu6 
mouth, I. mu$r, raunnr, G. & D. Mund; si5 
a time, (Fr. fois) I. sinn, D. Sinde; t6$ tooth, 
I. tonn, D. Tand; s6$ true, soothy I. saSr, 
s a n n r , D. sand ; g e o gn S youth, G. Jugend ; 
dngut5 Virtue, G. Tugend, 
34. To monosyllahles ending in a vowel the Anglo- 

Saxons sometimes add an h, corresponding to the Icel. 

and Sw. g^, as: feoh money, &c. I. fe; si oh (Jie) beat, 

I. slo or slog, Sw. and Dan. slog; se ah {he) saw, 

lé sa or sag, Sw. sag. 

Tlie Traiisitiou of Letters. ?3 

35. All tlie signs of Geiider prescrred in Icelandic 
and Gerraan, as well of the neuter {t, es) ^ as of the 
mase. (r, and er) , are entirely lost in A. S. both iii 
substantives and adjectives, as: cyuing kzng, Icel. kon- 
11 n g r ; s m i 6 smtth, I. smiSr; god goody I. g o 1 1 , 
gdSr, go^; Gerra. gutes, guter, gute, Many instances 
of tilis occur in the foregoing. Merely sorae adjectives 
have a distinct termina tio n (z^) for the fem. as smalu, 
Ger. schmale. 

36. The Anglo-Saxons moreover reject r at the end 
of words , when it does not belong to the root , as : 
bryd ahride, I. bruSr; féifeet, I. fætr; bet better 
(adv.) , I. betr; leng longer (adv. of time)^ I. lengr^ 
må more^ I. meir; hyrde aherdsman^ I. hirt$ir: but 
æcer for I. akur a Jield, and winter for I. vetur, 
lointer, because, in these cases, the r final is radical, as 
appears from the genitive æceres, I. akurs, where 
it is preserved; which is not the case with the termi- 
iiation ir in the Old-Icelandic, wliere hirSir a shepherd, 
forms hir^is, læknirc; physician, leech^ læk nis. 



Of Substantives. 

57. X his clasa of \yords y as in Sanskrit , Slavo- 
nian, Latin, Grcek, Icelandic, &c. has three genders ; 
viz. the neuter, the masculine, and the feminine. Tlie 
first two, as in the abovenientioned tongues, hear a 
close resemhlance to each other. The feminine in 
its inflections differs widely from the other two genders. 
The neuter being the simplest of all, is justly placed first. 

58. It is not possible to give precise rules for the 
distribution of the words among the three genders ; but 
the hest means of ascertaining the gender of each word 
is comparison with the Icelandic and German, It raay 
however be well to observe that when the genders, in 
these two languages, differ, the A, S. generally follows 
the German, as: (for the deel. of the art. sce pron.) 

Se nania the name, Germ. der Name^ Icel. na£n-it. 

Se rap the rope, der Reif, reip-it. 

Se cecip property,purchase, der Kauf, kaup-it. 

Se strand the strand^ der Strand^ strond-in (fem.) 

Seå sæ the sea, die Se e, (sær) sj6r-inn 

Seå lyit the air,, die Luft, lopt-it. 

Seo strået the streetj way, die Strasse, stræti-t, 

Seo spreéc the language, die Sprache, (Sw. språk-et), 

Examples however may be found of the contrary; as: 

seo bdc is, like the Icel. b6k-in, of the fem. gend. 

while the Gerraans say das Buch; also se cræft, Icel. 

kraptr, Germ. die Kraft; but these instances are rare. 
The mase. in A. S. is frequently found to corres- 

pond with a neiit. in the Scandinavian tongues , as : s e 

beorli, Icel. bjarg-it themountain; se hwéte, Icel. 

hveiti-t the wheat &c. 

Of Substantives. ^ 

S9. The determination of the genders from the 
language itself presents greater difficulties here tlian in 
Icel. ; alraost all the terrainations being lost or confound- 
ed in A. S., upon which so much dependance may he 
placed in Icelandic. 

40. It is however to he observed that all words in 
a are of tlie mase, answering to the Icel. in i, which, 
in the other cases of the sing. , receive an a , as : se 
maga, Icel. magi (maga), the stomachy mmv; se 
oxa, Icel. Tixi the oj:; se boga, Icel. bo gi the how^ 
arcus; se raona, Icel. poet. mani the moon, 

4:1. In the application of tliis rule, we must be careful 
not to suffer ourselves to be misled by Lye, who had no idea 
of the genders of words , and has consequently given to them 
at random, as the final vowel of the nom., that which he found 
them to have in other cases, According to him, feminines of- 
ten form their nom. in a (instead of e) because, in the other 
cases, they end in an like masculines; and, vice versa, mascu- 
lines in e (instead of a) , because they have ena in the gen. pi. 
like feminines, He even sometimes commits the like fault in 
those examples where he, at the same time, introduces an adjec- 
tive, which he has found in one of the oblique cases, and not 
known how to put in the nominative ; so that from him, scarce- 
ly any knowledge of the grammatical properties of a word eau 
be obtained, but its signification only, 

42. With respect to the other terminations there 
is less certainty: u is found both of the mase. and fem., 
as: se «unu the son; se 6 lufu the love, Of the rest, 
there is scarcely one that is not to be found of all the 
three genders. If however the deel. of the word be 
known, it is tolerably easy to ascertain the gender: al- 
most all words, for instance, that remain unchanged in the 
plural, are neuter; all those which form their plural in 
as are masculine ; as are also those which have a in the 
gen. sing. but those terminating their gen. sing. in e are 
fem., as will be seen in the paradigms of the declen- 

20 Of Substantives. 

$ions. The article, and the adjectives, serve likewise of- 
ten as a guide, especially wlieii the latter are used iii- 
definitely ; for their defiiiite inflection is alraost the same 
for all gen der s. 

43. These difficulties in ascertaining the genders of 
nouns apply chiefly to the primitives. The gend.ers of 
derivatives may he ascertained >vith tolerable certainty 
by their terminations , and of compound words by that 
pf the last part. The formation of these will be given 
hereafter (Part 3.). 

44. Nouns substantive being inflected in various 
manners, there are consequently several declensions. One 
chief ground for these variations is the gender; words 
of the same termination, but difFerent genders, being 
declined in a very difFerent manner; as, f æt rice the 
Kingdom, State ; forms, in the pi. r i c u ; but se ende 
the end, forms endas; and se winter, wintras, but 
se6 ceaster the fortress, bur gh, ha.s ceastra. There 
is however another still greater distinction to be ob- 
served, viz. that some nouns have a very simple inflec- 
tion, others a more complex one; e. g. eare an ear, 
has only four terminations for the eight cases of both 
numbers; while treow a tree, has six endings to dis- 
tinguish the same cases. Thus these two words differ, 
in their inflections, from each other (although they are 
both neuter) much more than J)æt eåre and se steor- 
ra the star; tliough the latter is of the mase. gender; 
for eare and treow resemble each other in one case 
only, but in eåre and steorra there is a perfect si- 
railitude in six different cases, because they both belong 
ifi the simple order; but of the others; the one (eåre) 
belongs to the simple order, the other (treow) to the 

Of Substantives. 27 

45. The compound double inflectiou which the Icelandic 
nouns receive, -vyhen the article is affixed, is unknown in A. S., 
in which, as in the other Teutonic tongues, as also in the 
Greek, the article is constantly separate from, and' set hefore, 
the nouns. In other respects, the inflections are nearly the 
same in A. S. and Icelandic, though more distinctly marked in 
the latter. 

46. The numbers are as usual two, each having 
five cases, some of which however are alike, and, as in 
German, ranst he distinguished hy the context. 

47. The simple order, answering to the nomina 
pura, or the two first declensions in Gr. & Lat. contains 
only words ending in an essential vowel, viz. e in the 
neuter, a in the mase. , and e in the fem. The com- 
plex order, on the contrary, comprehends all words end- 
ing in a consonant, and some also in an unessential e 
(for i) or u, This e or w is often cast aside in some 
of the Gothic dialects, as : p æ t r i c e , Germ. das Reich ; 
se hyrde, Germ. der Hirt ; se fiscere, Germ. der 
Fischer ; se sunu, Germ. der Sohn; and in others, has 
a consonant following, as: Icel. hir6-irj Mæsog. su- 
nu s &c. 

48. In the simple order, all three genders resemble 
each other so closely, that we may, with Hickes, com- 
prehend them under one declension. 

The complex order should, strictly speaking, be di- 
vided into three declensions : the Ist containing all words 
ending in a consonant; the 2nd, those in e unessential^) 
(inetead of i) : the Sd , those in u ; but nouns in e 
(for i) possessing so few peculiarities, may, without in- 

*) The e unessential may perhaps be styled e improper, be- 
cause it is instead of i ,* and the reason \vhy nouns ending 
in e (for i) and u should belong to the impure order, is 
that they are in faet crypto-impuraj partly on account 

!^ Of Substantires. 

convenience , be distributed between those ending in a 
consoiiaiit, and those in u, The declensions of this or- 
der are thus reduced to two, each containing three 
classes for the three genders. 

The number of declensions is , upon tKe whole , not so 
important as the distribution of the words into the proper orders 
and classes, to which they naturally belong. 

49. The following tables wiii serve as a synopsis of 
all the regular declensions. 

The simple order, or Ist Deel. *" 

1. mut. 





Sing. Nom. -e 



Acc. -e 



Abl. (S^Dat. -an 



Gen, -an 



PI. N, and A. 


Abl. and D. 




The complex order. 
2d Declens. 3d Declens. 

1. IScvi. 



3. Fem. 


Neut. 2. 

Mase. 3. Fem. 

Sing. Nom. 





-u -u 






-11 -e 

Abl. ^' Dat. 





-a -e 






-a -e 

PL N.5fA. 





-a -a 






-um -um 





-a (ena) 

-a(ena) -ena 

of the just mentioned (47) consonant following in other more 
ancient and original dialects , partly also from the i con- 
taining in itself a j (or y consonant,) and the u containing 
a V (Engl. w) 5 just as in Latin, audio forms its future iu 
am, like lego, audiam for audijam, and not audibo, like 

Of Substantives. 20 

50. Tilis distribution of the nouns, into iiine classes or 
forms, corresponds admirably to the division of the verbs into 
nine classes ; viz. 8 of the first order (verba pura) and 6 of the 
complex (verba impura). Even of the adjective , besides the 
definite forms corresponding to the simple order of nouns, there 
are two other declensions , the one forming the feminine in 
u corresponding to the 3d del. of nouns in u. 

51. It has been thought proper to place the ablative 
before the dative, as in the grammars of the Indian languages, 
because its usual termination (in the neut. and mase. sing. of the 
adjectives) e is, strictly speaking, instead of u, which it con- 
stantly has in Old-Saxon, and >vhich may be considered as the 
origin of the dative -um. 

52. It is easy to perceive, nothwithstanding a conside- 
rable difference in the terminations, that these declensions cor- 
respond pretty closely with the Icelandic. That the 6th and 8th 
classes in Icelandic, together with some neuters, are here treat- 
ed separately, as a 3d declension , with 3 classes for the 3 gen- 
ders, is a natural consequence of the different characters of the 
two languages ; the u in A. S. appearing much more conspicu- 
ously than in Icelandic. 

Although, upon the whole, the nouns in both tongues cor- 
respond very closely, we must not imagine that all words, which 
are common to both , belong also to the same declension , for 
that is far from being the case, as the A. S., in such instances, 
generally adheres to the German, and deviates from the Icelan- 
dic; e. g. Case re Cæsar, should, according to the Icelandic 
(Keisari) belong to the mase. class of the Ist deel., but really 
belongs to the mase. class of the 2nd deel. 

53. In the Mæsogothic, we also recognize precisely the 
A* S. and Icelandic declensions, even to the anomalous sub- 
classes. The simple order here answering exactly to the three 
declensions, which, in the Grammar subjoined to Zahn's Edit. 
of Ulphilas, p. 23, are cailed the adjectival; a denomination, by 

amaho, maneho. In like manner statuo has statuam for sta- 
tuvam, not statubo. Thus too , in the nouns , fructus be- 
longs to the same system as the SdDecl. gen. fructus^ dat. 
plur. fructihus &;c. , not to the Ist and 2d ; and mare, pal- 
lis ^c. are rightly referred to the third. 

W Of Substantires. 

tlie way, not altogether well applied, as adjectives have a de- 
clension corresponding to the complex, as well as one corres- 
ponding to the simple order of nouns. The complex order in 
A. S. corresponds to all the others, both schemattc, and archaie, 
as they are styled by Zahn, 

54. The A. S. declensions of nouns are, as may be 
seen by this comparison, the simplest among all the three 
ancient Gothic tongues. 

55. The neuters, as in Sanskrit, Slavonian, Greek 
and Latin, have the nom. and accus. alike in both num- 
bers; and all nouns substantive in A. S., without regard 
to species or gender, have the same two cases alike 
in the plural. 

56. In the simple order, all three genders are alike 
in the dative and genitive singular, as also in all cases 
of the plural. 

57. In the complex order, 2d deel., the neuters and 
the masculines agree in the singular, ia which likewise 
the nom. and accus. are alike. 

58. The dat. plural ends always in um, It is to 
be observed however that this is sometimes changed to on, 
"which (No. 6) is often >vritten «w, but then must never 
be confounded with the proper termination an, which is 
found only in the simple order, though never in the dat, 
plural. The genitive plural ends always in a, as in Ice- 
landic: a is sometimes however preceded by en, some- 
times by r ; which also very closely agrees with the Ice- 

The Simple Order, or ist Declension. 

59. The three genders, of this deel. agree so closely 
with one another that they may all be represented at 
once. As exaraples, let us take eåge an eye, steorra 
a atar, tunge a tongue. 

Of Substantives. 


Nom. e å g e 

Acc. eåge 

Abl.2)(5fDat. eågan 
Gen, eågan 

Nom. ÆfAcc. eågan 
Abl. <5f Dat. e å g u m 
Gen. e å g e n a 


s teorran 
s teorran 



In like itiannet are decliiied: 

eåre ear^ cuma guesty 
and perhaps n a m a name^ 
cliwe clewy lichoma body^ 
eblDe e66, hlisa rumour, 
t i ni a time, 
w u d u w a widower^) 

tungan *) 


heorte heart^ 
s u n n e sun, 
eortJe eartky 
wise manner, way, 
wuce week, 
wuduwe widow^). 

*) We may here see the true origin of the terminations n 
or en, added, in certain phrases, to some of the German fe- 
minines in e; e. g» auf Erden 5fc.; wliicli, from want o£ 
knowledge of the old German, has been thought a kind of 
article ; whereas it is the simple ancient dative termination ; 
eor^an, corresponding with Herzen, Herzens. 

*) By the ablative is meant the Ablativus Instrumenti of the 
Latin, which, in A. S. nouns substantive, constantly resem- 
bles the dative, and is usually governed by the prep. mid, 
expressed or understood. 

For the observation of this case in A, S. , I am indebt- 
ed to Dr. Grimm's Deutsche Grammatik. 

3) See a curious mistake, from confounding these two words, 
in Legg. A. S. edit. Wilkins, p, 150 : ^^gif hire J)onne foriT- 
si^ getimige, J)onne is rihtast Jjæt he |)anon foriS wudu- 
wa J)urhwunige." Which is thus translated: 

Si eorum alicujus obitus accidat, justissimum est ut illa 
in posteruni vidua remaneat. Instead of si ei {uxori) deinde 
obitus accidat , justissimum cst ut Ule viduus re- 

32 Of Substantires. 

60. There seem to be very few neuters belongiiig 
to this order, but it is probable that more would be 
fouiid, if a better lexicon were compiled. It is remark- 
able that heorte is here of the fem. geiider; but it 
decidedly so occurs , Matt. 15, 18. 19. and 22, 37. In 
all the other Gothic tongues it is neuter; as Moesog. 
hairto; Gerra. Herz; Dutch Jiarty Icel. hjarta, Dan. 
Hjærte, Only the Lithuanian szirdis, and the Greek 
K^^Six are of the fem. Gen. like the A. S. heorte. 

61. Of masculines and feminines, we find, on the 
other hånd, a great number in a and e, which seem all 
to belong to this order; yet Lye gives also to raany of 
the feminines of the 3d deel. the termination e, though 
these, as far as I hare observed, end constantly in u, o, 
or in a consonant in the nominative; and it is in the 
oblique cases only that they occur with the termination 
e; tå toe, (tan, tåura, tåena), although a monosyl- 
lable, forms no exception to tunge, being a contraction 
of tae and having the accent. 

62. To this class belong also the names of men 
and women in c; as Attila, Maria, Anna &;c. ^) 

63. Likewise all adjectives in the positive and su- 
perlative degrees, when used with the definite article, 
and, in the comparative degree always, for tben, as ad- 
jectives, they have only this one form, which is used 
whether they have the definite article or not, as: {)æt 
leofe the dear, se leofa, seo leofe; and fæt leo- 
feste the dearest^ se ledfesta, seo led feste; also 

^) A singular misinterpretation^of the word an n an (tlie gen. of 
the proper name Anna) occurs at p. 151 of the same edit. of 
L. L. A, S, viz. jjRiht is Jjæt wuduwan ann an bysene georne 
filigan." Justum est ut Vidua unum exemplum diligenter 
scqualur, for Justum cst ut viduæ exmrplum Annce diligenter 
scquantur ^"c. 

Of Substaiitives. 33 

leofre (the) deurer^ ledfra, Icdfre; (leofor and 
the like, being mere adverbs). 

04. Fiiially all adjcctiral pronouiis and numerals, 
with the defiiiite årticle, as: faet ylce tlie same, se 
ylca, s ed ylce; fæt {»ridde the tht'rd, se J)ridda, 
sed Jiridde. 

65. The names of coiintries and piaces in a are 
soraetlmes indeclinable, and sometimes declinable, after 
the Latin form, as : Donna in acc. o^Doniia J)å eå 
unto the river Danuhe; Sicilia in dat. betwux {)åm 
muntnm and Sicilia ][)åm eålonde, hetween the 
mountains and the Island of Sicily. Eurdpa has Eu- 
rdpam, Eurdpe, Ewrdpe (i. e. Europæ) in Oro- 

66. The Genitive plural is sometimes contracted, 
so that e before -na is left out; as: Seaxan Salons , 
gen. S e ax n a, (whence the Icelandic adjectives s ax n e s kr 
Saxon, and engilsaxneskr Anglo-Saxoit), 

The Complex Order 
distinguishes its declensions and genders more clearly. 

67. The 2nd Deel. Ist C 1 a s s contains most of the 
neuters which end in a consonant, especially those hav- 
ing a diphthong or an accented vowel, as : ban a bone, or 
ending in two, or more consonants, as: sweord asword. 

Leaf « leaf and word (Z tvord, may serve as para- 
digras of this classt 

Sing. N. (Sf A. leåf word 

Abl. &; D. leåfe worde 

G. leåfes wordes 

Flur. N. &i A. leåf word 

Abl. fif D. leåfum wordum 

G. leafa %vorda 


H Of Sul>staiitives. 

In likc maniier are deciiiied; 


ear of corn. 








womariy wife. 






cxamplCy parable. 


vow, promise. 











68. Several words of this class are found onJy in 
the sing. , as: gærs grass ; heg hay ; blod blood; 
weax wajc (fcc. , but few or none are irregiilar. C ild 
child, according to Lye, forms cildru, but the usiial 
plural is like the singiilar, cild; yet in Legg. Ælfredi 
fa steop-cilde occurs twice; tliough the e final is 
probably miite in this instance. The word gehåt oc- 
curs rarely, except in the plural. 

69. The 2nd Deel. 2nd Class comprizes nearly 
all masculines not ending in a nor u. Those ending iii 
a consonant, or in e, are the most regular, as: smi6 a 
smith; ende end; and dæg day. 

Sing, N. 5; A. sniiS ende dæg 

Abl. &; D. sniiiJe ende dæge 

G. smiiies endes dæges 

Plur. N. tV A. smitJas endas dagas 

Abl. S; D. smiSum endnm dagum 

G. smitfa enda daga 

In like manner are declined: 
dæl part, mete meat, stæ£ letter, character, 

wæstin fruit, læce phycisian,leech, hwæl whale, 

cyning king, -weoriJscipe worthiness, mæg man, 

Stan stone, hweéte wheat, pæti path, 

scyppend creator, rædere readcr, 
weg wai}, godspellere evangelist, 

70. In this, as in the preceding class, no change of 
vowel takes place, except in inonosyllables whose vowel 

Of Substaiitives. 33 

is æ, and ^vhere this æ aiiswers to a loiig and aoft in 
the kiiidred toiigiies, as: stæf ataff, Icel. stafr, Germ. 
Stah; but not in dæl, Germ. Theil; which lias dælas 
in the plural, as also peaw custom, J)eawas &c. , nor 
in contractcd words , in ^vhicli æ is not contained in 
the last syllahle, as: æcer Jieldy æceras, æcras, not 
acras; hæfer a he-goat, and the like. 

71. Dissyllahles in /, n, r, are sonietinies contracted 
and sorøetinies not: engel anangel, has englas, ^^^^^ 
lum, engla; fugel ahird, fuglas; ealdor cm elder, 
prince, ealdre, ealdres, and in the plural ealdras 
&c. ; drihten lord, drihtne &c. ; but heofow lieavert 
has heofone or heofne; sometimes, when increased, 
it changes o into e, as: pi. heofenas &c. 

72. Those in e vary from the others in the nom. 
and acc. only, they are else considered as if they had 
no e; as c ås er e Cæsar y pi. cåseras. 

73. Proper names in * sometimes receive no addi- 
tional es in the Geii., as: Mattheus gerecednys 
Matthetv's narrative ; Uri as wi'f Uriah's tvife,^nå^o\nQ,' 
times receive it, as: Philippus es, Re mus es. 

74. Some words belonging to this class are found 
also with the termination «, and then they foiiow the 
Ist Deel. 2nd Class; but generally ,with some modification 
of their signification , as: rau§ mouth, mu^a ostium^ 
mouth of a river ; {) e o w slave, {) e o w a idem, II e o f o n 
occurs also as a fem. of the Ist Deel. heofone, heo- 
fonan, Gen. I, 1. 14. 17. 

75. Particular care must here be taken, not to let the 
termination an ^^for on, ura) in the Dat. pi. mislead us to sup- 
pose a wrong nominative in a or e, for instance ; in Ohthere's 
Periplus, {sce Orosius p, 22): butan fise er an and fu ge- 
leran and huntan, excepting fishers anci foivlers and hun- 
ters: butan governs the dative; and the nominatives of these 
words are fiscere, fugeler e, according to 2nd Deel. 2nd Class, 


m Of Substantives. 

and h 11 n t a o£ the Ist Deel. 2d Class, wliich is manifest from the 
nominatives plnr. in the following: butan ]^ær huntan ge- 
wicodon otitSe fisceras ofiiie fiigeleras, excepting 
wkcre hunters, or fiskers, or fowlers dwelt. 

76. Feld field has in the dat. felda, plur. f el- 
da s (fec. 

77. Some words are remarkable for traiisposing 
their consonants in the plural, as: fise Jishy fixas; 
disc tahhy d i x a s ; t u s c tusl\ double tooth, t u xn s. 

78. Tliose words which , in Icelandic , form their phiral 
in ir, are either introduced under the general mie, as : s c y 1 - 
das shields ; wegas ways ; monati, moniJas months ; earn- 
as eagles; hwæl, hwalas, or have entirely disappeared. 

71). Words in nd , corresponding to the Icelandic 
in andi, are declined regularly like srai§, as: weal- 
d e n d ruier, prince , forms in the plur. wealdendas. 
These must not be confounded with the participles pre- 
sent iii e7ide, which are declined like 

8(). The 2nd Declension, 3d Class comprizes 
all feminines ending in a consonant, as: wylcn a fe- 
male slave, and spræc speech. 

Sin g. N. wylen 


A, wylne 


Abl. <Sf D. wylne 


G. wylne 


Plur. N. <Sf A. wylna 


Abl. (5f D. wylnum 


G, wylna 


In like manner are declined: 

mearc mark. 

bén prayer. 

adl sickness. 

lår learning, 

stefen voice. 

dcéd deed. 

sæl5 happiness, 

stow place. 

gesamnung assemhly. 

J)e6d people. 

écnys eternity. 

låd way. 

81. Dissyllables in el ^ en, er, belonging to tliis 
class are aimost always contracted in the obliqiie cases. 

Of Substantiver. St 

as: sawel or sawul soiily sawle &c. ; ceaster a 
city, town, ceastre; frofer comfort^ frofre; lifer 
ItDer, lifre; ellen strength, valozir, elne; s t efeu 
voice^ stefne or even sterane. 

Feminines in el and en are often contracted, even 
in the nominative, as: stefn for stefen, wyln, 
sawl &c. 

82. Those ending in a single consonant, after a 
short vowel, double the last radical letter in the ohlique 
cases, as: syn sm, synne; sih peace, sibbe; so like- 
wise those in -nys {nis, nes); J) ry nis trinity ^ t^y^ 
uisse; untruninis weakness, untrumnissa. 

83. Ilickes admits wyln both in the nominative 
and accusative, but it is a peculiarity of feminine nouns 
subst. in A. S. to vary the nom. & accus. sing. but to 
form the ablative, dative, and genitive alike; at least all 
the examples of this word cited by Lye show only the re- 
gular forms, as: ado pas wylne heonon! Drive tJiis 
hond tooman hence ! &c. There are however a f ew words, 
whicli depart from the rule, as: hånd, aec. hånd, 
abl. & dat. handa, as: Marc. 1, 31. hyre handa ge- 
grip en re mafiu ejtis prehensa; plur. handa, han- 
dum, handa. 

Those ending in -ung receive frequently a instead 
of e, in the ablative and dative, as fortruwunga trust, 
Soet. 3. 

84. Some few words have the accusative like the 
nominative, as: miht mi(>ht; tid time; w or uld world. 
This last word sometimes receives es in the genitive, 
worldes, Luc. 1, 70. 

85. Sæ sea, æ law, and eå river, are indeclinable 
in the singular: we find however, especially in compo- 
isition, sés, eas in the genitive; and from ea we also 

38 Of Substantives. 

find, in tlie dathe, fæ re ie, pi. ea, dat. ean; sæ 
is somciirnes used as a masculine. 

80. In those nanies of men ^vllich are forraed from 
feminine substantives, tlie genitive seems to end in e, 
accordlng to tlie infiection of tlieir primitives, as: Sige- 
mund, gen. Sigemiinde: Beovv. 13, 77. 

87. Some are defective in the singniar, as: ]^ å 
gifta the wedding ; otliers want the piural, as: rest 
resty repose, 

88. The 3d Declension Ist C la s s contains all 
neuters in e (for /) , that is all neuters in e not belong- 
ing to the Ist Deel., also all neuter dissyllables in er 
(or)^ el, ol, and en, and raonosyllables with an unaccent- 
ed vowel, followed by a single consonant. 

The only difference between the 2nd Deel. Ist Class, 
and the 3d Deel. Ist Class , is that the former has its 
sing. and piural. alike in the N. and A., while tlie latter 
forms those cases in the plur. in u^ and changes æ of 
the singular into c, as may be seen from the examples 
treow a tree ; rice a realm, Kingdom; fæt fl Vessel, 
Sing. N. cV A. treow rice fæt 

Abl. (Sj* D. treowe rice fæte 

G. treowes rices fætes 

Plur. N. S; A, treowu ricu fatu 

Abl. <Sf D. treowum ricuni fatum 

G. treowa rica fata 

In the same manner are declined: 

scip a ship, gejnære houndary, fnæd a hent, 

twig twi^, gelaéte a cross patk, geat gate, 

hundred, 100, wite punlsTiment, bæS hath, 

cneow knee, gelese learrdng, glæs glass. 

89. Dissyllables are sometimes contracted in those 
cases where a vowel follows, as: heafod head, heåf* 
de, heafdes, pi. heafdu; wolcen cloud, pi. wolc- 

Of Substaiitives. 39 

nu; tun gel heaverdy hody, star, tun g lu; tacen /o- 
læn^ t å c u u ; \v u n d o r wonder, w u u d r u ; w æ p e u wea- 
po/i, wæpnu; mæ^ en power, niiracle 8fc., mæguo or 
m æ g n u ; w æ t e r water, w æ t r u. 

But they often remain uncontracted, as nyteu-u 
« neat, ox, m æ g e n - u miracle, strength 8fc. , tyccen-u 
a kid; fy {> e r -u wing, piiiion ; w e o f o d - u altar ; y f e 1 - u 
an eviL Wæsten a desert, tv aste^ sometimes doubles 
tlie n, as wæ stenne, \væ stennes, and in the plur. 
w æ s t e n n u. 

90. The words æg e^^ and cealf calf ioim their 
plur. ægru and c e al fru. 

91. Fe oh cattle , goods, money^ has feo in the 
tlat. and feds in the gen. Fed also occurs in the plur. 
Oros. p. 27; so also are declined pie oh danger ; [»eoh 
thigh; feorh life, feore, feores. 

92. Some words are used only in the plur. , as : 
lendenu loi^is , {)ystru darhiess, perliaps also eaS- 
metto humility, and oferraetto arrogance^ 

93. Instead of u (or o) >ve sometimes find a m 
the plur. as in Lat. and Mæsog., as: på hehodu or be- 
bo da coramandments ; tåcnu or tåcna toltens, and 
treowa trees, also gesceafta creatures : when this 
takes place, the nora. acc. and gen. are alike. 

94. To this deel. and class belong also most deri- 
vatives from verbs having the syllable ge prefixed, with- 
out any peculiar termination, as: gemet measure, from 
metan to measure ; gewrit writing, from wri'tan to 
write; gefeoht contest, fight, and many others. Some- 
times the gen. plur. is formed in -ena, as: acc. sende 
ærendgcwr itu, Boet. 1. dat. on engliscum ge- 
writum; gen. \\\ bæde me for oft englis cra ge- 
writena: Ælf. de Vet. Test. 1. 

95. Those terminating in u, which are very few, 

4{} Of Substantives. 

change tlie zi iiito w or ew in the obliqne cases, as: 
m.el\L flczir, meal , melewe or raelwe, raelewes or 
mel w es; searu ambushf searewe, or searwe, 

96. Tlie SdDeclension 2ndClass comprizes 
all masculines in e/, which form their plural in a; also 
sorae words denoting kindred in or ; together with some 
irregulars, wliicli change their vowel in the plur., or re- 
ceive the termination e, as : s u n u soTiy h r 6 S o r hrother, 
man man; they are thus declined: 

Sing. N. &; A, sunu brétJor (er) man 

Abl. 5f D. suna brétfer men 

G. suna br6tJor (er) mannes 

Plur. N. 8^ A. suna broSra (u) menn 

Abl. 8; D. sunum brétJrum mannum 

G. sunena (suna) br6tJra manna 

In the same manner are declined: 

wudu wood, tree, d6htor daughter, fot a foot, 

lagu water^ sweoster sister, tétJ a tootk, 

sidu custom, pi. gebrotJra (u) Germ. Gehriider, 

medu meady gesweostra (u) — Geschwister. 

97. The word f æder father is indeclinable in the 
sing. (fæ der es in nevertheless found in the gen.), but 
in the plur. it is declined like smiS; thus, fæderas, 
fæderum, fædera. Sweoster forms swyster in 
the abl. & dat. sweostra in the plur. 

08. Deofol devil^ and winter winter , foUow 
smiS in the sing., but sufFer contraction, deofle, win- 
tra (e) (&c. ; but in the plur. deofla (u), &:c. ; also 
winter, wintrum, wintra (e). Sumor (er) sum- 
7ner, is not contracted, but forms sumera in the abl. 
& dat. 

00. Mannan and monnan are sometimes found 
as the accus. of man and mon. 

100. Freond friende and feond enemy, folio w 

Of Siibstaiitives. 41 

s m i tS in tlie siiig. , but form their plural f r y n d and 
fynd, freondum, freonda &c. 

101. There are also to be found sorae few gentile 
nouns, which occur only in the plural, and terminate in 
e, corresponding to the Icelandic ir; they are declined 
thus : 

Plur. N. (?{■ A» Dene So also Ro mane, and Rom- 

Abl, (SfD. Denum ware Romans; Engle 

G. Dena Angles 6fc. 

102. The SdDeclension 3d Class comprizes 
all feminines ending in u or o, as: gifu a gift, grace; 
de nu « den, valley; which are thus declined: 

Sing. N. gifu 


A. gifeCu) 

dene (u) 

Abl.<5rD. gife 


G. gife 


Flur. N. &; A. gifa 


Abl. (5f D. gifum 


G. gifena 


In a si m Har m anner 

are declined: 

hælu healingi sålus. 

racu narrative, relation. 

lufu love. 

daru detriment. 

faru journey. 

scolu school. 

sn6ru daughter in law. 

wracu revenge. 

sceamu shame. 

caru care. 

nafu nave {of a wheel). 

lagu law. 

Likewise all names of womenin w, as: Ælfgifu, Eåd- 
gifu &c. 

103. Some words are indeclinable in the slngular, 
as: seo mænigeo or mænigu the many ; yldo age; 
s n y t r o wit , ingenuity ; b r æ d o hreadth ; but e o vv u 
ewe has in the gen. eowes: li^QS,s,- Inæ 55. 

104. Words in waru, as seo burhwaru, like 
all others ending in u^ seldom occur in the plural; but 
they are sometimes found vvith the termination e, as: 

4^ Of Substaiitives. 

l)urli\vare inhabitants : these are decliiied like Den c. 
See irregulars of tlie precediiig class. 

105. From tlie word du ru a door, we find, besides 
the regular forms, in the dat. pære dura and dur an, 
in the plur. also dura: Matt. 26, 71. & Marc. 1. 33. 

106. Some irregulars are worthy of remark, >vliich 
answer nearly to the 8th Deel. in my Icelandic Guide, 
and to those declined like man of the preceding class. 
Their chief irregularity consists in their having no in- 
crease in the plur. ; the Icelandic r constantly disappear- 

ing in A. S. 


of these are: 

Sing. N. S; A. 




Abl. Ss' D. 








Plur. N. &; A. 




Abl. «^' D. 








The following are declined in the same manner: 

vviht (or wulit) creature. mus (mys) mouse (mice). gos (gés) < ^ ' 
liis (lys) louse {lice). br6c(bréc) brecches 
cu (cy) cow (Scot. kye). turf (tyrf) tiirf. 

107. From niht is sometimes found nihte in the 
acc. as Gen. 1, 14. From cii is also found gen. sing. 
ciis, and gen. plur. cuna. Gen. 32, 15. 

108. Turf and Tyrf are of ten confounded; also 
hurh and byrig, Ni h tes is, like the German des 
Nachts^ a mere adverb, signifying hy niglit ., and must 
not be mistaken for the genitive of the noun, {lære 
nihte, as: {)a {)ystru {)ære sweartan nihte, the 
darkness of the black night. 


Of Ådjectlves. 

109. The A. S. adjectives are, as in Icelandic, much 
simpler thaii tlie substaiitives , being all decliiied nearly 
in the same manner. They are, as in the otlier Gothic 
dialects (viz. Icelandic, Danish, Swedish and Gerraan), 
susceptible of a definite, and of an indefinite form of de- 
clension: they have also, in each of these forms, three 
genders, witli the usiial niimbers and cases ; and even a 
distinct termination for the ablative. 

110. The definite form is iised, when the adjective 
is preceded by the definite article, by any other demon- 
strative pronoun, by a possessive pronoun, or by a ge- 
nitive case, as: 

|)a seofon fægran ear getacnia^ seofon 

wæstmbære gear and welige. The seven 

fair ears betolæn seven fruitful and abundant years. 

He lædde inn {)isne h eb reis c an man. He led 

in this Hehrew man, 
LædaS eowerne gyngstan bro^or t(i me. Lead 

your youngest hr other to me, 
Nim mi'nne sylfrenan læfyl. TaTce my silver cup, 
|>a Joseph geseåh his gemédrydan brd^or. 
When Joseph saw his uterine brother. 
In all other instances, the indefinite form is applied. 
The degrees of comparison are as in most other 

1. The Positive Degree. 

111. The definite form agrees precisely, in its 
three genders, with the simple order, or Ist Declensioii 
of nouns substantive (Nr. 63) ; but the indefinite diff'ers 
>videly from the complex order: we shall therefore give 
a synopsis of it in the following table. 

41 Of Adjcctives. 

Indefinite Form. 




Sin^, N. 



„ (") 














Plur. N. Sj- A. 

-V — 

Abl. ^ D. 




112. These terminations are easily to be recognized in 
the kindred dialects , e. g. the acc, mase. in -ne is the Icelan- 
dic an (in go^an mann) and the Germ. -en (etne»i gut en 
Mann). The fem. e is the Icel. a (gdtJa konu) , which, in 
German, is extended to the nominatives {eine gute Frau). 
The um and es of the neuter and masculine, are the Icel, -utti 
-s (g6 5um manni, g 6^ s manns) and the Germ. em or en 
and es {einem gut en Manne, eines guten Mannes, gut es 
Muthcs). The re of the abl. , dat. Sf gen. fem. is the Icelan- 
dic ri and rar (goSri, goSrar konu) and the Germ. er which, 
like the A. S. re, is the same in the three cases (^einer Frau). 

In the plural, the terminations -e, -um, -ra answer to the 
German -e, -en, -er (gute, guten, guter) also , in some degree, 
to the Icelandic -ir {-ar, w) -um and -ra (go^ir menn, g6t$ar 
konur, go S born, goSum monnum, konnm, bornum; goijra 
manna, kvenna, barna), 

113. Of the two forms of adjectives, the definite, as be- 
fore mentioned, agrees entirely with the simple order of noims 
substantive, and applies to all adjectives. The indefinite, corre- 
sponding to the complex order of substantives , should strictly 
be divided into 3 Declensions: the Ist ending in a consonant; 
the 2nd ending in e (for i) , and the 3d in u (at least in the 
fem. gender) ; but as those in e exactly coincide ^Yith those ter- 
niinating in a consonant, I have reduced the declensions of this 
form to two, as in the nouns substantive. 

114. Eveii the complex, or indefinite inflection, of 
tlie adjectives is very simple. Tlie neuters and raascu- 
lines are alike in the ablative, dative, and genitive, sin- 
gular, as the student will have already observed in the 

Of Adjectives. 


nouns, that the neuters and masculines of the 2nd Deel. 
are alike in the singular. The ablative, dative, and geni- 
tive, feminine also mntually resemhle each other. 

All the genders are alike in the plural. The nomi- 
native and accusative plural are also alike, and the da- 
tive plural constantly resemhles the neuter and masculine 
dative singular. 

115. The two indefinite Declensions vary from each 
other in nearly the same manner as those of the cora- 
plex order of nouns suhstantive, merely hy the change 
of vowel, and the addition of u in the feminine sing. and 
neuter plur. of the 2nd. 

116. As an example of the Ist, we shall take god 
good, which is thus declined: 


Neuter, Mase, 

N. god g6d 

god godne 













Plural, N. i^' A. gode 

Abl. «!^ D. g6duin 

G. godra 


Neuter, Mase. 


N. |)æt gode se goda 

seo gode 

A. J)æt gode |)one godan 
Abl. py godan 

på godan 
pære godan 

D. påm godan 

pcére godan 

G. pæs godan 

pære godan 


N. Sf A, på godan 
Abl. tV D. påni godum 
G, påra godena 


Of Adjectives. 

In like manner are decliiied 

s65 true, leolit light. 

seoc sick, 

hal sound j wholc, 

leas loose, 

fæst fasty 

gewis sure, certain, 

wyrJfe worth, 

yrre wrath, 

weste waste, 

éce ever, eternal, 

niwe ncir, 

getrywe true, faithful. 

rihtwis righteous, 
heard hard, 
swift swift, 
svveotol manifest, 
awend turned, 

117. All raoiiosyllables , of Mhich the vovvel is not 
o?, and all tliose in e, follow this model. Those ending 
in e drop the e, when a syllable of inflection is added, 
as: wyr^ne (Icel. ver^an), wyrSum (verbum), 
wyrées (verSs). (cf. Nr. 72.) 

The participles passive in od, ed, also follow the 
above rule, as : g e t i ra b r o d i w iV^ ; g e h e r e d prai'sed ; 
f r u ra c e n n e d firstlorn. 

118. The participles present are declined in the 
same manner both definitely and indefinitejy ; exeepting 
that in the genitive plural of the definite declension, 
they generally have ra instead of ena^ as: fårariht- 
Avillendra of the uprt'ght ^ (for J)åra rih twillen- 
de na). As these participles in the masculine may be 
so easily confounded with the nonns formed from them 
and denoting the agent, and are, in faet, often so con- 
fonnded by Lye ; I will shew the declensions of the 
mase. of the participle w eg f er en d e way farings and of 
the noun w eg fer end a wayfaring man; so that the 
difference, which was accurately observed by the A. S. 
writers, may be the more firmly impressed on the memory. 




Sing. N. 













wegf erendes 


PL n!(^ A. 


wegf eren das 

Abl. <^' D. 






Of Adjectives. 


119. In ihis class of words, there exists a double diffe- 
rence, betweeii the Teutonic and the Scandinavian tongues; viz. 
that, as participles, they have in the former a double inflection ; 
a definite and an indefinite {der reisende Mann, ein rei~ 
sender Mann)-, but in the Scandinavian, only a single inflec- 
tion, which is used both definitely and indefinitely : moreover as 
nouns, they belong, in the Teutonic tongvies, to the complex 
order, but in the Scandinavian, to the simple, at least in the 

120. Dissyllables in el belong also to this Decleii- 
&ion, as: lyt el little; mycel great ; yfel evil &c. 

121. Wædla^oor; wræcca wretched ; wana de^ 
ficienty wanting^ have only the definite inflection, whe- 
ther iised definitely or indefinitely. 

122. The 2nd Declension comprizes monosyllables^ 
whose vowel is æ (but of these there are not many) ; 
also most of the polysyllables, formed by derivative ter- 
minations. As a model, we shall take s mæl smally which 
is thus declined: 





Sing. N. 







småle (u) 













&■ Fem, 

Vlur. N.^'A. 



Abl. Sf D. 

smalum. smalum 


smælra smælrg. 


pæt småle 

se smala 



pæt sniale 

|)one smalan 



|)y smalan 

J)y smalan 

^ære smalan (5fc 

48 Of Adjectives. 

Tlius also are decliued: 

laet late, eAdig blessed, haéiJen heathentsh, 

swæs dear, purstig thirsty^ totorcn torn, 

swær heavy, gesælig happy, foresprecen before 

h\^'æt quickf brisk, færlic sudden, fæger fair, 

glæd glad, gastlic ghostly, mæger meager, 

bær bare, cyiielic kingly, glæshluttor clear as 


123. And, in general, tlie participles pass. of the 
2nd and 3d Conj. in en, as: Olimphiade lieo wæs 
hatenn she ivas cailed Olympias; from ha ten cailed, 
Oros.S, 7. Cristenufæmne a Christian girL 

124. Those however forraed by derivative termina- 
tions , as also participles in en, are oftcn found in 
the feminine withont the u, and in the neuter plur. ter- 
minating in e, according to the Ist Declension, as: seo 
oSre naman wæs Tate haten, she was called hy 
another name, Tate. Beda 2, 9. |)a wæs seo fæmne 
geliaten, then was the gir I called. Ib. 

125. Dissyllables are not always contracted, but 
hal i g holy, generally becomes fæt hålga, se halga, 
seo hålge &c. , i. e. in the cases whose terminations 
begin with a vowel; but håligra manna holy men's, 
because the termination begins with a consonant (/). So 
also fæger, in plur. fægru land, but, in the geni- 
tive, fægerra landa. 

126. Adjectives in the neuter gender are not un- 
€ommonly used as substantives, as: yfel anevil; fæger 
heauty; of yfele of the evil; Hwæt fægnast fii 
{)onne heora fæger es? JFky then dost thou rejoice 
in their beauty? ; And forbon he pæt god forlet, 
fe him geseald wæs and because he left the good 
that was given him; Oros. p. 5*7. ÆgSer ge {)as 
eorSlican god ge eac få yflu as well these earth- 
ly goods, a» also the evils; Boet. 12. 

Of Adjectives. 49 

The difference is seen only in the dative, in whioli, 
care must be taken not to confound it with the ahlative 
of the adjective, as: getogene Sy wæpne having 
draivn the weapon; s wi gen de rau^e tvith silent 
mouth ; mid micle flode ivith a great stream. 

127. Finally, the termination e, like the Icel. «, iS; 
adopted when the adjective, in the positive degree, is 
used adverhially, as: yfele evilly, from yfel; swiSe 
exceedingly^ valde, from swiS sirong-, hra6e swiftly, 
from hræd swijt, 

2. The Comparative & Superlative Degrees. 

128. These degrees are regularly formed hy the 
terminations -or and -ost^ as : h e a r d , h e a r d o r , h e a r- 
dost; smæl, sraalor, smalost; hræd, hraSor, 
h råkost. It must however he ohserved that the ter- 
mination '-or of the comparative is, like the correspond- 
ing Icelandic -«r, used only adverhially; so that, whert 
used as an adjective, the comparative has only one in- 
flection, with the terminations -re, -r«, -re, whetlier the 
word stands dellnitely or indefinitely, as: ({)æt) he ar- 
dre, (se) heardra, (seo) heardre; ({)æt) 
smælre, (se) smælra, (seo) smælre. The super- 
lative, on the contrary, like the positive, and as in Ice- 
landic, has hoth the indelinite and definite inflections, of 
which the former terminates in -ost, which is the case 
also when the word is used adverhially (like the Ice- 
landic -ast). The definite has generally ^esie, -esta, -este; 
though we sometimcs iind the o retained {-oste, -osta, 
-oste) , as : av u n a {) æ r ]^ e 1 e o f o s t y s ! dwell where 
it is most pleasing to thee! Here leofost is an ad- 
verb (Icel. Ij ufast or kærast); få hæfde he j^å 


50 Of Adjectires. 

gyt anne leofostne sunu then had ke yet one most 
beloved son: here the adjective has the indefinite in- 
flection (Icel. Ijufastan). J>es is min leofesta 
sunu thts ts my most beloved son: here the adjective 
has the definite inflection (Icel. Ijiifasti). Donne 
sceolon hecin gesaninode ealle på men, fe 
swiftoste hors habbaS then shall all the men be 
assembled who have swiftest {yery sivift) horses: here 
swiftoste stands indefinitely in the plural; if it stood 
definitely, it would be få swiftostan, and if adrer- 
bially, swiftost. 

129. The following may serve as an example of 
the relation which the inflections, in all the three degrees, 
bear to one another : 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

indef. swiS stronsc, ) „ ^ ,^ fswi^ost 

f \ (pæt) swiiJre J . , s 

def. pæt swiSe the strong,) Ipæt swiSeste (oste) 

adverb. swi^e stronglyy valde. swib'or swi5ost. 

130. Some change the vowel, in forming the de- 
grees of coraparison; others have other irregularities, 
the most important of which are the following: 

(^See the anneæed table.) 

Of Atljectkes. 


3 h 


■^ Cu) ^ 


•S S 

W w 


-. O « 

Ål I I I I I I I 



• (U to w ?J 

j- OJ OJ S 

• «^ ^ g s 

li i I i I I 1 1 1 1 I 


4J O 

o w w 2^ 
Cl OJ o d 

S S a i 



w fi 



a J e. ^ ;^ 

EJ <U 

^ SJ 

—I M !-< W) VW 


^ ^ s «J s JO 

5h o 

o rt 't^ 



i; ^ aj 5-1 

+2 0) 

§ ^ 










iæt fo: 

TJ ^ — ^^~-y , 

^ a u u <?. 

k: o Ki 

^ ^ ^ 


Is- <y 

tJ ns 



52 Of Adjectives. 

Sæmre worse , inferior, seems to be defective in 
the pos. & superl. 

131. Those of the Ist Decleiision, which change the 
vowel in the comparative and superlative, never have -or, 
-ost, but only -re, -est, even ^vhen used adverbially, but 
most of the others admit those terminations , and even 
often retain the vowel o, when tliey stand definitely as 
adjectives, in the superlative degree, as: ri c rich, ri- 
cor, ri'cost, {)å ricostan; thus also all in -lic. 

132. Adjectives in -iveard do not strictly belong to 
this place, but as they serve to supply the positive de- 
gree, to many words which are without it, and have 
neither comparative nor superlative themselves, it is not 
without reason that a place is assigned them in the table. 

ISS. Tlie practice of forming the superlative by 
-mest (from mæst) is preserved in many English 
words, as : utmost &c. In Icelandic mest is never add- 
ed, but sometimes, in the adverbial comparative, meir, 
as: iiærraeir, fj ær meir, s iSarmeir &c. 

1S4. The words in the table between brackets are 
adverbs, whose formation I was willing to add, as some 
of them occur often, and seem to serve as the founda- 
tion for the forms of the adjectives. 

135. instead of -or we sometimes find -zir, or 
(after the Icelandic) -ar; and, instead of -ost, -ust and 
ast ; for este is also found, in the doubtful orthography 
of the Anglo-Saxoas, -iste or -yste, but these anomalies 
are of rare occurence. 

Of Proiiouns. 

13^. This part of speech in Anglo-Saxon, a? in 
other languages, has some considerable peculiarities of 

Of Pronouns. 


137. The Personal Pronouns 


Ist Person. 2nd Person. 

Zd Person. 

Neut. Mase. Fem. 

Sitig. N. ic . J)u 

A. me (meh, mec) |)e (J)eh, pec) 

D. me fe 

G. min J)in 

1* I 1 .. ^ 

hit he heo 
hit hine hi 

him hire, hyre 
his hire, hyre 

Dual. Plur. Dual. Plur, 


N. wit we git ge 
A. unc us inc eow 
D. unc us inc eow 

hi (hig) 
hi (hig) 
him (heom) 

G. uncer lire (user) incer eower 

hira (heora) 

In Joh. 18, 17. occnrs ni c for ne ic. 

138. The forms m e h and f e h seldora occur, and 
are thought to be Dano-Saxon ; they ought perhaps, like 
the Icelandic mik, pik (^Gevm. ?nick, dtck) ^ to be used 
only in the accusative; but, as the ancient forms, me, 
pe, are also used as datives, it was natural that these, 
in like manner, should be employed in both cases. 

139. For the accusative plural we find likewise 
two other forms in poetry, namely : usih (usic), and 
eowih (eow i c); also in the 2nd pers. dual incit, 
wliich last is given by Lye as the dual nominative, but 
that it is an accusative, is evident from the very example 
he cites: Cædm. 62, 2; restaS incit rest yoitrselves, 
for restan is a reflective verb, wlien used of persons, 
like hm'le sig m Danish. 

These forms, as well as user for lire are assigned, 
evidently with injustice, to the Dano-Saxon dialect, though no 
traces of them are to be found in the Scandinavian tongues, 
excepting the possessive o s s i r our^ plur. , but which is only a 
rare poetical form in Old-Icelandic , and belongs more strictly 
to the Teutonic languages (Germ. unser, Mæsog. unsara) ; it is 
also more analogous to the other forms of the genitive of these 
pronouns than li r e , which might rather seem derived from the 
•Scandinavian vor. 

54 Of Pronoun*. 

140. That his is the genitive of hit, is eyident 
from the following; word gefylS his ågene getåc- 
11 unge the ve ih filleth {completes) its own stgfiijication, 
Ælf. Gram. 5. 

141. The Anglo-Saxon, like the modem English, 
has no reflective pronoim of the 3d person, but uses the 
personal pronoun in its stead, as: pæt fole hit reste 
the folk rested itself; ]^d feowas st(5don æt {)åm 
glédon and wyrmdon hig, the servants stood by 
the fire, and warmed themselves. If it be required to 
determine the refiective significatiou of any of the three 
persons more specifically, sylf (self, seolf) self, is 
added, which is declined like an adj., both indefinitely, as: 

sittan laéte ic hine Jiim I would placc 

witJ me sylfne. bestde myself. 

and definitely, as: Sesylfacwellere the hangman 

Sylf is usually added to the pers. pron. in the same 
case and gender, as: i c sylf hit eom it is 1 myself^ 
Luke 24, 39; ic swerige {)urh me sylfne / swear 
by myself, Gen. 22, 16; frara me sylfum of myself. 
Joh. 5, 30; we sylfe gehyrdon we have heard {him) 
ourselves, Ib. 4, 42. Likewise f u sylf, Luke 6, 42; J)e 
sylfne, Ib. 12, 31; ge sylfe. Joh. 3,28; eow sylfe, 
Mark 13, 9; he sylf, Cædm. 14, 9; hine sylfne, 
Mark 15, 31. &c. Sometimes ho>vever the dative of the 
personal pronoun is prefixed to the nominative of sylf, 
as: ic com me-sylf to eow / came myself {of my 
owjt accord) to you, Ælf. N. T. p. 36; ær J>u J)e-self 
hit me gerehtest before thou thyself didst explairt 
it to me, Boet. 5, 1 ; and på circli c an peawas him- 
sylf {)ær getæhte and there himself taught tUe ec- 
clesiastical rites, Ælf. N. T. p. 38. In tlie definite form, 
it has also the significatiou oi the same, like the Ger- 

Of PronouHs. 55 

TXL^Lii dasselbe, as: on Sa sylfaii tid, at the same time ; 
Do6 ge hi ni pæt sylfe Do ye the same to them. 

142. The Possessive Proiiouiis are forined 
from the genitives of the two first persons , by decli- 
ning them as indefinite adjectives. They are min, ^i'n, 
uncer, lire, incer, eower. Those in -er are ofteii 
contracted, when the syllable of inilection begins with a 
vowel; lire is then considered as if it had no e, and 
becomes liriim, ures &c. ; it moreover receives no ad- 
ditional -re in the fem. so that in all cases of the fem. 
sing. it remains unchanged. 

143. For li r e we also find among the poets user 
(usser), whicli, when the regular termination begins 
with a vowel, or with r, is decJined irregiilarly thus: 





N. user 



A. user 











^ A. 







144. The third person lias no exclusive possessive 
pronoun; we find only the genitive of the personal un- 
changed, his, hi re, hira, answering to the Engl. its, 
his, hers, theirs {ejus , eorum, earum, snus'), hit, he, 
lieo being both personal and reliective. 

If it be reqiiisite to determine the idea of /-e^ec^/oTZ 
more precisely in his, hire, hira, then the gen. of 
sylf, or the word åg en own^ must be added, whicli is 
regulariy declined as an adjective, but only indefinitely, 
and raay be considered as a possessive to sylf, as: to 
his ågenrc {)earfe to his o ion need. 

145. Sin is also sometimes used by the poets as 

56 Of Pronouns. 

a reflective possessive of the Sd person, wluch is said 
to l)e a Scaudiiiaviau idiom, but wliicli, witli equal pro- 
babiiity, raay be considered as an obsolete Germanisra, the 
word being used equally in the Teiitouic & the Scandi- 
navian tongiies, and, in A. S., is §o old that \\e find it 
in Cædmon's paraphrase: it must however be observed 
that it does not, like tiie German, answer to his^ in the 
sense of ejus, but only in the sense of suus. 

140. The Demonstrative Pronouns are {)æt, 
se, s e 6 («V/, is, ea) , which is also used for the article, 
and J)is, pes, feos {hoCf hic, hæc)z They are thus 
declined : 

Neut. Mase. 





Sin^. N. fæt se 

A. J)æt pone 




Abl. py 




D, J)åm 




G. ^æs 





Plur. N. &; A. 
Abl. <SfD. 





147. Instead 



we i 

aften find ba 


for påra, in both numbers, pæm, also {)éra for para. 
S e 6 is also found (like the Old-Icelandic s j å) , in the 
mase, instead of se; but to give {)e6, as a nominative 
of the feminine , is an error either in the writing or 
rather in the reading, where there has stood s ed ts, ea, 
or heé she, or pe who, that; it ho\Yever perfectly cor- 
responds to theFrisic thjii. We find also fan, t)on, 
in the neuter, in some adverbial expressions instead of 
påm, |>y seems justly to be received as a proper abla- 
tivus instrumentø as it occurs so often in tliis charac- 
ter, even in the mase. gender, as: midpyåpe tvitk 
that oath; Iiiæ Leg. 53. and, in the same place, iii 
the dative, on fém a{)e in that oatk, Ib. 

Of Pronomis. 57 

148. From fis (or fy s) we find, in botli numbers, 
fissum for fisum, and fis ses for fises. So like- 
wise fissere for fisse, and fis sera for fissa, 
and in phir. fæs for fås. From which afterwards, 
with a distinction in signification, these and those. 

149. The indeclinable f e is often iised instead of 
f æt, se, se 6, in all cases, but especially with a relative 
signification , and, in later times, as an article. Hence 
the English article the. It is sometimes compounded 
with f æt, and becomes fætte, contr. for fætfe that 
ivhich^ or that conjunction (Germ. dass); in like man- 
iier se -fe he who, is considered as one word, as: i c 
wåt fætte eall f æt ic her sprece is wi6 finura 
willan, / Jcnow that alt which I here say is against 
thy will; forfåm fe se- fe hine forfencf, se 
hif ormdd, for he who despairs of himself is mad. 

150. |>ylliG for f yli'c (Icel. f vi'likr) such, is 
compounded of f y and li c, and declined as an indefi- 
uite adjective. |>yslic orfislic, of the same signi- 
lication, is, without doubt, of later origin, from the Da- 
nish deslige. 

151. Ylc (ile) same, is declined as a regular ad- 
jective, especially when used definitely (fæt ylce, se 
ylca &c.) 

152. From ylc is perhaps formed swylc (for 
swå-ylc) such, which has the indefinite declension: it 
occurs in the ablative, in this phrase: mid swylce 
hrægle he in-eode, mid swylce gange he lit, 
with such garment as he came in with., ivith such go 
he out. Leg. Æif. pref. §. 11. 

153. The demonstrative pronoun fæt, se, se(5 
is also used relatively, like the English that, and is, in 
general, repeated in the sentence, so that in the iirst 
clause it stands as a demonstrative, and in the next as 

58 Of Pronouns. 

a relative^), as: håtan {»æt sæl{)a {)æt nånene 
b e 6 6 to call those Messings lohich are none ; se man 
se |)æt swifte hors hafaS the man who has the 
swift (swiftest) horse, 

154. In order to vary the sentence, they often 
used fe in the second place, as the more proper rela- 
tive, as: pæt micele geteld fe Mdises worhte 
the large tent that Moses made; sy gehletsod se 
fe com on drihtnes naman hlessed be he who came 
in the name of the Lord. J) e is also repeated, thus : f e 
fe o n m e b e 1 y f 6 he who helieveth in me ; also s wy 1 c, 
yet so that, in the second place, it is changed to the 
adverb swylce {so as, as if, qualiter, quasi)^ as: gif 
ic hæfde swylcne anweald swylce se ælmih- 
tegaGod hæf6 if I had such power as the Almighty 
God hath; Ælc fing ongitan swylc, swylce hit 
is to understand each thing so as it is, 

155. The demonstrative adverbs swå and fær 
are repeated in a similar maiiner, as: Hii clipode 
Abeles blod to Gode, buton swå swå ælces 
mannes misdæda wregaf hine to Gode butan 
wordum? How did AbeVs blood cry to God, but so 
{otherwise than) as each man's misdeeds accuse him to 
God, without words? ; He spræc to him eallon frira 
swå swåtoånum, He spake to them all three so as 
to one ; fær fær there where. When combined with a 
pronoun swå only is repeated, as the adverbial part of 
the phrase, as in swå-hwilc swå which {pne) soever 
that; swå-hwæ^er swå which one soever, of two, 
that: also swæSerswå orswæ^er alone, the rela- 
tive being not nnfrequently omitted in this tongiie. Thus 

^) Hence, in modern English, the frequeiit use of that as a 

Of Pronouns. 59 

also, in connexion wi'.li an adjective or an adverb ; swå 
gelfc swå as like as; swa lange swå as long as &c. 

156. The use of J) æ t , se, s e é in A, S. seems analogous 
to that of the German das, der, die, which is, at the same time, 
article, demonstrative and relative : but none of the other words 
are, either in German, or any other tongue, to my knowledge, 
used so decidedly and frequently in these several ways as in A. S. 
In Danish and Icelandic nothing of the kind is to be found; but 
in Swedish der is used both for there and where, {ihi and uhi). 

157. Thelnterrogative Pronouns are: hwæt, 
(h w å) what, (who) ; h w y 1 c which; h w æ 5 e r whether, 
The former is used only in the singular, and is thus 
declined : 








hwone (hwæne) 









It is never used in connexion with a substantive, 
and with an adjective it usually governs the genitive, 
as: hwæt yfeles? what evil? It also (like the Germ. 
etwas^ was,) si^iiiGies some what, a lit tie ^ as: hwæt lyt- 
les tf Uttle. 

158. Hwylc (hwelc)? which? which corresponds 
to s w y 1 c , and h w æ S e r ? which of the two ? whether ? 
follow the indefinite declension of adjectives. The ad- 
verb hwæ^ere signifies, nevertheless, yet, Hwylc or 
hwelc is also used indeterminately, like the Germ. /e- 
nmnd^ as: butan heora hwelc eft to rihtre bote 
gecyrre unless some of them turn again to right re- 

159. Hii is the English hotv, in its significations 
both of quam and quomodo. Swa is used before adjec- 
tives to give them a definite sense, as: hu mycel? 

CO Of Pronouns. 

how gieat?; hii lange? how lo?:g?; swå mycel so 
g?'eat; swå lange so long; liii raæg man quomodo 
possit homo. 

160. But for the purpose of raaking a whole pro- 
position interrogative , hwæSer is used, in the neuter, 
like the Icel. hyårt (Lat. utrum, Gr. nozé^ov)^ as: hwæ- 
Ser ge nii sécan gold on treowum? seelc ye now 
(then) gold ontrees?; hwæ^er (or hwær) fu durre 
gi lp an? dost tkou dåre to vaunt? Its proper use is 
however in questions consisting of two members , whe- 
ther dependent or independent of each other; in which 
case, opSene or{)ene corresponds to it, in the se- 
cond raemher (like the GT.noTé^ov — ?] ; Icel. hvårt — 
e^a), as: Ic wille mi faran to and gesedn, 
hwæ^er hig gefyllaS mid weorce j^one hreåra, 
{) e me to-cora, o^t5e hit swå nys, {)æt ic wite, 
/ will notv go thither , and see whether they fiilfil in- 
deed the cry that came to me or {ivhether) it be not so, 
that I may hiow; sceawa hwæSer hit %i^ {)ines 
SU na, {) e ne sig! see whether it be thy son's or be not! 

It is to he observed that, in dependent propositions, 
liwæSer governs the verb in the subjunctive. The 
other interrogative expressions ; viz. cwyst {)u? sayest 
thou?; wénst J)u? thinkst tkou? reseinble the num or 
mi of the Latins, and, like thera, are to be considered 
as mere interrogative particles. 

161. The Indefinite Pronouns are, not with- 
out reason, cailed also indefinite numerals : they are the 
foUowing: æghwæt (-hwå), æghwylc, æghwæ^er 
or gehwæt (-hwå), gehwylc, gehwæ^er, answer- 
ing to our whatever, whoever, whichever (of two). To 
this class belong also the above noticed, swåhwæt 
(swå;, swåhwylc, swåhwæ(5er (swå) whatsoever, 
zvhosoever (that) ; which are all decliiied according to the 

Of Pronouiis. 61 

last word in the compound, the nature of which has 
been already explaiued. 

162. ælc each, every*, eall all', gen oh enough^ 
follow the indefinitc declension of adjectives, as: oii 
ælcere tide at each time', ealra betst hest of all, 

163. Sum some, mani g (mænig) many, an one^ 
a; ænig any, nån none, nænig wowe wkatever; 
ænlép, ænlypig single^ lonely, 'also follow the inde- 
finite declension. Sum is often found comhined with 
the genitive plural of the cardinal numhers, and signifies 
ahout, some, as: hundse o fontigra sum some (^ahout) 
70 men, Gen. 46, 27. Sume ten gear some ten years, 
Mænig usually forms m a n e g a in the nom. & acc. plural. 

164. Fela much, many, is indeclinable ; but fea- 
\i^few has in the dative feawum; both are also used 
as distributives with the genitive of the substantives. 

165. Man one (Gerra. man, Fr. on) i§ strictly a 
noun substantive, as is also wiht or wuht a thing, 
creature, but this last admits of two peculiar augments, 
which convert it into a sort of substantive pronoun, viz. 
awiht or awuht, contracted into awht, åht aught', 
also nånwiht, nånwuht, by contraction, nawht, 
nåht naught. Hence perhaps is derived the negative 
not, as the German nicht is from ne-wicht. 

166. We raay here notice the word hwæthwegu 
(hwæthwega, or hwæthugu) somewhat , a little, 
also hwæt hweguninga, or hwæt hweganunges 
idem; but which are rather to be regarded as adverbs. 
Æthwega, and hwylchugu, and hugu alone, are 
found also with the same signification. 

167. O S er, like the Icelandic annar, signifies 
both alms and seciindus, but alter {o?ie of two) 
has its appropriate word, awSer (åSer), formed like 
awht; and neuter (neither) , has nawSer or na^or, 


Of Prououns. 

like nawht. These, as well as æg^er either, each of 
two, are declined according to the indefinite form of 
adjectives of the 2nd Deel. ÆgSer is rery often used 
as an adverb, in the signification ofhwæ^er: æg^er 
ge — ge as well • — as, 

168. OS er, as in Icelandic, is also declined after 
the indefinite form, even when preceded by the article, 
as: J)æs oSres of the other. The fem. sing. does not 
admit the insertion of r, hut forms the ahl. dat. & gen. 
like the acc. oSre. The plur. has sometiraes in the 
neuter o 6 ru or oSra, as: o fru le af other {fresh) 
leaves, Boet. 4. 

169. The definiteNumerals are the following, Tiz. 

Cardinal Numhers. 

Ordtnal Numhers. 

1 Ån 

f>æt forme, se formå, se6 forme 

2 Twå, twégen, twå 

t>æt, se, se6 otfer 

3 jTeo, J)ry, j^reo 

J>æt |)rydde, se J>rydda, se6 prydde 

4 Feower 

FeortJe, a, e 

5 Fif (fife) 

Fifte, a, g 

6 Six 

Sixte, a, e 

7 Seofon (syfon) 

Seofo^e, a, e 

8 Eahta 


9 Nigon (nygon) 


10 Tyn (ten) 


11 Endlufon (endleofan) 


12 Twelf 


13 iTeottyne 


14 Feowertyne 


15 Fiftyne 


16 Sixtyne 


17 Seofontyne 


18 EaKtatyne 


19 Nigontyne 


20 T^ventig 


30 iTittig 


40 Feowertig 


50 Fiftig 


60 Sixtig 


Of Pronouns. 6S 

Cardinal Numhers, Ordinal Numhers, 

70 Hund-seofontig Hund-seofontigoSe 

80 Hund-eahtatig Hund-eahtatigoiJe 

90 Hund-nigontig Hund-nigontigo6e 

100 Hund (Hund-teontig) Hund-teontigotie, 

110 (Hund-endlufontig) (Hund-endlufontigolJe) 

120 Hund-twelftig (Hund-twelftigo»e). 

1000 fiisend. 

170. The Cardinal Nurabers. With respect 
to their inflection, which is what chiefly concerns us 
here, it is to he observed, that an is declined like a re- 
gular adjective; in the acc. mase. sing. however we of- 
ten find æ n n e instead of a n n e , also the negative næn- 
ne instead of nånne. When it stands definitelj, ane, 
åna, ane, it signifies alone (solus), 

171. Twå and {»re 6 are thus declined: 

Neut. Mase. Fem. Ncut. Mase. Fem. 

N. 8i A. twå twégen twå {>re6 J)ry preo 
* ^ » « ^ » 

Abl. 5f Dat. twåm (tweém) prym 

G. twegra (twega) J)re6ra 

Bå, bégen, bå both, is also declined like twa, 
and forms barn, begra. Instead of the neuter twå 
they said also tii, as: få wæs ymb tii hund win- 
tra then it was ahout two hundred years ; and instead 
of bå alone, we sometimes find båtwå or butu, (but- 
wu, buta). 

172. Feower retains feower in the dative, as: 
on feower dagura in four days, Oros. p. 22, but, in 
the genitive, it forms feower a. 

Fif and six are sometimes found in the genitire 
with «, ån {)issa fi'fa one of these Jive, Boet. 33, 3; 
syxa sum some siæ. Oros. p. 23. 

From seofon we find a genitive seofona, and 
also another nominative s e o f o ne , when used absolutely, 
as : e a 1 1 e s e o f o n e all seven. 

64 Of Pronouns. 

173. Ealita, nigoii, enillufoii are, as far as I 
have observed, indecliiiable , as are also the compoiinds 
in -tyne. From tyii we find also nom. & acc. tyne 
and al)l. & dat. tynura, iised absolutely. 

174. Twelf, wlien used absolutely, has twelfe 
in nom. it has also regiilarly tvvelfura and twelfa, 
in dat. & gen. as: an of fåra twelf um, an {>ara 
twelfa one of the twelve ; but, when the siibst. folio ws, 
it remains iinchanged, as : m i d hys twelf 1 e o r n i n g- 
« n i h t u m with his twelve disciples ; |) a r a twelf a p o- 
stola n a m a n the names of the twelve apostles. 

175. Twentig, and the other tens in -tig are 
declinable, yet withoiit any variation of gender, -tigy 
'tigum^ -tigra. In the nominative and acciisative» 
thcse tens are used both as nouns governing a genitive, 
and as adjectives agreeing in case with the substantive; 
but, in the dat. and gen., they appear to be used as 
adjectives only , as: twentig geåra twenty years ; 
fryttig scillingas (and s c i 1 1 i n g a) thirty shillings ; 
twentigum wintrum, J)rittigum piisendum, 
Iiundteontigra manna. 

176. The word hund, which is placcd before the 
tens after sixtigj answers to the Mæsog. affixed particle 
tehund, or hund, and to the Gr. -'Aovroiy Lat. -ginta. It 
is sometimes omitted when the subst. hund an hundred 
precedes, as: and scipa an hund and eahtatig and 
of ships one hundred and eighty. 

Yil. Hundred and J)usend are declined like 
neuters of the 3d Deel., and hund like those of the 2nd, 
but this last seldom occurs, except in the nom. & acc. 

178. When the units are combined with the tens, 
they are placed first, with and, as : an and twentig 
21; six and fif ti g 56 &;c., but after the word hun- 
dred, the smaller uumber is last, and the substantive 

Of Pronouus. 65 

repeated, for if the smaller immber were set first, it 
wonld denote a miiltiplication , as: ån hund wintra 
and {)rittig wintra IW Tjeais ; hundteontig win- 
tra and seofon and XL wintra 14n years ; feo- 
wer hund wintra and f rittig wintra 4å0 years; 
{)re6 hund manna and eahtatyne men 318 men. 
Instead of twå hund, we fiud also tii hund. The 
others are siraply thus ; {»reo hund, fif hund, twå 
{)u sendo &;c. 

179. The Ordinai Numbers, with the excep- 
tion of o 5 er, follow the definite declension of adjectives. 
O^er, like the Icelandic annar, has always the inde- 
iinite form, whether with, or without, the article. 

180. The termination from twelfte to twentugoiJe 
viz, -teo&e , seems sometimes, at least by Lye and other Grani- 
marians, to be confounded with that wliicli is used from t vven- 
tugotJe onward, namely -tigod'e, for |) r eott eo go tJ e, feo- 
werteogo^e ^c. cannot veell be other tlian a variation of 
l^rittigotJe, feowertigo^e c^c, altbougli given as thirtcenth, 
fourteenth <5fc. Sometimes the piaces themselves quoted by Lye 
exhibit the correct form only, for instance; all those quoted 
under feowerteogefJ, exhibit only feowerteotJe; but in 
other piaces, where this doubtful termination may really be found, 
I am inclined to regard it as an error , crept in , sometimes in 
transcribing the Roman nmnerals verbally, and sometimes froiri 
other causes; since such an ambiguity seems too absurd to be 
tolerc'ited in any tongue: I have therefore given only the une- 
quivocal forms. 

181. From hund, hundred, fus end no ordi- 
nåls are formed, they being all nouns substantive. 

182. When units are added to the tens, they are 
either set first with and, as cardinal, or last, as ordi- 
nai numbers , Ex. an and twentugotSe tiventy-jirst ; 
fif and twentugoSe twenty-fifth; or \j twentig- 
San dæge and {)y feorf an Septembris the 24«^* 


66 Of Pronouns. 

183. Healf half foUows the indefiiiite declension 
of adjectives , and , as in Germau &c. , is placed after 
the ordinal, wliich it diminishes by half ^ as: o{)er healf 
hund biscopa loO Biskops; J) rydde healf ttvo and 
a half. 

184. From the mimerals are formed other numeri- 
cal expressions, viz. Multiplicatives , ending in feald 
fold, and declinable as adjectives, as: ånfeald single; 
twifeald doiible, tivofold ; {)ryfeald, feowerfeald, 
hundseof ontigfeald; mani^fe^iå manifold. From 
these again are formed, 1) adverbs in -lice^ as twi- 
fealdlice doubly : 2) nouns in -we5, as twifeald^ 
n e s duplicitas : 3) verbs, by changing -feald, into -fyl- 
da?i, as: twifyldan to double, 

185. S i (5 a journey , time ^ is, in the abl. sing. 
(siSe), added to the ordinal niirabers, like the English 
time, as {)riddan si^e the third time ; sumesi'Sea 
certain time. In the abl. plur. (si$um, si^oit, si- 
^an), it is added to the cardinal numbers, in the same 
signification, as: feower si(5on, fif si§on, eahta 
si^on, hundseofontig siSon ifec. The three first 
numbers have however a distinct form to express the 
same idea, viz. æne once ; twywa (tuwa) tivice; pri- 
wa thrice, 

186. The Distribntives are expressed by repeating 
the cardinal numbers, a§ : seofon and seof o n sep- 
tena, fif and fif &€. 

187. For Numerical Signs, the Anglo-Saxons used 
the capitals I, V, X, L, C, D, M, in the same manner 
as the Romans. 


Of Verbs. 

188. This part of speech, as in the other Teutonic 
languages, has no passive inflectioii, which must there- 
fore be supplied by the help of aiixiliaries. It has the 
iisiial modes, viz. the indicative, the subjunctive , the 
imperative, and the infinitive, also a gerund and twa 

189. As in all the other Gothic tongues, there are 
in A. S. two orders of verbs , corresponding to the two 
orders of nouns-substantive ; viz. the simple, and the 
complex. In the simple, the imperfect consists of more 
than one syllable, and eiids in de or te, the participle 
passive in ^ or t: in the complex order, the imperfeet 
is a monosyllable, with a change of vowel, and the part. 
pass. ends in en or n, 

190. According to the nature of the imperfect, the 
first order is divided into three classes, forming toge- 
ther one conjugation. 

The second order contains two conjugations , each 
consisting of three classes. 

191. The first order may be considered as 
containing pure or open verbs, answering to the Greek in 
«to, eo) and ow, also to the Latin regulars in «Ve, eVe, he. 
though their vowel is not so manifest in the Gothic 
tongues as in the Phrygian : in Mæsogothic however it is 
much more apparent than in A. S. , yet in the latter, it 
is easy to distinguish their mutual difference, some form- 
ing the imperf. in -ode, as: sceawian^^o look, scea- 
w o d e , others in -de or -te only , as : h æ 1 a n f o heal, 
hælde; metan fo meet, métte, and others again in 
-de or -te^ with a change of vowel in the precediiig syl- 
lable, as: t el Ian to count, tell^ teaide; {»eccan to 
cover, thatch, J)eahte, It is easy to perceive that the 


68 Of Verbs. 

diflPerence between tlie endings de and te is not essen- 
tial, but depends solely on the hardness or softness of 
the precediiig consonant, as in Icelandic: but the other 
difference is essential, and of such a nature as to pre- 
scribe the subdivision of these verbs into three classes, 
answering precisely to the three Icelandic {see the Swe- 
df'sh Edit. of of my Icel. Gram.) as well as to the Mæ- 
sogothic, in Zahn; so that the Ist in A. S. is the 3d in 
Zahn, (s pilion), the 2nd corresponds to his Ist (ha- 
ban), and the Sd to his 2nd (sokjan). 

192. The Second Order contains all the im- 
pure, or close, verbs. Here it is not the characteristic 
letter, but the vowel of the iirst syllable, that forms the 
ground of the subdivision in the Gothic tongues, which 
in this feature differ widely from the Phrygian langua- 
ges*); for instance, sigan to f all, sink, has in the 
imperf. såh, plur. sigon, but fledgan to fly has 
fleåh, pi. flugon, though the characteristic {g) is 
the same in both. Again , b i n d a n to hind has band, 
b u n d o n , but standan to stand has stod, stodon, 
though with the same characteristic {nd); whereas wri- 
tan to write forms wråt, writon, and ar is an to 
arise., aras, arison, like sigan, though with dilFe- 
rent characteristics {t, s and g) ; because the vowel of 
the chief syllable is the same in all (/). It is not re- 
quisite that the vowel be exactly the same, for instance; 
lu c an to shiit y imp. leac, pi. lu con, p. p. locen, 
and leogan to lie (jnentiri)., imp. le åg, lugon, p. p. 
logen are conjugated precisely alike, although they have 
diiferent vowels (u and eo) ; they are therefore not classed 
exclusively according to the vowel of the Ist person, or 

') In Latin the close or impure, as well as the open or pure 
verbs, are inflectéd indiscriminately according to their cha- 
racteristic : thus lædo, resemhles ludOi and lingo^ jungo. 


Of Verbs. C9 

of the iiifinitive , wliich , lu tliis order , is ahvays the 
same, but more especially accordiiig to that wliicli they re- 
ceive, through the change of vowel, in the imperfect, 
and participle passive. 

193. The vowel, which this order of verhs receives 
in the imperfect singular, though, in many cases, preserved 
in the plural of the imperfect, and in the imperfect sub- 
junctive, yet often undergoes a change in tlie 2nd pers. 
sing. and in the whole phir. of the imperfect, also in 
the imp. subj. This mutability of the vowel of the im- 
perfect renders it expedient to subdivide the order into 
two conjugations , each containing three classes , accor- 
ding to the changes sufFered by the vowel, viz. 

The Second Conjugation has in the imperfect indi- 
cative and subjunctive of the 

Ist Class <r, as: i c tre de, imperfect i c træd; 
2d Class e, as: ic læ te, imperfect i c let; 
3d Class o, as: ic grafe, imperfect ic grof. 

The Third Conjugation has in the Ist and 3d pers* 
sing. , imp. of the 
Ist Class «, wliich in the 2nd pers. sing., in the plur., and 

in the imp. subj. is changed into 2^, as: i c binde, 

imp. i c band, 2nd pers. {»ii bunde, pi, bun- 

don; subj. bunde. 
2nd Class d, which, in the above forms, is changed into /, 

as: ic bite, imp. i c båt, 2"d pers. ^u bi te, 

pi. biton, subj. bite. 
3d Class ed, which in the same forms is changed into u^ 

as: ic hedde, imp. ic head, J>u bude &c. 

194. It is evident that these two conjugations correspond 
as accurately as the first to the Icelandic, the Frisic, the 
Mæsogothic in Zahn, and even to the German classes, consi« 
dered by Adehing as irregular; although the distribution and 
order of the classes, in these authors, disagree a little from the 


Of Verbs. 

arranfiremént liere adopted: for instance, i c trede answers to 
tlie Ist in Adelung, ich gebe, but to the 3d in Zahn, giha; i c 
læte to the 2nd in Adelung, ich lasse ; icgrafe to the 5th 
in Adelung, ich grahe, but to the 2d in Zahn, graha; i c bin- 
de is by Adelung comprehended under the Ist, as he has not 
considered it any essential difference that ich trete has a long a, 
{trdt), in the imp. , but ich binde a short one, {band): in Zahn, 
it is the 4th, binda, as here; i c bite corresponds to the 3d 
in Adelung, ich greifCy to the Ist in Zahn, greipa; i c beode 
is the 4th in Adelung, ich biege, the Sth in Zahn, biuga. 

In the other Gothic dialects , where the same classes are 
more or less clearly distinguishable, other divisions have been 
proposed, but to arrange these words according to other cha- 
racteristics, as the similarity of the vowel of the part, pass, and 
the imperfect, or the like, is to bring them into a very per- 
verse order, whereby the most unlike enter into the same class. 

195. We sliall now proceed to give a synopsis of 
the chief teiises of the regular verbs. 
First Order. 
Ist Conjiigation. 



Part. pass. 

Ist Class 

ic macige macode 


2nd — 

- hyre 



3d — 

- wyrce 




econd Order. 

2nd Conjugation. 

Ist Class 

ic brece 



2nd — 

- læte 



3d - 

- fare 

Sd Conjugation. 


Ist Class 

ic finde 

fand, 2 p. f'-inde 


2nd — 

- drife 

dråf — drife 


3d — 

- beode 

båd — bude 


First Order. 
First Conjugation. 
196. As paradigms of the three classes of this con- 
jugation we shail take lufian to love, bærnan to hum 
{tireré) and sy 11 an to give, selL 

Of Verbs. 


ist Class 

2d Class, 

Indicative Mode. 

Pres. Sing. 1. lufige 

2. lufast 

3. lufab 
Plur. 1. 2. 3. lufiaS 

8<; lulige 
/røp. Sing. 1. lufode 

2. lufodest 

3. lufode 




bærnatS | 
5f bærne j 

Plur. 1. 2. 3. lufodon (-edon) bærndon 

Suhjunctive Mode. 

Sing. 1. 2- 3. lufige bærne 

Plur. 1. 2. 3. lufion (an) bærnon (an) 


Sing. 1. 2. 3. lufode bærnde 

Plur. 1. 2. 3. lufodon (edon) bærndon 

Imperative Mode. 

Sing. 2. lufa 
Plur. 2. lufia« ^ 
^ lufige / 

8f bærne 

Injinitwe Mode. 

Pres, lufian bærnan 

Gerund (to) lufigenne bærnenne 

Part. aet. luljgende bærnende 

Part. pass. (ge-)lufod bærned 

3fZ Class. 

syl le 



sylla6' \ 

«^sylle J" 







^ sylle 


syllanne (enne\ 

197. The two terminatious of the plural indicative 
and imperative are thiis distlnguislied : tlie Urst form in 
-«6 is iised wlien the prononn, as subject, precedes or is 
omitted; hut the other form in e when the pronoun im- 
mediately folio ws , as: bringaS |)å fix as hring the 
fiskes, Joh. 21, 10; ga'6 hi der and eta 5 come hither 
andeat^ Ib. 21, 12; cwe^e ge hæbbe ge s ufo 11? mim 
quid obsonii habetis? Ib. 21, 5. 


Of V 




As lufi 

ge are also conjugated: 

Pres. indic 



Part. pass. 










cry, call. 





consecrate, hallow. 
































getimbrian -rode 













199. To the first class heloiig all those in -ian; 
tliese are, for the most part, derived from substantives 
or from adjectives, and are seldom original or primitive 
words; likewise all derivatives in -sm7i, as: ri c si an to 
goveni ; g i t s i a n to desire ; in -gian, as: syngian to 
sin; myngiau to admonish; and in -sumian^ as: ge- 
byrs ii m i a n to ohcy ; g e s i b s u m i a n to reconcile, 

200. Tilis class, both in A. S. and the kindred 
tongues is very regular: the Ist person singiilar present 
ends always in ige, for ie (which might be pronounced 
ye), as : s c e a w i g e / look ( pron. s c e a - w i - y e) : this g is 
insertcd, according to a rule of orthography(18), whenever 
i is followed by e in dis tinet syllables, it is even found 
before «, either alone, or >vith e (for y conson.) , as: 
s c e a w i g a n , s c e a w i g e a n wliich are however super- 
fluoiis and incorrect ways of writing sceawian. 

201. Notwithstanding that tlie vowel of the present is, 
for tlie niost part i, and of the imperfect o, yet it appears, by 
coniparison with the Icelandic , that this is strictly the A-class 
^n A. S. ; for the A. S. ha ti an corresponds to the Icel. hata 
ie hate; somnian (s am ni an) to samna, safna to ga- 

Of Verba. 


ther; talian, to tala to speak} geny^erian, to nitira to 
eondemuy insult. The reason of this chaiige of a into i was simply 
to avoid the terminations a-e, a-an, a-ad"} wliich in Icelandic 
is done by rejecting one of the vowels: but that a becomes o 
in the imperfect, is only because it has the open sound, which 
the Dånes and Swedes express by d. That this o in the plur. 
of ten changes to e {edon) , as: ic sceawode, wesceawe- 
don, is perfectly analogous with what has been already re- 
marked (respecting heåfod, wundor, ealdor, heofon, 
and the terminations -or and -ost in the coniparison of adjec- 
tives) ; namely that o in a final syllable is either changed into 
e, or disappears altogether, when the word is increased, but in 
the present case it cannot disappear, as the Ist and 2nd classes 
would then be confounded. In the 2nd and 3d pers. pres. indic., 
and in the imperative, we have the original vowel a, as: ceå- 
r a s t curaSf c e å r a ti curat , ne ceåra Jjii noli curare (quasi, 
ne curato) j polast, J)olati rakas, raAcc; J>ola (pii) TaXa{av)', 
borast, borati foras^ forat, horest, hores. 

202. Some verbs in -ian usually form their imperfect in 
-edey and part. pass. in -ed. Dr. Grimm considers them as a se- 
parate class, which is just, with respect to the upper Teutonic 
languages, but I doubt whether in A. S. they are sufficiently nu- 
merous, or so regular and so decidedly distinguished from those 
forming -ode and -od, as to jvistify this arrangement, for instance; 
seglian to sail, imp. se gi ede, Oros. p. 22. his; but seglo- 
de, Ib. 25. his; er i an to plough, imp. er ede, Oros. p. 23, 
but p, p, geerod, Ælf. Gr. p. 19; gefremian to perform^ 
imp. gefremode, Gen. 2, 2. gef remede, Bed. 4, 25. 

Second Class, 


Like bærne are also 

iiiflected : 



































imagine, ween. 


To the 2nd class belon 

^ transitive 

Terbs derived 

from intransitives of the 2nd or 3d conjugation, as : fy 1- 


or Verbs. 

Ian to felly from feallan to f all; drencan or dreri- 
cean to give to dmik, drench, from drincan to drink; 
bætan to hridle, from bit an to bite ; weccan to awa- 
hen (active), from wæcan to wake (neuter); also most 
of those derived from noiins or adjectives, not liaviiig 
i for their cliaracteristic (for tliose liaving i belong to tlie 
Ist class)^ as: ræpan to hind with cords, from rap rope ; 
rihtan to correct, from riht right; g e ly fan to be- 
lieve, from g e 1 e å f a belief; f y 1 1 a n to fill , from f u 1 1 
full; gebétan to amend, from bdt rejjaration. 

205. In tilis class it is nccessary to observe whetlier 
the characteristic is a hard or a soft consonaiit; in tlie 
latter case it forms ~de in tlie imperfect, and -ed in tlie 
part. pass., in tlie former, -te in tlie imp. and -t in tlie 
part. pass. The soft consonaiits are d^ t, f, w, gj also 
/, nij n, r, s ; the hard are t, p, c, Æ, a;, and « af ter ano- 
ther consonant, as: 





















206. If the consonant be double, one is always re- 
jected, when another consonant foUows, as: spiUan, 
spilst, spilS, spilde. 

207, Wliere it would sound too harsh to add -st or 
-^ to the root of the word, an e is inserted in the present, 
as : n e m n a n to name, n e m n e s t , n e m n e 5 ; but this 
epeiithesis never takes place in the imperfect, as it would 
create confusion between the Ist and 2nd classes: in 
this word, the imp. is nem de and the part. pass. iiem- 
n e d. Those in -tan, -han (^^tan) receive no additional 5, 
as: grétan /o greet, salut e^ he gre't he salutes ; cy- 
San to make knoivn, he cy6 he makes known; but iii 

Of Verbs, ^^ 

the imp. grétte, cy{)de (cy^de) and in the part. 
pass. gegrét, cy6ed. Those in -dan have -ist in ihe 
2nd pers. pres. ; in the 3d person usually -t only ; yet we 
sometimes find also -dest, -de^, as: lædan to lead, \vl 
lætst, he læt or lædest, lædeS; sendan to 
send,^\i sentst, he sent, or sendest, sende^ (in 
imp. lædde, sende, in p. p. læded or læd and 
send): so also scrydan induere, scryt, scrydde, 
scryd (scrydd), orscryded, pi. scryddej fédan 
to feedy and the like. 

208. Those in -tan and -dan with a consonant pre- 
ceding, admit no additional t or d in the imperfect, as: 
plihtan to expose to danger, plihte; settan fo set, 
sette; sendan to send, sende sent; andwyrdan to 
ansiver^ andwyrde answered; ahreddan to liherate, 
ahredde liberated. Those with c or cc change it into 
Ji before ^, as: nealæcean to approach^ nealæhte; 
r e c c a n to care for, reck, r e h t e. 

209. Those in -san generally take t for S in the 
3d pers., as: ræsan ^o rush^ ræst, imp. ræsde, part. 
pass. r æ s e d ; a 1 y s t he redeems 8zc. 

210. Some, both of this and of the following classes, 
with a double consonant as characteristic, answer to the 
Icelandic in ja after a single consonant , and in the im- 
perative, take only a single characteristic letter, bnt with 
the addition of e, as: settan (Icel. se tja), imperat. 
sete set; so also lecgan to lay, (lede, geled), imp. 
lege. Which seems to shew that the Icelandic form is 
tlie original. Most of these beloiig to the Sd class, as: 
secgan to sajj, imperat. s ege; or to the 2nd conjiiga- 
tion, as: licgan to He, imperat. lige; biddan to aslc^ 
bide; hebban to lift, heave, hefe. 

211. Some foUow both the Ist and 2nd classes, as : 
leofian and lybban (libban) to live; hogian and 

76 Of Verbs. 

Iiycgan t(h think; folgian and fyligan (or fyli- 

g e a 11) to follow ; but the forms according to the 2iid 
class are more usual in tliose persons, which in the Ist 
class change a into 2, as: 
Indic. pres. ic lybbe Suhj. pres. lybbe Inf, lybban 

pli leofast -^ lybbon Ger, lybbenne 

he leofatJ imp. leofode Part. lybbende 

we, ge, hi lybba« leofodon (edon) (ge)leofod 

imp. leofode-st, Imperat. leofa 

leofodon (-edon) lybbatJ. 

Instead of leofast and the forms thereto belong- 
ing we also find lyfast, imp. ly fode, and in the 
part. pres. lifiende, Ælfr. de Vet. Test. p. 3. In Ice- 
landic ek lifi has in the part. pass. , or, more cor- 
rectly, in the supine li fat. 

212. Still more irregular are the following: 

ic ga, he gi«, . gau, ■. ^^^^^^ r gan, i..j..r. ga go. 

- gange, we gaS, j gangan,j t. gangen — gang 

ic do, he déS "» ^ 

, , I *^°"? %<l6, dy don, gedon — do do, 

(ic bue, he hfH) biian, blide, biidon, gebiin, cultivate. 

213. Care must be taken not to confound those in 
-eaji (i. e. yan) with those in ia/t (i-an) ; i being a fixed, 
essential vowel , standing for «, but e an unessential 
substitute for y consonant, which, in the variable ortho- 
grapliy of the Anglo-Saxons, is inserted at randora after 
c and g", as: weccan or weccean to awahen-^ reccan 
or reccean to discotirse, colloqui. None of those in 
-ean belong to the Ist class, but all those in -iaii belong 
to it, as: wacian to watch, vigtlare-, pluccian to 
pluck (IDS. 199.). 

Third Clas6\ 

214. This class comprizes especially the verbs con- 
tained in the foUowing list. 

Of Verl)S. 


Part. pass. 
geteald countj tell^ 
gesteald lea-p, 
gecweald kill. 

gedwellan gedwealde gedweald mislead^ 
peccan J)eahte ge|)eaht cover, thatcJi, 


gesæd ") 


sege or 







care about^ 



I huy. 







care for, reck^ 




Pres. Ind. Imper, Inf, Imperf. 

Ic telle tele tellan teaide 

stelle (stele) stellan stealde 

cwelle cwele cwellan cwealde 


|>ecce pece 

recce rece 

secge sege 

3, segb or sagatJ, 

lecge lege 

bycge byge 

or bige, Joh. 13, 29. 
séce séc sécan 

réce rée récan 

wyrce wyrc wyrcan 
bringe bring bringan 
Jence J>enc pencan 
3, pinc^, pi. pincatJ, pincan, puhte, (ge|)ulit) ■» 
Joh. 8, 53. Boet. p. 11. Boet. p. 32. Pent. pref. / *^^"**' 

215. Its part. pass. is always contracted, whether 
the characteristic letter requires the termination d or ty 
as: gedwellan to mislead, gedweald; bycgan to 
huy, boht; secgan loses its g before dy and forms 
sæde, sædonin the imp. and sæd in the part. pass. 
although sægde, sægd, raay likewise be found. 

216. H ab ban to have is conjugated almost like 
ly bh an, but is more irregular; as it serves for an 
auxiliary, I shall give it entire. 

Indicatlve. Subjunctive, Infinitivs . 

Pres. ic liabbe (hæbbe) Pres. habbe (hæbbe) Pres. habban 

|)U hæfst (hafast) pi. habbon (-an) Ger, habbenne 

he hæfS (hafa^) Imp. hæfde Part. hæbbende 

we, ge, hi habbab (hafia^) hæfdon P. P. hæfd 

habbe we (5fc. Imper. hafa hæfed. 

Imp. hæfde-st habba« ^ Bed, Sy 2^ 

PI. hæfdon ^ habbe gejf 



Of Verbs. 

Tims also n ab ban to have not: 


Suhj. Imperaf. 

Pres. i c nabbe 

Sing. næbbe nafa 

pli næfst 

Plur. næbbon (-en) nabba» ^ 
Imp. næfde ^ nabbe ge/ 

he næB 

■ we, ge, hi nabba^, x 
or nabbe, næbbej 

pi, næfdon. 

Care must be taken 

not to confound h ab ban with 

hebban (hof) to lift &c., which belongs to the 2nd 

Conjiigatioii 3d Class. 

217. Wil Ian to will, and ny 11 an to tcill not, are 

thus conjiigated: 



Pres. ic wille 

Pres, wille 

|)u wilt 

pi. willon (-en) 

he wile 

Imp. wolde 

we, ge, hi willaJJ i 
wille Ave <5^c./ 

pi. woldon 

In finit. 

Imp, \volde-st 


pi. woldon. 

part. willende 



Pres. ic iielle 

nelle (nylle) 

J)u nelt 

nyllan (nyllon) 

he iiele (nyle) 


we, ge, hi iiella^ (nyllatJ) 

nelle J)ii 

nelle we <Sfc. 


Imp. nolde-st 


pi. noldon 

«>-«o C^ • 1 

-L -. J - 1_- 1 Jl- 1 

218. Some irregular verbs not only change the vowel 
in the imperfect, but in the present likewise, which is 
monosyllabic, and greatly resembles the imp. of the 2iid 
aud 3d Conjugations. These verbs might be considered 
as a distiuct class , but as the number of them , in any 
of the Gotliic tongues, does not perhaps exceed ten or 
twelve, and as they mutually differ from each other, it 
Seems most advisable to regard them as anomalous ; they 
are the following: 

Of Verbs, ^0 

Ic, he can, (2. cunne or canst) , pi. cunnon, Inf, cunnan, cu^e, 

cutJon, part. pass. c\i^ know. 
An, (2. unne) , pi, unnon, Inf. unnan, ii^e, ii^on give, hestow, 

Also ic gean, we geunnon, geunnan, geutfe, part, pass. 

Geman, Joh. 16, 21. (2. gemanst, Boet. p. 118.), pL gemunon, 

gemunan, gemunde, gemundon remember. 
Sceal , (2. scealt) , sculon , (sceolon) , pres. SubJ. scyle , imp. 

sceolde, sceoldon shall, should. 
Dear, (2. dearst, Beow. 42) , durron, Subj. durre, dorste, dorston, 

fearf, (pearft, Boet. p. 8. or ]^ur£e , Gram. Ælfr. p. 5.) , J>urfon, 

Subj. J)urfe, |)orfte, |)orfton need. Also be^earf, bepurfon 8fc. 
Deah, dugon, Inf. dugan, dohte. Boet. p. 158. Beow. 42-, pii 

dohtest, Deut. 15, 11., dohton. Boet. p. 40. (not duhte) 

help, be good for (Icel. du gi). 
Mæg, (2. miht. Joh. 13, 36.) , magon, (not mdgon) , Subj. mæge 

(mage), mihte, mihton or meahte, meahton, may, might. 
Ah, (2. åge) , ågon, Subj. åge, ågan, åhte, åhton possess, own. 

Also the negative nåh, Ælfr. Gramm. 2. , he nåh. Joh. 10, 

12., pi. någon (Sf *w&/. ivk^e, Wilk. Legg. AS. p. 160., 

nåhte, nåhtest, nåhton / do not possess. 
Wåt, (2. wåst) , witon, wite, vvitan, wiste, wiston, supine wi- 

tod know. Likewise the negative nåt , (2. nåst) , nyton, 

nyte, nytan, nyste, nystest or nestest, Boet. 5, 3. nyston. 
Mot, (2. most) , moton, mote, moste, moston must. 

219. The teiminatioii of the pres. pliir. -on is 
usually changed to e, when the pronoun follows imme- 
diately, as: mi mage we eow secgan now we may 
say to you. Sermo de Antichr. 1. witege? hioiv (un- 
derstand) ye7 Joh. 13, 12. iiyte we uii now we do not 
Itnow, Oros. 115. 

220. The imperfect is iuflected in the usual man- 
ner, as: cu6e, cu^est, pi. cu^on; and the imperf. 
suhj. is always like the indicative, excepting in the 2nd 
pers. sing. which does not admit ~st. 

221. Most of these verhs are used as auxiliaries, and 
some are dcfective; at least I have not h een abk to fiiid 

80 Of Verbs. 

sceal and mot in the inflnitive, which is else like the 
plur. of the present, only with a difference of termina- 
tion, as: cunnan, unnan, magan, ågan &;c. Most 
of tliem seem also to want the part. pass. ; c an has cuS, 
gecu$; an or gean, geunnen: ah, ågen, and wåt 
witen, Luke 12, 2., but these are rather to be consi- 
dered as adjectives. 

222. From witan we find also, in the Imperfect, 
wisse (Icel. vis si); tlie infinitive is witan, ié wi- 
tanne; witende, Gen. 3, 5. The imperative wite is 
in use, pi. witaS, (wite ge). We also find nyt ende 
(or nitende) not knowing, Nura. 22, 34. 

Second Order. 
General Remarics, 

223. The Second Order changes the vowel of the 
2nd and Sd pers. sing. pres. , as in German, and shortens 
the terminations into -st and -^, but never in the Ist, as 
in Icelandic: we must therefore seek the primitive form 
in the Ist person, as : 

tere tyrst tyrfJ {Uar) 
Lat. tero teris terit. 

In these persons, long a is changed into æ; short a 
into e (or y); e as well as short ea and u into y (or i 
tenue) ; u ov ed into y (or ha?'d i) ; o into é. The ter- 
minations est, e^, are also to be found without a change 
of vowel, as: ic stande, f u stenst, or standest, 
hestent, or standet, which is probably a remnant 
of the various primitive dialects. 

224. With respect to the characteristic letters, d, S, 
t, s, the same rules are valid here, which are given for 
the 2nd Class of the Ist Order (207. 209), as: ic ete, 
f« ytst, he yt; ic ride, he rit, rideS; ic cwe- 

Of Verbs. 81 

Se, fii cwyst, he cwyS; ic cedse, fu cyst, he 

225. In the imperfect, the 2nd person singular ends 
in e, and the chief syllable has the same vowel as the 
phiral , and imp. snhj. , as : i c f a n d , |> u f ii n d e , i c 
æt, fii æte &c. Sometimes -5^ is added, as: fundest, 
but that is rare and incorrect. 

228. The imperative ends, as in the Ist Conj. 2ii<i 
& 3d Classes, in the characteristic, or last consoiiant, 
except, when this is double, and answers to the Icelan- 
dic form with a single consonant and j, for, in that case, 
the imperative terminates in the single consonant, fol- 
lowed by e, as: gyfan to give, iraper. gyf; but sit- 
tan ^0 sit, (Icel. s i tja), imper. site; hebban to lift, 
raise (Icel. hefja), imper. hefe: but there seerøs to be 
no change of vowel here, as in German, although it takes 
place in the present, as : cum come, he cym6; c\ve5 
say , hecwyS; slap sleep , h e s 1 æ p § : yet we find 
slyh strike^ from sleån; and syh see^ from seon. 

227. Monosyllables terminating in a vowel take an 
h after it, and those in g generally change the g into 
^, when it concludes the word, as is usual in similar 
cases, throughout the language, as: j^weån (I. {)vå) 
to wash, imper. pweåh, imperf. {)w6h; leån (Icel. 
la) to reproach, subj. pres. leåh, imperf. loh, pi. lo- 
go n; stigan to mount , imperf. stah; cf. dugan to 
he good for, pres. de åh &c. (218.) 

Second Conju gation. 

228. As paradigms of the three classes contained 
in this conjugation, we shall take et an to eat; lætau 
to let; f^YdiW to go, 



Of Verbs. 

Ut Class. 

2nfZ Oa*s. 

2d Class. 

Indicative Mode. 

Pres. Sing. 1. 












Plur. 1. 2. 3. 

eta«, 8s ete 

læta«, 8s læt« 

fara«. Si fare 

Imp. Sing. 1. 












Plur. 1. 2. 3. 




Suhjimctive Mode. 

Pres. Sing. 








/wijj. Sing. 








Imperative Mode. 

Pres. Sing. 





eta«, (^ ete 

lætaS, &; læte 

fara«, 3; fare 

Infmitive Mode. 









Purt. aet. 




Part. pass. 




First Class. 
229. The Ist Class contains those words that 
have for their vowel a long e or i (not é or i) before 
a single characteristic. In the Icelandic, and other Go- 
thic tongues, they have a long a in the iraperfect, for 
vvhich the A. S. has æ, according to the laws of permu- 
tation, as: 

Istp. pres. 





Part. pass. 





































Of Verbs. 




læs -on 




bitt, Lukeli, 

10. bæd-on 


bid, hcgf 



sæt -on 




li«, Ælfr. Gr. 5. læg- on 





ongeat -on 





geaf -on 





swæf -on 





bær -on 





teer -on 





[•scear -on ^ 
Isoser -on J 





acwæl -on 





forheél -on 





staél -on 





nam -on 



230. Those with a double cliaracteristic Ihrow away 
one of them, and replace it with e in the imperative, asi 
bidde, bide; sitte, site; Hege, lige (226). 

231. The folio wing are irregular, viz. 

geseon to see, ic geseo, he gesyhcJ, geseåh, pi. ge- 
sawon, gesewen or gesegen, pi. gesene, Impet\ 
geseoh or gesyh. 

gefeon to rejoice, ic gefeo, gefeåli, gefagen or ge- 
f æ g e n. 

232. One word of this class changes S (/)) into d^ 
in several forms, but, in other respects, is conjngated 
regularly like etan, tredan &c. , namely c w e § a n to 
sat/., as: 

Ind. pres. ic cweSe, |>u cwyst, lie cwyS. imp. ic cwæt>', 
J)U cweéde, he cwæiJ, plur. c^Yædon. SubJ. pres, 
ewetJe. imp. cwæde. Imper. cwe«, cwe^a« or 
c w e 6 e g e , p. p. g e c w e d e n. 

233. To this class belong also the auxiliaries we- 
s an and beon to he: 

Ind. pres. 1. eom Subj. pres. Sing. sy (seo, sig) 

2. eart Plur. syn 

3. is (ys) imp. Sixig. wære 
Plur. 1. 2. 3. synd (syndon) Plur. wæron 



Of Verbs. 

(mjp. Sing. 1. waés Imper. pres, Sing, 2. wes 

2. wære Plur, 2. wesaiJ, wese 

3. vvæs Infinitive pres. wesan-ne 
Plur. 1. 2i 3. Wcéron part. aet, wesende 

part. pass. (gewesen) 
Ind, Sing, 1. beo Suhjunctive Sing. beo 

2. byst Plur. beon 

3. by-5 Imper. Sing. beo 
Plur. 1, 2. 3. beoiJ ) Plur. beoS (beo) 

(Sf beo j Infinitive beon-ne 

^)ar(. aet. beo ude. 
Of the latter verb only the present tense occiirs, 
whicli is ofteu iised as the futiire to eom; but, as it is 
evidently auother verb, I have preferred giviiig it separately. 
In several of these forms, parti cularly in tlie iinper- 
fect, tlie negative is contracted with the verb, as: 
1, P. pres. neoni {also ne eom) 
3. P. pres. nis or nys 

imp. ic naés Subj. imp. nære 

pli nære pi. ncéron 

he neés 
pi. ncéron. 

Se C O 91 d C la s s. 


This Class contains a few words having 

short e, also a few having eo, evidently short, in the im- 
perfect. There are some others receiving eo, bnt donbt- 
ful, having a single consonant for characteristic, so that 
they might be referred to the 3d class, and written with 
€0 accented: I suppose, however, that even this eo is 
short, corresponding to thcScand. o (Ex. see p.21. 1.4,6.). 
ondr^éde ondrcét ondred -on ondraéden dread, 

hate^) heét het -on, Or. 2, 3, håten command, 

slåpe slæptJ slep -on slåpen sleep, 

ho héhtJ heng -on hangen hang, 

onf6 onféh^ enfeng -on onfangen receive, 

healde hylt (or liealt) heold -on 

heal den kold, 
feold -on gefealden foldy 

^) håte am called, has hatte, -on in imp. 



Of Verbs. 


wylt (wealdeS) 

weold -on 



fylS (fealb) 

feoll -on 



wyl5 (wealled) 

vveoll -on 



2. wyxt) wyxti 

weox -on 



sceod- on 




gesceot- on 

(gesceåten) fall to. 


beot -on 




bleot -on 




Weop -on 



swæpS (swåpeS) 

sweop -on 




weop -on 




bleow -on 




cneow -on 




creow -on 




seow -un 




heow -un 



fléwS, Ex. 3, 8. 

fleow -un, Joh, 

19, 34. - - 


speow -un 



greow -un 




reow -un 






weaxe ( 

















235. To tlie Ist pers. of lio and o ni 6 an /( is some- 
times added, tliougli the forms li 6 Ii , f 6 h are more justiy 
2rid pers. imperat. as : Joh. 19, 6. F 6 occurs also witliout 
any prefix, and with other prefixes, as: misf 6 fail, miss^ 
Boet. 2. The pres. pi. is: hdS, onfdS; the infinit. 
hon, onfdn. 

236, Sceåde is the Dutch and Germ. schcide, of which and 
the following there might be some doubt, as to the accentua- 
tion of the imperfect; but the English forms slept, swept, ivept, 
speak for the short vowel, the t, no doubt, being added to coun- 
terbalance its shortness, that the word might not appear too ab- 
rupt. Thus instead of si ep v/e also find si ep te, Beda 2, 12. 
but, in the same place, regularly si ep o n in the plural, be- 
cause the syllable added (-on) gave the word sufficient length 
and weight. Some of these words have indeed long o in Ice- 
landic, e. g. weox is in Icel. 6x, hleop is hljop, heow is 
li jo, but there have been some other old forms with a short 
vowel, perhaps ox, hl op, hjogg, (Sw. lopp, hogg, old Dan. 
hjog, plur. hjogg o), from which the plur, and the imperf, 
subj. are formed thus: uxu, hlupu, hjuggu, subj. yxi, 


i)f Verbs. 

hlypi, lijyggi; to tliese I suppose the A. S, weox, hleop, 
h e o w have corresponded , just as in the preceding class the 
iinperf. indic. in A. S. has the vowel corresponding to the im- 
perf. subj. inicelandic. For seow we also find sew, Mar. 4, 4; 
and similar forms of the other words , as: cnew, blew ^c. , 
the e prononnced as in let, Jield, the w as in now, how, 
niay occasionally be met ^\ith (p. 3. 1. 6; cf. p, 19, 1. 23.) 
IJence, by a sort of inversion or permutation, changing the e to 
a consonant (y) and the ly to a vowel (m) , but preserving the 
old orthography, the modem English blew, knew, hew, grew ^c. 
For speow we find speou, v.hich -ou seems intended to de- 
note the diphthongal sound in our, now, and consecjuently shows 
that o, in this situation, had the open sound, and is not to be 
accented. The Icelandic forms: s er i sowed, g rer i growed, 
r e r i roived, are more remote on account of the r inserted, but 
have all short e or é, sometimes o, ro ri S-^c; whereas the vowel 
can scarcely be shown to have been long or accented, in these 
cases, in any of the ancient Gothic tongues; but that it should 
have been long in the first instances, as Dr. Grimm has ima- 
gined, writing let, ondréd, héng, and in Frisic htld, 
fil, is a great mistake, refuted even by the modem English 
ht, held, felly Svr. låty holl, foll, Germ. hing, fmg ^c. 

Third Class. 

237. The 3d Class is tolerably regular, and not 
uiilike the Ist and 2nd, as: 

wace vv-æc^ 

bace bæc^ 

wi(5sace Avit5sæct> 

scace (or sceace) 

drage (drægS) 

gnage (gnægS) 

hlihhe (hlilrS) 

sleå slyhS 

2d p. Imperat. slyh or sléh 

|)weå |)\YihtJ |)w6h 

2d p. Imperat. pweåh or |)wéh 

leå (lyhS) loh logon 

wade (wæt) wod -on 

Illade (hlæt) hlod -on 




arise, waken. 

boc - 




wiSsoc -on 

















. _ _ _ 




slegen ^ 

«*v.,V,^ «7«,. 

geslagen/ ' "*' 

pwogon |)vvegen wash, 

a|>wogen. Joh. 13, 12, 
Beow. p. 18. blamcy tax, 
Nvæden wade^ 
hl æden load. 

Of Verbs. 




grof -on 





scof -on 





hof -on 





st6p -on 

- -, - - 



- -,-- 

f sc6p -on \ 
\ sceop -on-» 




wocs -on 





stod -on 





g61 -on 





C spdn -on -j 
1 speén -onJ 





com -on 




238. Hebbaii, like bid dan, sittan &c. , an- 
swers to the Icelandic in -ja (liefja) and therefore adds 
an e for /, in the imperat. mode, liefe, bide, site: 
like lybban and others, it also clianges its cliaracteristic. 

239. Care must be taken not to confonnd far an 
with féran, which corresponds to the Icel. færa, Dan. 
føre, to convey, but is often used in tlie sense of to 
^0, skift {place). Its inilection is complete and regular, 
according to Ist Conj. 2ad Class. 

240. Swerian to swear is irregular: 

Pres. ic swerige 
J)U swerast 
he swera^ 
we ^c. sweriai^i^ 
Imp. swor-e (swerede) 


Pres. swerige 
Imp. swore 

swera, swere 

Pres. swerian 
Ger. swerigenne 
Part. aet. swerigende 
Part. pass. gesworen. 



T h i r d C O n j u g a t i o n. 

241. As paradigms of the three classes of this 
conjugation may serve byrnan to htirn, ardere; wri- 
tan to write; sceotan to shoot, which are thus in- 
flected : 


Of Verbs. 

ist Class, 

2nd Class. 

3d Class. 

Indicative Mode, 

Pres. Sing. 1. iDyrne write sceote 

2. byrnst " rrritst scytst 

3. byrn« writ scyt 

Plur. 1. 2. 3, byrnatJ å; byrne writa^ 6^ write sce6tatJ <?f sce6te 

Imjp. Sing. 1. barn wråt sceåt 

2. burne write scute 

3. barn wråt sceat 
Plnr. 1. 2. 3, burnon writon scuton 

Suhjunctive Mode, 









Imperative Mode, 
Pres. Sing. bym writ 

Plur. byrnatJ &^ byrne writatJ 8^ write sceotatJ 8; sce6te 
Iiijinitive Mode. 
Pres. byrnan writan 

Ger und. byrnamie writanne 

Pnrt. aet. byrnende writende 

Part. pass. burnen writeu 

First Class, 
242. The Ist Class comprizes those words which 
have a sliort / (//) before the characteristics rn, 9iji^ ng, 
nc, Ild, nih, mjy, a sliort a (o) in tlie iraperfect, and u in 
the part. pass. : also those which have a short e or €9 
before tlie characteristics //, Ig, It, rp, rf, rg, and the 
likc ; in the imp. ea {æ) short, and in the part. pass. o, as : 
yrne yrnti arn urnon urnen ruriy 

blinne blinfi blån, blunnon blunnen cease, 

blonn, Bed. 1, 14. 
onginne onginS ongan ongunnon onguniien hcgin^ 
spinne spin^ spån spunnon spunnen spin^ 

winne wintS wan wunnon wunnen war^ 

frine frintJ fran frunon gefrunen i 

fregne frægn (fræng) frugnon gefrugnen/ 

singe singiS sang sungon as ungen sing. 

Of Verbs. 







scourge, beat. 












sting-, stab. 


























; -scrincfJ 




shrink^ wither. 


















































Or. 115. 




gelimpS gelamp 















am wroth. 

s w elge 






















































gesweorce geswyrcS -swearc -swurcon 























(gedærf) gedurfon 































broden "j 











00 Of Verbs. 

243. The iraperfects in æ for ea are perliaps mere 
variations of later times, wlien tlie pronunciation became 
vitiated. We also find ongon, bo ud, son g, gelomp 
&c., for ongan, band (fec. 

244. The last examples on the list exhibit a great 
variety of form in the infinitive, and Ist person present: 
it appears however that the vowel e prevails when rs 
follows, but eo when r with a mute comes after: we 
also find wurpan for weorpan &;c. (p. 3, 1. 11.) 

245. We may also, in this place, notice the word 
weorpan to become (Germ. werden)^ which is used as 
an auxiliary, and, like some other verbs, changes S {p) 
into d^ in certain forms : it is thus coujugated: 

j)rQS» Sing. ic weorSe Suhj. pres. weortJe 

J)u wyrst weortJon 

he wyrtJ imp. wurde 

Plur. "we &{c. weorpa^J v wurdon 

weorQe we 5fc.j" Impcr. Sing. weor^ 

imp. Sing. 1. weartJ Plur. vveorJ)ab', weorSe 

2. wurde Infinit. pres. weoråan 

3. wearS Gcrund weorSanne 
Plur. wurdon Part. aet. (weorSende) 

Part. pass. (ge)worden. 
Second Class. 

246. The 2nd Class inchides all verbs with a 
hard i {i) , corresponding to the German ei , and the 
Dutch ij, as; rid an, Germ. retten., Dut. rijden, to ride. 
It is very regular, and its only change seems to be that 
of the vowel in the Ist and 3d persons of the imp. sing. 
into «, though in reality it luidergoes another change of 
importance, by the / losing its accent in the imp., and 
taking the sound of i tenue, as in bit, till, which is evi- 
dent, as well from several piaces where we find these 
words written with their proper accent, as from analogy 
with the other Gothic tongues , particularly the icelan- 
dic: for instance, in afl the present tenses; 

Qf Verbs. 






Part. pr. 

ic ride he rit 

ic ride 




Icel. ri« ri^r 





Germ. reite reitet 





in the imperfect, on the contrary: 

råd pi. ri don ride — — riden 

Icel. reis ritJum riSi — — riSinn 

Germ. (ritt) ritten ritte — — geritten. 

Even in the moderji English, many remains still 
exist of this change, as rise, risen: I have therefore 
made no scruple of employing here the highly useful 
accentuation of the Icelandic. 

247. The foliowing raay serve as examples : 






pine, fade. 








scintJ sceån (scan) 















shine, poet. 












sink, how. 










































tear^ slit. 
























stay, bide. 


glide« (glit) 














































spit, vomit. 


Of Verbs. 

248. So also: wri'San to hind, wreathe ; li'San to 
sail; siii'San to cut, but which change 6 iiito d ia tlie 
before given cases (232. 245). 

249. As the use of accents was not quite universal, 
the / tenue is, according to another orthograpliy, ofteii 
indicated by 3^, as: ari'san, ari'st, aras, aryson, 
arysen &c. (p. 3, 1. 4.) 

Third Class. 

250. The 3d Class is also very regular, and bears 
a near resemblance to the preceding, as: 












skut up. 











ro een 


























fleo pi 

flyh-5 fleåh 
. fleo«, /»/. fledn 


flogen 1 

fly, fiee. 





togen 1^ 


teo, pi 

. teo«, Inf. teån 


















boiv, incline. 


















obtain, sortior. 























































Of Verbs. 03 

251. SeoSan to hoil, seethe, changes its ^ to d 
in the same cases, as above given (245), but those witli s 
for characteristic change tlie * into r in those cases, as : 

ceosaii cyst 1. 3. ceås 2. cure PI. curon gecoren to choose, 
forleésan -lyst leas -lure -luron forloren to lose, 

hreosan hryst hreås hrure hruron gehroren to fall, 


252. We may often find an i in the 2nd and 3d per- 
sons present, which is a mere orthographical variety, in- 
trodiiced for the sake of expressing the hard y, without 
an accent, as: cist, wri§; just as, vice versa, we find in 
the 2nd class, y for i tenue, both in the 2nd pers. sing. 
irap. and in all the plural, as also in the imp. subj. and 
part. pass. , according to the same orthography (249). 

253. The irregular verbs are here inserted in their 
respective conjugations and classes, and the most remark- 
able and frequently occurring given at full length. There 
are indeed some more under this head to be found in Grara- 
mars, but these are 1) partly regular, being here referred 
to their proper classes, as: bepæcan to decetve ; e d 1 æ- 
can to repeat ; tæcan to teach; which are inflected 
like neålæcean, reccan &;c. (208) ; 2) partly uucer- 
tain, being of so rare occurrence, that their inflection 
cannot be completely ascertained; 3) partly false and 
misunderstood, as: annan to give ^ which is no verb, 
but merely an imaginary infinitive formed from the sing. 
ind. præs. ic an I grant , plur. unnon, inf. unnan; 
aha fan to lift up^ made of the part. pass. ah af en, 
from the verb hebbe, hof, inf. hebban, &c. 

Of Auxlliary, and other kinds of, Verbs. 

254. The future in A. S. is the same as the pre- 
sent, without any auxiliary, as: hi d66 eowof ge- 
samnungum, ae seo tid cymS fæt ælc ^e eow 

94 Of Verbs. 

ofslyhS, wénj) pæt he Menige gode they shalt 
drive you from the synagogues, but the time shall come 
that whosoever slayeth you shall think that he doeth 
God a service y Joh. 16, 2. So also, in the subjunctive 
mode, as: Ic truwige J»eåh J)æt sum wur§e 
abryrd purh god, fæt hine lyste gehyran J)å 
håigan la re / trust however that some one may 
he instigated through God ^ that he desire to hear the 
holy doctrine, Ælf. Ep. 1, 3. The words i c wille, 
sceal (&c. rather convey an idea of willy obligation^ or 
command than of time y although they soraetimes, by 
periphrasis, assist in expressing futurity. 

255. The perfect is formed with hæbbe and the 
pluperfect Avith hæfde, as: ic hæbbe, hæfde ge- 
sæd I have y had said ; J)å hig hæfdon hyra lof- 
sang ges lin genne when they had sung their song 
of praise {hymn). But this tense is also often expressed 
by the simple imperfect, as: ') and {)æt hi di don 
purh éæs deofles låre, {)e hwi'lum ær Adam 
forlærde and that they did through the Devil's sug- 
gestion^ who a tvhile before {had) misled Adam^ Ælf. Ep. 
1, 7.; and \k ^a he fæste feowertige daga and 
when he (had) fasted forty days. 

256. The passive, on the contrary, is expressed in 
all tenses by the help of auxiliaries, viz. in the present, 
with eom or weorSe; in the perfect, with eom — • 
word en; in the future, with beo, or sceal beon, in 
the imperfect, with wæs, wearS; and in the pluper- 
fect with wæs — worden; nearly as in Gerraan. 

257. Here should also be noticed several other cir- 

^) Tilis very simple passage is curiously misunderstood in L. 
L. A, S, edit. Wilkins, p. 162. , "where it is thus translated : 
et ut per Diaboll instinctum ageretit tamdm, antequam Adam 
seductus er at, (/) 

Of Verbs. 9^ 

curalociitions with the auxiliaries: for instance, eom 
with the geruiid expresses duty or obligation, as : h e is 
to liifi genne he is to love, i. e. to be, or otight to 
be, loved. With the active participle, eom denotes a 
precise point of time, as in English, as: nii fii pus 
glædlice to us sprecende eart now thou art thus 
gladly speahing to us; he mid him sprecende wæs 
he was speaking with him; heo mid {)åm healfan 
dæle beforan fåra cyninge farande wæs, swyl- 
c e heo f 1 e 6 n d e w æ r e she ( Tkamyris) ivent with 
the half part {of the army) before the King , as if she 
were fl€ei?ig {from him) (O ro s. 2, 4.); i c ga rædan / 
am going to read, Fr. je vais lire. 

258. This language, having no passive form, cannot 
have any deponent verbs ; but it has several irapersonals, 
as : d a g i a n to dawn ; r i n a n to rain^ and the like, which 
have no other peculiarity than that of occurring only in 
the 3d pers., as: hit rinS &c. Some of these however 
become, in a certain degree, personal, by admitting a 
subject in an oblique case, for instance, in acc. ne 
hyngra6 fone pe to me cym§, and ne {)yrst 
pone næfre pe on me gelyfS he shall not hunger 
who cometh to me , and he shall never thirst who he- 
lieveth in me , Joh. 6, 35., or in dat. me fincS {me- 
thinJis)^ pe pinc^, him J)inc§ (fec. ; him gedafe- 
node he ought ; him gebyraS it is his duty^ his turn. 

259. Others admit all the persons , but denote an 
action which is confined to its agent; these are called 
neuters, or intransitives, as: sli'dan ifo slide; swira- 
man to swim. Some of these require that a pronoun 
of the same person as the subject be repeated in an 
oblique case, as: ic me reste / rest myself; he hine 
res te he rested himself, and the like. These do not 
differ in iuflection from the others. 

Of Particles. 

260. The parts of speech comprized under this ge- 
neral denomination ; namely , the Adverb , Preposition, 
Conjunction, and Interjection, are in this, as in the other 
Gothic tongues, not snsceptible of any particnlar inliec- 
tion which can entitle them to a place in the Etyrao- 
logy. 3Iany of the adverbs indeed adniit the degrees 
of coniparison, which are generally denoted by the ter- 
minations -e, ~or, -ost, as: hrædlice rapidly, hastily^ 
hrædlicor, hrædlicost. Soraetimes the compara- 
tive is formed by merely rejecting the re from the 
comparative of the adjectire, and the superlative in -st 
(-est) only , as : lange, comp. 1 e n g , sup. 1 e n g s t (^see 
Mules for the comparison of adjectives 128-135). Care 
must be taken not to confound this comparative of the 
adverb with that of the adjective, in the neuter gender: 
the latter ending alvvays in -re, as, in the words already 
cited, hrædlicre, lengre. All other changes which 
these words raay undergo , transform them into totally 
different expressions, and are therefore not to be con- 
sidered as inflections, but as derivations or compositions, 
as : li t , u t e , li t a n , b - ii t a n , y m b - li t a n &c. These 
must therefore be sought for in the Dictionaries , but 
their formation will be treated of, in the next part. 

261. The Rules for the government of Prcposi- 
tions, belong to the Syntax, and shall there be briefly 



Of tlie Forinatioii of Words. 

262. 1 his Branch of Graramar is, in Anglo-Saxoii, as 
well as in all the Gotliic, Slavonian, Lettisli, and Thracian 
or Phrygian tongues, of the highest moment, in ascer- 
taining the gender, inflection, derivation, and primitive 
signilication, of words ; an accurate knowledge of whicli 
is, in the dead langiiages, as indispensahle to the under- 
standing and translating them correctly, ag it is, in the 
living ones, to the writing them with elegance and pre- 
cision, and to the enrichment of them. Neglect of this 
branch has in the old graramars given birth to many 
diflicult and absurd rules to the fraraing of which, only 
some unconnected portions of it have been applied liere 
and there, with other heterogeneous matter, as the occa- 
sion required. 

263. Words are formed either by Derwation, or by 
Composition. In the first case, a word receives a new, 
or a modified, signidcation, by a change of vowel, or by 
the addition of one or more syllables, which, in them- 
selves, are void of signification. In the second case, two 
or more independent words are joined together, in order 
to form a new one. In both tlicse cases, the A. S. bears 
a close resemblance to the Icelandic and the German, 
though it often happens, that what, in one of these lan- 
guages is expressed by derivation, is, iu another, denoted 
either by composition, or bj quite another derivative 
termination. In like raanner, with respect to the inflec- 
tion of words, one language frequently employs the da- 
tive case, where another reqnires tlié accusaMve, or, for 
the same word, demands an inflection different from that 


98 Prefixes. 

which it lias in anoiher ; wliercjfore , in tlie study of 
tliese tongiies , it is necessary to pay due attention to 
tlieir pecnliaiities in eacli of these respects, that oiir 
knowledge of thcm may not be imperfect and confused. 


204. Tlie oljject of Derivation is eitlier to alter, or 
raodify, tlie signiiication of a word, by adding to it tlie idea 
of iiegation, opposition, deterio ration, or the like ; or, by 
clianging its part of speecli and infiection, to transform a 
substautive into an adjective, a pronoiin into an adverb &c. 
The first is accompiished by certain universal syllables, 
which are prefixed indiscriminately to all those parts of 
speech, to which the ideas of opposition, negation &c. 
are to be added, as: unsidii depravity ; unsyfer im- 
pure; unsælen to looseii; unrihte unjustly. The se- 
cond, on tlie contrary, requires an appropriate termina- 
tion for each part of speech, to which a word is to be 
transferred, adapted to its inflection, and other proper- 
ties, as : h e a h high ; h e å 1 i c e highly ; h e å n to raise, 
eæalt ; heahnes highness: the first must therefore be 
considered with respect to their signification; the last 
according to the parts of speech to which a word is 
transferred, by their infliience. 


Some syllables irapart the idea of negation, deterio- 
ration opposition ifec. , to the words to which they are 
prefixed; the chief are: 

2(35. 17w-, on- (Engl. & Germ. un-, Icel. o'-), as: 
11 n c y s t a fault (Icel . o k o s t r) ; u n s i b enmity ; u n - 
clæn unclean; unscyldig guiltless ; iingehyrsura 
disohedient ; o n r i h t w i s imrighieous ; u n a b e r e n d 1 i c 

Prefixes. ^1^ 

tinhearahle; tinboht unhought ; uiigeboren unhorn; 
ttntynaii or ontynan to open; iiiicl æii siaii to pol- 
lut e ; ouwredii to uncoveiy reveal. 

266. n- (from n e not, Lat. «-) is used chiefly with 
proiioiiiis aiid adverbs, as: nåii none (from åii one, like 
tlie Icel. n-einn, Lat. n-ullus &c.) ; næfre never. If 
tlie primitive word begin with h or w^ it is left out, as : 
nabbaii to have not; næs was not; if it begiu with 
ivi, it is changed into y, as: ny 11 an to mill not (?iolle.) 

267. or- (Icel. er-, or-), as: orraod desperate; or- 
sorg secure; orsorgnes aecurity, carelesness ; o r t r \i- 
wian to despair. 

268. «-, æ- (answer often to the Germ. er-), as: 
awendan to avert , per ver t ; atynan to open (from 
tun, Germ. Za/m); am an sumian to eæcommiinicate ; 
a w e a 1 1 a n to spring fortli ; ah a f e n eæalted , er eet (G. 
erhahen)', awæcan to aic olien (G. erwaclien). 

261). o§- (Germ. ent-)^ as: o^yrnan (G. entlau- 
fen) ; o 6 d 6 n erodere ; o § s a c a n to deny ; o § w e n d a ii 
to deprive of, avert (G. enttve?iden) ; o § f 1 e o n to fiee, 
escape. Sometimes it seems to hare the same significa- 
tion as and- as: oSfaestan ^o deliver^ (jtradere)-, i c 
o § e o w e ostendo» 

270. mis- (Icel., Dan., Engl. mis-, Germ. &; Sw. 
miss-)., as: misdæd inisdeed; mis li c various ; mis- 
lædan to ?Jiislead; mislician to mislike (Icel. mis- 
li'ka); misfon to miss., fait &c. It seems also to be 
fhe root of ra i s s i a n to ?niss. 

271. wan- or tvon- (Icel., Sw. , Dan. vaji-): wan- 
h å 1 unJiealthy, infirm ; w a n s c r y d d ill-clad &c. This 
particle is, without doubt, derived from the adjective 
Wana tvajiting, lacking., e.g. an J>ing ]te is wana one 
thing is iranting to thee. 

272. a?id- (Icel. u?id-., ond-, Gr. «?/n-), as: and- 


100 Prefixes. 

w 1 i t theface (Icel. a n d 1 i t, Germ. Antlifz) ; (s e 6) a n d- 
swaru {the) answer (Icel. ands vor) j andweard pre- 
sent ; andsacian to deny. 

273. wi^er- (from the Icel. prep. viSr, Germ. wi- 
de r , A. S. witS): wi^ersaca an adversary , apostate 
(Germ. Widersachei-) ; wi^erwinna an adversary, \vi- 
feer modnes asperity^ adversity ; w i S e r w e a r d adverse, 
hostile ', vv i é e r s a c u con tradiction ; wiSersacian to 
contradict^ oppose. Tliis particlc is the root of w i Me- 
rian to oppose. 

274. to- is, witlioiit doubt, the Engl. to, but, as a 
prelix , it of ten involves the idea of deterioration , and 
then seems to correspond to the Icel. tor, Gr. 8vg^ as: 
toweorpan to overthrow ; t o w en dan to stibvert ; to- 
\v r 1 § a n to distort , writhe ; t o d r æ f a n to dissipate^ 
disperse. In these cases to shoiild be written without 
the accent. 

275. for- is, in like manner, the Engl. /o/-, but it 
also often adds the idea of deterioration to the words 
before which it is placed, in wliich case it seems to be 
a different word, like the Germ. ver-^ (different from 
vor-)^ as: forbeo dan to forhid ; for de' man to con- 
demn ; f o r cuS perverse, corrupt ; f o r d d n to destroy. 

Other prefixes denote a determination of time, place^ 
degree kc. ; these are principally : 

270. ge- (Germ. ge-, Mæs. ga-^ which sometimes 
forms a sort of collective, as: gebrdSru Irothers (G. 
Gehrilder); gehiisan house-folie, gemagas kinsmen; 
gemacan mates (oldEngl. mal'es^ ; gegylda amemher 
of a Corporation or guild; gewita a tvitness , accom- 
plice; gefera a companion, attendant-, gescy shoes; 
gegadrian to gather. It sometimes gives an active 
signification, and then forms verbs out of substantives, 
as: geendian to end; gescyldan to shield-, getira- 

Prefixes. 101 

brian to huild, It often seems Toid of significatioii, as: 
gesælS Miss; geUc h'ke; gesund sound, healthy. In 
verbs, it seems sometimes to be a mere augment, and to 
be prefixed to all the imperfects (not, as in German, to 
the participles only): many tlierefore of the verbs to be 
foiind in Lye with ge- ouglit perliaps to be rejected, as 
mere imperfects or participles of the same word without 
ge-, It often changes the signification from literal to 
figurative, as : hyr an tohear^ gehjran to obey; heal- 
dan to hold, gehealdan to observe, preserve; fyllan 
to Jill ^ gefyllan to fuljil; biddan to hid, require^ 
gebiddan to pray, 

Til. be- (Germ. be-^ iisiially gives an active signi- 
fication, as: behabban to surrotind; beg an gan to 
perform^ do; behangen hung (ivith something); be- 
heåfdian to behead; behreowsian torepent. Some- 
times it seems to add notliing to the signification , as: 
bellfan to remain^ survive; begyrdan to ejicompass, 
gild about. It seems also to have a privative significa- 
tion, as: bebycgan to sell, from by cg an to buy. But 
many of the words having the above prefixes, especially 
«-, ge- and be- never occur without thera, such are be- 
lifan, gelic, arisan. 

218. ed' (kyraric «ff-, again, re-), as: edniwian 
to renew^ e d w 1 1 a n to reproach ; e d 1 e å n recompense ; 
e d c e n n i n g regeneration. 

279. sin- (Mæs. seV, Icel. si-, ever-)^ as: sinpyr- 
stende ever-thirsting ; singre'ne ever-green; sin- 
niht eternal night. (Hence the adv. si m ble, simle 
constantly, always^ and perhaps the Lat. semper.) 

280. sam- (Lat. semi, half)^ as: samwi's half-wise; 
samcucu half-dead {lialf-alive\ (from cucu, cwic liv- 
ing, quich, Icel. kvikr); samlere d half-learned ; but this 
derivation is doubtful, and most of the cases in Lye may 

i{r2 Prcfixes. 

perliaps be explaincd bj the i^ron, same, many traces of 
>vliich are to be fouiul iii A. S. 

281. sam- (Icel. sam-^ from s am od together, Lat. 
simul), as: s am wy re an to co-operate*y samrade un- 
animously kc. But tliis seems to be a Northernism, iii- 
trodiiccd at a late period, samod, without apocope, 
being generally used in composition; as: samodwyr- 
cau (fec. 

282. æl- (Icel. al-, from eall, «//), as: ælmili- 
tig ahugkty; æl gylden all-golden; ælgréne all- 

Pronoiins and adverbs have besides some derivative 
syllables prelixed to them; the chief are, 

283. /i?i?- (interrogative) : liwider wkither? liwylc 
whOf wliich? hwå who? 

2S4. h- s- (determinate, especially witb regard to 
the person speaking) , as: hid er hither ^ her Ae/e; swa 
so; s w ile such. 

285. p- (determinate, witli respect to another thing), 
as: {)æt that; {)ær there; {)ider thither; {)anon 

280. «'g"-, ge--f as: æghwær, gehwær every 
where; æghwider, gehwider tvhithersoever ; ægh- 
wanon from every side (undique); æghwylc, ge- 
hwylc each, every. 


287. There are nnmerons Terminations , but yet 
much feA\cr than in Icelandic; tliey are distinguished 
aecording to the reypective parts of speech , to which 
each word is transferred, through their influence. 

Nominal Terminations. 
Tlui followin^ denote persons: 

Terraiiiatioiis. 10^ 

288. -a (Icel. -«), as: se swica the traitor* cur 
ma « guest; wyrhta a workman, atvright^ maiislaga 
a maiislayer ^ wiSerwiiiiia an adversary^ yrfeiiuma 
an hetr; foregenga a f o? egoer ^ predecessor. It is iised 
also to form other derivatives, sigiiif jiiig inauimate tliiiigs, 
as : g e m å II a mi association ; g e w u n a a ciistom. 

289. -ere (Icel. -ari) ^ as: piegere a player^ sæ- 
dere a sower; wri'tere « writer; reafere a rohber% 
f ul lu liter e « baptist. 

290. -end (Icel. -andi^ from tlie part* aet. in -ende"), 
as : d é ra e 11 d a judge (Icel. d 6 m a n d i) ; w e r i e u d a 
p/otector^ waldend a ruier, governor^ hélend a sa- 
viour; æfterfyligend a successor, (also æfterf ol- 

291. -e (Icel. -ir), as: hyrde a herd (as in shep- 
herd), a keeper; (from hyr dan to guard). It is also 
used to form derivatives denoting inanimate objects, as: 
cyle cold; blodgyte bloodshed; sige victory; cwy- 
de a saying, testament; bryne a burnijig; bryce a 
hreach*y cyre choice; wlite beauty, eplendo?ir. Tliese, 
for the most part, are derived from verbs ; whereas those 
derived from adjectives, with the termination -e are of 
the fem. gender, as: rilitw is e jtistice. 

202. -el, -ol (Icei. -ill, -ult), as: forridel an out- 
rider ; foreryiiel a forerunner ; bydel a herald. It 
is also iised for inanimate objects, as: gyrdel a girdle; 
stypel a toiver , steeple; sceamol a bench, table; 
s t i c e 1 a sting. 

293. -i?ig (\c^\. -ingr, -i'ingr) , as: cyning aki?ig^ 
æ^eling aprince. It also forms patronyraics, as: Brand 
(woés) Beldeging, Bældæg Wodening, Wodeii 
Fri{)Owiilfing, FriSowiilf Finn in g, Finn Grod- 
wiilfing, Godwulf Geåting. 

294. --//wg^ (Icel. -lingr) forms diminutives and spmc- 

104 Terminations, 

times seeras to imply conterapt, as: lytlin^ a child, 
infant] cnæpling a hoy (from enapa)j hæftUngfl 
prisoner-, ræpling id, (i. e. one bouud >vith a rope); 
iiydling a slave*, feo ræling a farthing, 

295. 'waru (Icel. -verjar) deiiotes the inhabitants 
of a country or town. Derivatives vvith tliis termiiiation 
are, in the singular, collectives of the fem. gender, in 
tlie plur. they have -irere, and are declined like Dene 
(101. 104). 

298. -estre denotes feminine noims of action , as : 
witegestrc a prophetess) lærestre an tjistmctress ; 
rædestre a female reader; sangestre a songstress. 

297. -en forms only a few masciilines, as : {) e (5 d e n 
a lang, poet., from {)e6d people; dryhten alord, from 
dryht people, subjects; but many feminines, (corre- 
spondlng to the Germ. -/«, Dan. -inde) ^ as: f inen a 
maid-servant (from {)en); feowen a female slave (from 
peow); wylen the same (from weal a slave); also 
many nouns of the fem. gender (corresponding to the 
Iccl. *7z, -in) ^ as: g egen tradition, sayin g (Icel. siign); 
gymen heed^ care ; by r gen a tomb; sylen a gift; 
b y r f) e n a hurden ; h i w r æ d e n a family , house , and 
several others in ^-ræden^ as: gecwydræden anagree^ 
ment , contract ; mægræden relationship ; g e f é r r æ- 
den iz train^ company, congregation. Some of those iii 
^en are newters (corresponding to the Icel. in -in, -en) y 
as: mægen strength, might (Icel. megin, magn); 
m æ d e n a maiden ; w e s t e n a waste, desert ; s w e f e n 
M dream; midlen a middle) fæsten a fortress, fast^ 

The following derivations signify an action, condi- 
tioUi qiiality or the like. 

298. The short substantives , formed from terbs, 
by casting ofF the termination, and which in some cases 

Terminations. 105 

seem to be the root of such verbs, are here, as in Ger- 
man , generally of the mase, fender , as; w6p-as a 
cry, whoop (wlience wépan to weep)^ gefeå^o^, glad- 
ness (wlience g e f e d n to rejoicé) ; h r e a ra a cry ( whence 
hryman to cry out), Some of these however shew 
that they are derived from verbs, and not vice versa, 
as: fyll afally from fe all an tofall; hlyp « leap &c. 
It is remarkable that snbstantives thus formed, and with 
a particle prefixed, are generally neuter, as: gewill 
will^ angin heginning\ andgit underatanding, 

299. -m forms a number of nouns of the mascu- 
line gender, as: fleåm flight (from fledn to flee)% 
cwealm plague, death (from c well an to Tiill)*^ wsestra 
fruit\ wylm heat, effervescence; awylm source, origi/i, 
from weallan to bubble, spring out. 

300. -els, usually masculine, as: scyccels a cloalc, 
mantle 5 waefels a coat, pallium ; sticcels« prickle^ 
sting ; r é c e 1 s franhincense ; freols a festival. 

301. -Ide, as : r e å f 1 a c prey, rapine ; scinlåc an 
apparition, magic; wi'flac wedlock^ feohtlac bat tie. 

302. 'had (G. -heit, -keit, Dan. -hed, Engl. -hood), 
as : c il d h å d childhood*, m æ d e n h a d virginity ; p r e o s t- 
håå priesthood^ hv 6 ^ ovhåå brotherhood^ J)eowhåd 

303. -scype , -scipe (Icel. -shapr , Sw. -skap, Dan. 
-sJcab, Germ. -schaft, Engl. -ship). There are many words 
with this termination, and, as in Icelandic, all of the 
mase. gender, as: leodscipe« nation ; fegenscipe 
service, valoicr ; w e o r § s c i p e dignity, worship ; freon d- 
s c i p e friendship ; ealdorscipe supremacy, eldership. 

304. -dom (Icel. -domr, Dan. -dom, Germ. -thum, 
Engl. -dom), also masculine, as: wisdom, c ris ten - 
dom, feowdom servitude, thraldom^ cynningdora 

106 Termiiiations. 

hmgship ;bisceopd6m the episcopal dignity ; a b b o t^ 
ddm the dignity of an abbot ; f r e 6 å 6 m freedofn. 

305. -na^, -Ǥ, -o5 (Icel. -n(f6r, -a!6r) , as : h u n t- 
na$, huntaS thechase; f is c a^ piscatio; monab a 
month ; i n n o S the womb ; w a r o 6 the sea shore. 

306. -?/§, -S (Icel. -S, Sw. , Dan. & Gerra. -d, -f, 
Engl. -th)^ as: geoguS youth; clugu^ (Icel. dyg^) 
virtue; yrmS misery, poverty (from earm jiioor, m2«e- 
r«5/e) ; s æ 1 S happiness ; g e s y h § sight ; strenge 
stiength; fryraS beginning\ myr 6 mirth; treow^ 
covenant, troth (Icel. tryg6), and several cthers, all 
of the fem. gender. 

307. -d, -t is a termination essentially diiferent 
from the foregoing, (not as in Icel., >vhere it seems to 
depend iolely on the preceding consonant, ^hether the 
word shall end in t, d or S). Words tims formed are, 
for the most part, feminine, as: gebyr d birth; ge- 
cynd nature; miht might; æht a possession; wroht 
accusation, blame; gyraelyst carelessness (from gy- 
meleås careless); and several others in -lyst or -ledst, 
from adjectives in -leds y answering to the Icel. neuter 
termination -leysi. 

308. -ot, -t forms many masculines from verbs, as : 
gylt-as debt; arist (aryst) resurrection ; agift re- 
st or at ion ; manslyht-as homicide , majishmghter ; 
y m b h \v y r f t circumference ; g e {> 6 h t thought , reflec- 
tion; fulluh. t baptism; f t not freedomi {)eo wot ({)eo- 
w e t , |) e o w t) bondage ; b æ r n e t combustion. 

309. -ing denotes an action, as: onbryrding in- 
stigation; byrging tasting , gustatio Sic; but most 
of these are formed in : 

3i0. -ung (Icel. & Dan. -ing, Gerra. -tmg) •, as: 
gitsung, gewilnung desire; swutelung manifesta- 
tion ; c I æ n s II n g a cleansing ; s c e a w u n g vieiVj con- 

Terminations. 107 

templatton; eorSbeofiing an earthquake; ges o ra- 
nung an assemhly. Tliis termination is cliiefly nsed 
in forming substantives frora verbs of the Ist class in 
-ian^ as: halgung consecration^ frora hålgian to hal- 
loWf consecrate. Tliese words are all feminine. 

311. -le, as: swingele a w1iipping\ binde le a 
binding; ty h tie accusation, 

S12. -?ieSf -nys, -nis (Gerra. -niss), These, as far 
as I have foiind, are all ferainines, as: mildheortnes 
mercy ; é c e n y s eternity ; besraitenes pollution ; t o- 
twæraednes separation ; alysednes redemption ; g e- 
sceådwisnes reason, discr etion; gelicnes likeness. 

31S. -u, -o (Gerra. -e) is nsed chiefly to form the 
names of qualities from adjectives, as: seo hætu heat; 
denu a valley ; lagu a law ; andswaru an answer 
(these two last seera borrowed frora the Icelandic log, 
svor, neut. inplur.); mænigeo (raænigu) the ma?iy, 
multitude; lengeo length, and several others, all femi- 
nine (102. 103). 

314. -em (frora ærn « house or room) forms sorae 
neuters, denoting a place, as : d é m e r n a session-house ; 
c w a r t e r n a prison ; h e d d e r n a cellar, granary. 

315. -edy as: eored a hånd, legion; haeraed con- 
cuiinage ; eowed a Jiock, herd, all neuters. 

316. -/, as: se ti a seat, settle ; botl æ dtDelUng; 
spa ti saliva. 

Adjectival Terminations. 

317. -e seems to be a derivative termination for 
adjectives, as: gemæne common, from gemåna; wyr- 
ée worthy ^ frora wuré tvorth; for^^en g e forthcom- 
ing, increasing; langlife lo?ig-living. 

318. -ig (Icel. -igt, -zigt, Gerra. -ig, Engl. -y) , as : 
S c y 1 d i g owing, guilty ; m i h t i g mighty ; w e 1 i g rich ; 

108 Terniinations. 

eadig happy, ælpeodig foreign'^ cliidig rochy\ 
æ 11 i g any (from ån); dredrig sad^ dreaiy. 

31J). -lic (Icel.-h'gty Germ. -//cA), as: Averlic man- 
ly; wi'flic woma?ily; c il dl i c infantine; gas ti i c 
ghostly, sjnrittial ; forgifendlic pardonahle. 

320. sum (Icel. -samt, Germ. -sam, Eiigl. -som), 
as: ^e s ih sum peaceable; gehyrsum obedient; lang- 
sum sloiv; winsum sweet, lively {winsome). 

321. -ise (Icel. -iskt, Gerra. -isch, Eiigl. r-ish) , as : 
c i 1 d i s c childish ; hædenisc heathenish. This termi- 
iiatioii serves also to form patrial adjectives, as: eng-« 
lise EngUsh) grecisc Greelc, romanisc Roman; de- 
n i s c Danish ; lundenisc Londonish ; av y 1 i s c Welsh* 
Atljectives in -ise are also often iised as nouns of the 
neiiter gender, as: men nis c human, of {)isum men- 
n i s c e of this people (126). 

322. -ol (Icel. -alt^ -ult) denotes a mental qnality, 
as: soSsagol t/?ce^ veracious; deopJ)ancol contem- 
plative; f or gy i ol forgetf til; hæi o I hateful; sprecol 

323. -en (Icel. -it , -inn, -in, Gerra. & Engl. -en) 
denotes especially tlie material of wliich a tliing is formed, 
as: stænen of stone (stænene wæterfatu stone 
waterpots); t r e o w e n wooden ; f e 1 1 e n ofskin ; f 1 e a x e n 
flaxen ; gylden golden ; s y 1 f r e n of silver ; b e r e n o/ 
bear's skin; y ter en of otter' s skin. 

324. -em (Icel. -rænt , -rænn, -ræn, Engl. -em) 
cliiefly denotes the regions of the globe, as: su^ern 
Southern ; n o r ^ e r n northern. 

325. -hære (Germ. & Dan. -bar) ^ as: lus tb ære 
pleasant,delightful; hlishære fa?notis,noted; wæstm- 
b é r e fruitful. 

32^. -ed, -d (Icel. -at, -t, Germ. -et, -t) indicates 
that a person or thing is furnished or provided with 

Terminations. 109 

that which is expressed Iiy the root, and h ttsually con- 
sidered as a participle, altlioiigh no verb maj exist, to 
which it caii be assigiied; such words have therefore 
generally ge- prefixed to them, as; gehyrned horned; 
ges c e od shod, 

327. -tht (Germ. -icht)^ as: hæriht hairy (diffe- 
rent from hséren made of hatr) ; stæniht stony. 

328. -cund (Icel. -hynjat, from kyn) denotes i\\Q 
nature or origin of a thing, as: heofonciind heavenly; 
w e o r 11 1 d c 11 n d secu lar , worldly ; g o d c u n d div ine ; 
deofolcund devilish. 

329. -iveard (IceL -vert, Germ. 'Wårtig and, in ad- 
verhs, -wårts) expresses situation or direction^ as: and- 
w e ar d present (Germ. gegemvårtig) ; 1 6 w e ar d fiiture; 
håmw c ar åhotneward; æfwearåahsent; suSeweard, 
suéanweard southward (ISO. 132). 

330. -tig (Icel. -tugt^ -tiu^ Germ. -^ig) forms tens 
in numeration, as: iiiii^ fifty, hundtwelftig a 
hundred and twenty (169). 

331. -o6e (Svv. -onde y Dan. -ende) forms ordinal 
numbers, as: teot3e tenth\ i\fiis,Q^Q fiftieth (169). 

832. -feald (Icel. -fait, Germ. -fald, Engl. & Dan. 
•fold)^ as: seofonfeald sevenfold (fec. (184). 

333. Many adjectives , answering to the Icelandic 
in -t , -r, seem in A. S. to be formed withoiit any ter- 
mination; all these signs of gender having disappeared 
in this tongiie, as: ofermod proud, arrogant-, orsorg 
careless. Some of these change the vowel, as: of fyrst 
thirsty (from furst); ungehyrt heartless, i?ianimate, 
from heorte. 

Adverbial Terminations. 

334. In order to form adverbs, particularly from 
nouns substantive, it is usual in A. S., as in Icelandic, 
and other tongues, to use certain cases, at first perhaps 

110 Termiuations. 

with a preposition expressed or understood, as: abl, 
liwi'lura awhile (as in Icel. 8z Dan. stundum)*y sti c c e- 
mælura gradually, ptecemeal: but the genitive is oftener 
iised, as: S(){)es venly; |) ane es gratis^ agnes {) an- 
ces spontaneously. The termination -es is also employed 
in the formation of adverbs, in many cases where the 
genitive is not so formed (like the Icel. ~is) , as : n i h- 
tes hy 7iight; nédes of necessity. The ^e^n. phir. is 
also iised thus: orceåpunga without-payment, gratis \ 
ealliinga entirely, omnmo^ yrringa angrily. 

335. ~e (Icel. -c, Lat. -e) is the usiial termination, 
by which adverbs are formed from adjectives, as: geor- 
he diligently ^ willingly (Icel. gjarna, Dan. gjerne^ 
Germ. geni); rihte rightly (Lat. recte); wide widely^ 
lange long; suSrihte southward; gelice lihe; swi- 
Se much, very; swutele manifestly, and many others, 
which must not be confounded witli the ablative of the 
neuter & mase. of adjectives, corresponding to the Icel. 
dative neuter in -z^, as: micle må much more (Icel. 
miklu meir, \u^t. mult o magis') * micle swi^or much 
sooiier^ rather (Icel. miklu heldr) &c. i^See p. 49). 

S36. -Hee (Icel. -%fl, Engl. -ly) is strictly the 
preceding termination -e added to adjectives ending in 
-liCf as : 1 1 c h a m 1 i c e corporeally, from 1 1 c h a m 1 i c coi- 
poreal; but, like the Engl. -ly^ it is also added to in- 
immerable others which have not the termination -lic, 
as : f u 1 1 i c e /z^% ; s o S 1 i c e i?t sooth, vcrily, hut ; e' c e- 
liee ever; sceortlice shortly; deoplice deeply; di- 
gellice secretly; eåSelice easily kc. 

337. -der, as: hwider whither; fider thither. 

338. -er, -ær, -ar^ as: her here; hwær (hwar) 
where. Sometiraes an a is added, as: {)ara there. 

339. -afi, -on (Icel. -an., Gr. -lØfi') is added chiefly 
to other adverbs, and deuotes motion from a place^ n^: 

Terminations. :111 

norman from the north ; w e s t a n from the west ; h w a- 
-non whence (Icel. livaéan, Gr. od-åp)* heoiioa hence% 
j[)anon theuce. 

340. -e (Icel. -/, Sw. & Dan. -e) is added to ad- 
verbs and denotes rest in a place, as: inne within^ 
Ilte, uppe kc. 

341. Prepositions and conjunctions are in this, as 
in other languages, often used as adverbs, without iinder- 
going any change, as: six geårura ær sijn years he- 
fore, With a substantive or an adjective, they often ex- 
press tliat >vliicii, in other tongues, is signified by an 
adverb, as: of dune or a diin dotvn, dotvnward^ be 
lytlura and lytlum hy little and little, paulatim*, on 
weg away*y to eåcau hesides^ mid ealle totally \ be 
d æ 1 e partly. 

Verbal Termmations. 

342. -ian is the simplest and most universal, it is 
added to various parts of speech, as: fe ni an to serve, 
adore*, wæterian to water^ hal gi an to hallotv, con- 
seer at e ; g 1 a d i a n gladde?i ; fægnianjfo rejoice ; s w u- 
telian to manifest*, wyrsian to grow worse^ gade- 
rian to gather ^ litian to eæpel, alienate*, geniéerian 
condemn, reproach ; gesibsumian to be reconciled ; and 
many others, without any change of vowel, belonging to 
the Ist order Ist elass. They correspond to the IceJan- 
dic in «, vatna, helga, glaSa, fagna &c, (^See pp. 
TI. T2). Most of those \erbs, uhicli are formed from 
adjeetives, >vithout any other derivative adjuncts, have 
generally a neuter signification, but become active, wheu 
the syllable ge- is prefixed to them (276) , as : m i c- 
lian to increase , gemiclian to augment , magni- 
fy; lyt lian ^0 decrease, gelytlian to dimtnish; yr- 
sian to be wroth, geyrsian to irritate, Sometimes 

112 Terminations. 

however this syllable seems to have no influence on the 
signification, as: yfeliau and geyfelian to hurf, in- 
jure'y gcarwian and gegearwian to prepare, The ac- 
tire sense is sometimes expressed by another derivation, 
as: håtian fo become hot, hætan to heat, male hot^ 
ealdian to grow old, yldan to defer, procrastinate» 

343. -cian (Icel. -la)^ as: gearcian to prepare. 

344. -gian (Icel. -ga^ Gerra. -igen) ^ as: sårgian 
to smart ^ to grieve (from sår pain)^ her gi an to ra- 
vage^ from here an army\ syn gi an to sin (Icel. 
s y n d g a , Gerra . sundigen). 

345. -sian (Icel. -sa) , as : c 1 æ n s i a n fo cleanse ; 
mærsian to exalt , magnify*, unrdtsian to he sad; 
gemiltsian to pity*, geuntre o wsian to bo offended; 
hreowsian to repent, 

34(5. -nian (Icjel. -w«), as: wilnian to desire; 
witnian to ptinish^ from wite puniskment; 1 åenian 
to ciire, heal (Icel. lækna). 

347. -an. Besides the foregoing, which all belong 
to the Ist order, Ist class , there are also raany yerbs, 
forraed from other verbs , from substantives , or from 
adjcctives, by a change of Towel, which have an active 
signification, and belong to the Ist order, 2nd and 3d 
classes, as : h r e å m « cry , h r y m a n to cry ; w e o r c 
work ^ wyrcan to work*y wearra zvarm, wyrman to 
warfn, distinct from w e a r ra i a n to become warm 5 h e å n 
poor, loivhiy hynan to oppress) heald bowed down, in- 
clined (Icel. h a 1 1 1) , h y 1 d a n to incline, be?id; e a r ra 
poor^ miserable^ yrraan to afflict, to render miserabley 
eald oldy yldan to delay*y npp up>, yppan to disclose, 
lay open; 11 1 out, ytan to drive out, eæpel; here be- 
long also tliose in -f yldan ^ as: {»ry f yldan to triple^ 
and others (184). Those derived from neiiter verbs, seem 
chiefly formed from the imperfect, as: 




to ruiti 


. atn 


to let run. 


bum (ai'deré) 









give to drink. 


sink (neut.), 



sink (aet.). 

















go (by sea). 








raise, rcar, 





cast down, fett^ 


boil (iieut.)j 



tnake boil, 





put to flight, 


boWi bend (neut.), 



bend (act.)^ 







xvake (neut.). 



wake, excite. 

A third and distinct word is w a c i a n to watch (vtgilare)^ 

348. -ettan^ as: hålettan to liail, giOfjt ; andet- 
tan fo confess ; licettan to flatter, ch'ssemhle> 

349. -Icécan (imp. -læhte, part. -/æå^), as: gen cd- 
læcan to approach (Icel. nalægjast); gerihtlæcaii 
to justify, correct; efen læcan to imitate-, sum or læ- 
can approptnquare ad æstatem; vvinterlæcan appro" 
pinquare ad hyemem ; e d 1 æ c a n f o repeat» 


^50. The Anglo-Saxon, like the other Gothic lan- 
guages, abounds in compound words, as well philosoplii- 
cal as poetical; for it was usual among botli tlie Anglo- 
Saxons and Scandinaviahs tO translate all the terms which 
they found in the classic writers ^ and not to preserve 
other foreign words than those which were universally 
used in daily conVersation among the people, and there- 
fore thoroughly naturalized. Some terms of art^ whicli 
authors attempted to introduce, probably never became 
general, but there are many compounds, which are evi- 
dently formed for daily conversation , and from thence, 


114 Compositioii. 

received into the writteii, or book, language, as: J)eow 
a slave f servant , {)eo\v-weorc slave-work , weorc- 
' {)éow a worlc-slave, wite-J>eow one condemned to sla- 
very, {)eowboreii slavehorn &;c. 

351. The last part of the compound always shews 
to what part of speech it helongs, either by the termi- 
iiation, or tlie inflection, as: undercyninge viceroy, 
dat. fåm undercyninge, underfeod a subject, 
dat. pi. underJ)e6Sum, underfeodan to suhject^ 
undernytSau underneath. It seldom happens that a 
word compounded of an adjective and a noun, preserres, 
in composition, the inflections of its component parts, 
as : se c r i s t e n d o ra , dat. påm cristenanddme. 
Boet. 1.; but, in the same place, occurs also to heora 
cristendome: in Orosius we find pæs cristendo- 
mes, B. 2. C. 1. 

352. Nouns substantive often enter into composi- 
tion witliout any change, as: wu du -hu ni g wildhoney; 
wudu-beam a wild tree; sige-beåcen a trophy; 
fic-leåf a fig-leaf; tic-ir eow a Jig-tree; mæsse- 
preost a mass-priest^ stær-writere an historian. 
The first part often stands in the genitive, as: cneo- 
risse-boc a gejiealogy; nunnanraynster*) a con- 
ventofnuns; curaena-hiis an in?i; Rdmanari'ce the 
Roman empire ', Asi'anland Asia, The names of coun- 
tries and cities are formed in various raanners; some- 
times, as it would appear, from a genitive in the singu- 
lar, as: Romeburh Rome ; B a b i 1 o n i e b u r h Babylon ; 
sometimes from a gen. plur. , as: Crecaland Greece ; 
Denameare Denmark; Burgendaland Bornholm; 
sometimes from a word shortened by the rejection of 

^) The Gernian compounds NonnenJdoster fifc. are a remnant 
of the old inflection of feminine words in e, like the da- 
tive mentioned in p. 31 note 1. 

Compositian. 115 

its termination, as: Frysland; Cwenland Stvedish 
Norrland*y l^i^iXiiwÅEsthoma^ Weonodlaiid tkelaiid 
of the Wefids (i. e. Meklenhurg and Pomeranid), Eveil 
the same name is sometimes formed in dilFerent maii- 
ners. An adjective is usiially compounded with a sub- 
stantive or an adjective, without any change, as: heah- 
burh a capital city; heahsetl a throne ; heahfun- 
gen illustrious ; heardsælig unfortunate, Nouns are 
not often compounded with verbs , but a noun is gene- 
rally first formed from the verb, though it sometimes 
never occurs , excepting in that composition, as : s 1 æ p- 
ern a sleepmg chamber ^ from slabp sleep ; stæl- 
h r a n a s decoy rein-deer^ from s t e 1 a n to steal^ of whicli 
there has first been formed a kind of noun, s tæl, whicli 
is perhaps not to be met with in a simple state, the 
usual word being stalu. Sometimes verbs in composi- 
tion with nouns seem to take the termination -e, an- 
swering to the Icel. -i, as: sprece-wfse a form of 

353. Adjectives and verbs are also compounded with 
nouns and adjectives, as: mægle ås withoutkindred; 
li'ff æstan to quichen, vivify; but it is chiefly adverbs 
and prepositions that are placed before adjectives and 
verbs in composition, as: forSberan to produce^ pro- 
ferre\ forSfaran to depart, die^ understandan to 
understand; underfdn to take, receive* To enume- 
rate and set forth all such compounds would be both 
tedious and superfluous; it is however worthy of notice 
that some particles change their signification in compo- 
sition, as : u n d e r g i t a n ^0 know^ understand ; u n d e *- 
liiman comprehend, taJce §*c. for- and to- have already 
been noticed ; likéwise be-^ which sometimes has a privative 
signification, as: bedælan ^o bereave, part; J)æt {)i\ 
ealles ne beo minra boca bedæled that thou be 


116 Composition. 

not entirely lacking of tny booke ; beliican to cxclude &c. 
Particles are also compoimded together, and with other 
parts of speech, in the freest raanner, as: bæftan for 
beæftan behind; wi6-su(3an to the south of; fu li- 
ne ah almost &e. 

854. The last word in a compound is usnally the 
chief part, which the first defines and qualifies; yet 
sometimes the first seems to contain the principal idea, 
and the other the qualification, or determination, as well 
as the part of speech to which the compound belongs. 
The chief words used to determine others, whether 
forming the iirst or last part of the compound, are the 
folio wing: 

355. hedfod- {head) , as: heafod-leahtras pec- 
cata capUalia; heåfod-rice a great ejupire , monar- 
chy ; h e å f o d m a n a captain ; h e a f o d p o r t a chief port, 

356. })e6d- {folk, people) ^ as: {)eddwitarz inafi 
of great wisdom ; {)e6dcyning a great king ; {) e 6 d- 
sceaSa a great rohher', feodlicettere an arch hy- 

rV> 357. ful' {full)^ as: fultruwian torelyon; ful- 
wyrcan to accomplish', fulrihte quite right; f uloft 
very often. 

358. ^e«Æ- (Hg^Æ) heahfæder apatriarch; heali- 
s a c e r d a chief priest ; heahsangere a chief singer. 

359. efefi- , emn- , as : e f e n w y r h t a a fello w-la- 
hourer; efenniht the equinox ; efeneald of equal 
age ; e m f e o w a fellow-servant ; e ra n 1 a n g of the same 
length ; e m n s å r equally hard, painful ; e m 1 e d f equally 
dear; e ni fe al a just as many. 

360. -land, -hurh and the like are, as in Icelandic, 
used to form the names of countries and cities , as : 
Egyptaland Egypt ; Lundenburh London, (352. 
p. 114. 115.) 

Composition. 117 

361. -riee {ric) , as : b i s c e o p r i c e a bishopiic ; 
abbotrice an ahbacy ; cyneri'ce a hingdom. 

862. -cræft {art, learning, craft) ^ as: drycræft 
witchcraft ; stæfcræft grammar (qu. letter er af t) ; 
smiScræft tJie art of a smith or Carpenter', wi'g- 
cræft the art of ivar. From tbese agaiii are formed 
adjectives in -cræftig, as: drycræftig sicilled in witch- 
craft &c. 

363. -man (man)^ as: scipraan a sailor; wif- 
man awoman; freoman a freeman; peowman aser- 
vant; f e<5fraan a thief, 

864. -wis [wise) forms, as in Icelandic, a number 
of adjectives, but in whicli the idea of wisdom or Jcnoiv- 
ledge in that indicated by the first part of the compound 
seems sometimes very f aint, as : g e s c e d d w i s intelligent-^ 
rihtwis just', unrihtwis unjust, 

365. -fæst {-fast) , as: sigefæst victorious ; {> r y m- 
fæst glorious, illustrious ; s (5 6 fæ s t just, verajc ; r æ d- 
fæst firm^ consilio stahilis j sta^olfæst steady, stead- 
fast', unstaSolfæst unsteady &c. 

866. -full {-fult), as: synfuU sinfiil; rihtge- 
le af fu 11 true-heliemng, orthodos; \vur§full venerable, 
worthy; raånfull wicked, profane. 

367. From -ivis , -fæst, and -full are formed also 
noiins in -nis, and adverbs in Hee, as : g e s c e å d w i s - 
nes prudence, discretion; sta^olfæstnis steadfast- 
ness ; stabolfæstlice firmly, steadfastly, 

368. -leds {4ess) , as: égeleås fearless ; å r 1 e a s 
void of honour , impious ; s y n 1 e a s sinless j s c e a m - 
leas shameless, 

369. From -leds are formed nouns 1) in -nis, as: 
år le ås ni s impiety^ 2) in -lyst or -ledsty as: sceam- 
leåst shamelessness ; cårleåsnes or cårleåst care- 
lessness (307). 



S y n t a X. 


370. JL he Anglo-Saxon Syntax, bears throughout 
a nearer reserablance to the German <fc Latin than to 
the Icelandic. The numerous translations and imitations 
of Latin authors , of wliich its literature in great part 
consists, having, without doubt, had great influence, upon 
it, althoiigh the similitude may also be partly ascribed 
to the nature of the language itself. 

871. That in this, as in other tongiies, the adjec- 
tive must agree with its noun, in gender, number, and 
case, and the like, we shall suppose to be understood, 
and consider those peculiarities oiily which are charac- 
teristic of the Anglo-Saxon. 

Of Propositions in general. 

372. The subject usually stands before the verb, 
even in those cases (viz. af ter certain particles &c.), 
Avhich in German and Danish require an inversion of 
this order, as: 

On J>ære tide fe Gotan of Sci66iu-raægSe 
wi{) Romanarice gewinn up-a-hofon At 
that time the Goths of Scythia made tvår agaiust 
the Roman empire* 
But when the particle of time {> å or {) o n n e is re- 
peated before a consequent proposition, the subject usual- 
ly follows the verb, as in German and Danish, as: 
J>a Dari'us ges e ah, fæt he oferwunnen beon 
wolde; få wolde he hine sylfne on fåra 
gefeohte forspillan When Darius saiv that 

Of Propositions. 119 

he should he overcome, then he would lose kis life 

in the fight. 

In general however, as in English, the conséquent 

proposition is not distinguished , by any sign, not eveii 

by the order of the words, the subject being aiso here 

placed before the verb, as: 

On J)æm ylcan geare, fe [>is wæs, PrdcosNii- 
metdris fæder ongan ricsian in Itali'a 
fæmlande The same year that this was^ Pro- 
cus^ JVumitor's father^ began to reign in Italy. 
Da se hablend fæt on hys gaste oncneow {)æt 
hl swå betwux him pdliton, he cwæS to 
hym; hwi fence ge. {)ds {>ing on eowrnm 
heortura? JVhen the Saviour perceived in his 
mind that they so thought among them^ he said to 
them; tvhy think ye these things in your hearts? 
873. The object is aiso usually set before the verb, 
so that the verb, as in Latin and German, comes last 
in the sentence, as: 

And we sceolon mid biternysse sdSre be- 

hreowsunge lire mod geclænsian, gif we 

willab Cristes lichaman Sicgan ^nd we 

ought ivith the hitterness of true repentance to 

cleanse our mind^ if we will receive Christ's body. 

374. This collocation of words is however, by no 

means, observed with inviolable strictness, as the niimer- 

ous inflections render it easy to discover the mutual de- 

pendauce of the propositions in a sentence, as : 

Æfter gastlicum andgite we etaS {)æs lamb- 
es heåfod, fonne we underfci^ Cristes 
godcundnysse on lirura geleafan Jlfter 
spiritual signijication we eat the head of the lamb^ 
when we receive the divinity of Christ in omr be- 

120 Sjatax 

Tlie negative generally stands before the verb, as: 
Ne ondrabde ge eow Fear ye not. 

The position of the adrerb in A. S. seems rery ar- 
bitrary, and, like the auxiliaries in the tenses formed 
by circumlociition, serves to render the arrangement 
more unrestrained, 

O f N o u n s. 

375. Nouns of time, answering to the question how 
long?^ are put in the accusative, as: 

Hwf stande ge her ealne dæg i'dele? IFhy 

stand ye kere all day idle? 
feåh {)e ic sceal ealle wucan fæstan Although 

I shall fast the whole weeh. 
j>as worhton dne tf de These ivrought one hour. 
37C. Wlien answering to the question when7 they 
stand in the ablative, as: 
Oére sifie Another time, 

Eft wés geworden {)a he restedagum {)urh 
æceras eode It agnin happened as he loent 
throtfgh the fields on the sahhath day. 
And somctiraes in the dative, governed by the preposi- 
tion o n , as : 

O n J) æ r e 1 1 d e At that time ; 
On o{)rura dæge The second day. 

377. The noun, answering to the question ivhen?, 
is also often put in the genitive, as : 

U s s a 1 1 d a l?i our times ; 
f>æs dages On that day. 

378. Words denoting measure, valne, weight, age, 
and the like are put in the genitive, as : 

Twegra elna heah Two ells high; 
Sex peninga wyrfe Siæ pence tvorth; 
Wi'tes scyldig Deserving of punishment ; 

Of Nouns. 121 

Anes geares larab A yearling lamh; 
|>re6rainilabråd Three miles hroad. 

379. Those words which serve as adverbs to de- 
termiiie the comparative of the adjectives, are put in the 
ablative, but those used with the superlative, in the ge- 
iiitive, just as in Latin: multo magts, omnium optimus ; 
as: Hii micle måre how much more. 

Se lichama wæs sponne lengra fære fryh 
The hody was a spån longer than the cofjin, 

Gif he (se anweald) becymf to påra eallra 
wyrrestan men, and t6 Sam J)e his eallra 
unweorJ)Ost bi{) If it {the power) falle to the 
very worst man, and to him who is of all the 
most unworthy of it, 

380. Words expressing the matter, of which a cer- 
tain raeasure is spoken of, are put in the genitive, as: 

Hund sestra eles A hundred measures of oil; 
Fif pund wætres Five pounds of water. 

381. The two abiatives in A. S. correspond accu- 
rately to the two abiatives in Latin, as: 

Up-a-sprungenre sunnan Orto sole; 
He hl up-a-hof, hyre handa gegripenre He 
lifted her up, having grasped her hånd. 

382. In general the ablative, as in Latin, expresses 
the mode, means, or instrument, as: 

Hed c ly pode micelre stefne She cried with a 

loud voice. 
Gew ordenre gecwydrædenne {)åm wyrhtura 

An agreement being concluded with the lahourers. 


383. Adjectives agree with their substantives, iii 
number, gender, and case, as: 

122 Syntax 

|>å wurdon Janes 'duru eft betyned and his 
loca rustige Then were the gates of Janus 
again closed, and his locks rusty. 

For-J)on-{)e Alexandres folgeras næron ær 
fåm swa ge hatene Because Alejcander's suc- 
cessors were not hefore that so called. 

884. The indefinite form of the adjective is used 
in exclaraations , especially, when the noun is also ex- 
pressed, as: 

Ealå, leofhlåford! Alas^ heloved master! 
Awyrgede woruld-sorga! eæecrable worldly cares ! 
The detinite form also occurs, hut chiefly with a pro- 
noun, as: 

Ic wrecca! Wretched I! 
|)u stunta! Thou foolish! 

885. The adjective in A. S. , as in other language^, 
governs Tarious cases, for instance; the dative^ when it 
AGUoies similitude y as: geli'c or gelicost l)ara {)e 
likey most like, that which; and the genitiv e, Avhen it ex- 
presses measure, or the like, also excess^ or want, near- 
ly as in Latin, as: hi fy Id o n twelf wiligean fulle 
^æra brytsena they filled twelve baskets full of the 
remains. Leohtes leas without light, 

O f Pr O n O un S. 

886. When a short pronoiin is in the dative case, 
it is usually placed as near to the verb as possible, he- 
tween the siibject and the verb, as : 

j)a sæde hira mon {)æt Dari'us hæfde eft f y r- 
de gegaderod Then it was said to him that 
Darius had again assembled an army. 
387. The article is sometimes used before proper 
naraes, as : 

Se Johannes, ^æne Herddera (&c. 

Of Pronouns. 123 

Sometiraes the article is used together with the per- 
sonal pronoun, as: 

He se biscéop He the bishop (1. han n biskupinn) 

Hed seo abbedisse She the ahhess, 
It is also sometimes eraployed after other pronouns, as 
in Greek, as; 

On {>inum fȌm hal gu m naman In thine the 
holy name, 

388. The relative pronoun is often omitted, when it 
stands as subject in short intermediate propositions, as: 

|>a wæs sum consul, Boetius wsbs håten Then 
there was a consul, (who) was cailed Boethius, 

389. Partitives govern the genitive, as in Latin, as t 
Nåht yfeles Nihil mali ; Hwæt yfeles dyde 

J)es? What evil hath ihis (man) done? 
By an extension of this rule, the genitive is employed 
even where no partitive is expressed, but only a similar 
idea implied in the seutence, as: 

Nis hit nå J)e gecynde j^ætte {>u hi age It is 
not in {of) thy nature to possess them, 
gecynde is here in the genitive. 

Mæg ænig gddes beon of Nazareth? Can ant^ 
good he of (from) Nazareth? 

390. There being no reciprocal pronoun in the lan- 
guage, each other, one another, are expressed by ar epe- 
tition of hit, as: 

And hy æt Tharse pære byrig hy gemétton 
j4nd they met each other at the city of Tatsus, 

391. It also supplies the place of the relative, in 
all its cases, when J)e precedes , as: fe {)urh hine 
through whom; ^e {)urh his willan through whose 
will ; Chalisten J)one filosofum he ofsloh his 
emnsceolere, {)e hy ætgædere gelé rede wæ- 
r o n He slew the philosopher Callisthenes, his schoolfel- 

124 Syntax 

low, they who had heen taught together (i. e. who had 
heen educated with him). |> e h y r a ii a m^a n whose tiames, 

o f V e r b s. 

392. Verbs signifying to fiame goverii the noraiua^ 
tive, as: 

f>a wæs sum consul ({)æt wc heretoha liata{)) 
T/ien was a coiisul {ivhich we call heretoha). 

For{)y hit man hæt Wislerau^a They therefore 
call it the mouth of the Vistula. 

393. But, in general, the A. S. verbs, like the La- 
tin and Icelandic, usually govern the accusative, when a 
direct and immediate object is expressed, as : 

Man towearp {)one weall nySer oS J)one 
grund They razed the rampart down to the ground- 

Ae hine Pompeius of ealliim {)åra lande a- 
flymde, and hine hedråf on Arraenie But 
Pompey expelled him from all that land, and drove 
him into Armenia. 

394. Many also govern the datire, nearly as in Ice- 
landic, viz. f y 1 i g a n to follow ; h e o d a n fo hid; a n d - 
wyrdan, andswarian to ajiswer ; ^ely fan to believe; 
hyrsuraian to oley ; se hælend hira gemiltsode 
the saviour had compassion on him ; {)anca Gode thank 

395. And many others the genitiTe, as: wilnian, 
lystan to desire; wundrian to ivonder at, admire ; 
fandian to tempt, search out; furfan to need; fag- 
nian to le glad of; onbyrgan to taste of; he {)a 
gemunde {)åra é{)nessa he then thought of those 
Uberties; fii hæfst {)åra wæpna forgiten thou 
hast for got ten the weapons ; and hyra nån his ne 
æthrdu and none of them toziched him. But it is as 

Of Verbs. 125 

difficiilt in A. S. as in other tongues , to give general 
rilles for tbese cases* 

396. Many also, bcsides the accusative of the per- 
son, govern the genitive of the thing, as: 

Gotona cyning hyre anwaldes hi beniman 
wolde The king of the Goths would deprive her 
of her power, Oros. p. 60. 

Heo hit 11 e raæg his gewittes bereåfian She 
cannot deprive it of its understanding. 

397. Others with the genitive of the thing require 
the dative of the person , as : 

J>a Noe ongan him ætes tilian Then Noah began 
to seelc food for himself» 

398. Reflective and impersonal verbs are generally 
placed after botli their subject and object, as: 

j>å ongan he hine bavian He then began to bathe 

Icmereste I rest myself. 

Cristenum cyningegebyraJS It becojtws a Christ- 
ian king. 
But if the subject consist of several words, the object 
is sometimes placed last, as: 

Seofon fing gedafeniaS rihtwfsum cyninge 
Seven things are incumbent on a just king, 

399. Impersonal verbs are sometimes put in the 
plural, though their subject be singular, as: 

Ne synt na J)is wodes mannes word These(jthis') 
are not the words of a madman. 
A nearly sirailar construction occurs in German, es sind, 

400. The pres. infinitive is never iised with the 
particle t(5, as in modern English, though the gerund 
always requires to, and seems sometimes to stand in 
a passive sense, as: 

Is eac to witanne |>æt sume gedwolmen wæ- 

126 Syntax 

. . ron, I)e woldon awiirpan {)a ealdan æ... 

ae Crist sylf and his apostolas us tæh- 

ton ægfer to healdenne It is besides to he 

hiown, that there were some herettcs, who would 

reject the vid law ... hut Vhrist himself and his 

apostles taught us to keep both, præf. in Gen. 

Tilis circunistance seems to show, that the ger- 

und is nothing hut the dative of the infinitive, which 

is in faet a sort of noun, the n heing doubled, heeause 

the preceding Towel is short. Sometiraes however the n 

reraains single, as: he nåh on gehålgedan lictune 

to restene he ought not to lie in a consecrated burial- 

place, Legg. Eeel. Canuti 22. 

401. The part. pass., in eomhination with the auxi- 
liary ic habhe is not always put in the neuter, as an 
unchangeable supine, but is frequently infleeted, like 
an adj. , in the different genders of the acc, governed 
by habbe, as: 

Ænne hæfde he swå swiSne geworhtne One 

he had made so strong (255). 

402. In those eases -vvhere, in English, the adverb 
is placed last in the scntenee, the Anglo-Saxons usually 
set it before the verb, so that the verb be last, as: 

And hrædliee for {)ara ege {)anon a-for ^nd 
for fear thereof hastily departed thence, 

403. In like manner, the preposition is sometimes 
separated from the noun or pronoun which it governs, 
and plaeed, for the sake of greater emphasis, immediate- 
ly before the verb, as: 

f>æt {)u f ær nåne myrj^e on næfdest That thou 
hadst 710 pleasure therein; instead of færon: 

Alexander him {)å ondred for f ære neare- 
wan stowe J)e he on wære Alexander then 

Of Prepositions. 127 

feared^ on account of the narrow place which he 
was on* 
pe ealle cwice wihte by libba& IVhich all Iw^ 
ing beings live by, 

Of Prepositions. 

404. The confusion, with respect to the cases of 
iioiins, which prevails in the editions of A. S. hooks, 
renders it almost irapossible to present the Student with 
an exact view of the government of prepositions: the 
following however seera to be the most general and 

405. Some expressing only a single relation, govern 
but one case; others raore than one, according to the 
various relations which they serve to express. 

406. The foUowing govern the accusative only: 

g e o n d bcyond, through (Lat. per, ut per loca) , gif feorcuinen 
man butan wege geond wudu gonge If a stran- 
gcr go out of the way through the woods, 

ymb (ynibe) round, abouty 

J> u r h through, by, 

ongean, agen against, towards, as: feohtende ongean 
h.\n e. Jighting against him; and agen hine arn 
and ran up to him. It is also found with a dative, 
perhaps when placed after its case, or having the sig- 
nification of meeting (Lat. obviam) , as: JȌ c om him 
|)ær ongean then there came there to meet him. 

wiSæftan after, behindy wiSforan before, 

witJinnan withiuy wi^utan without, 

abiitan about, ymbutan round about. 

407. The foUowing govern the dative : 

be about, eoncerningy by, in\ by %, through (Lat. de, per), 

(Lat. de) , ) 
of of, of also governs the genitive, as: of geradra yyorda 

icmisfo / lack fitting words. 
fram from. 


«et af, 

t6 to, 

ær before, er c, 

feor far, 

geliende near, 

beheonan o» this side, 

behindan I 

bæftan / behind, af ter, 

beæftati | 

benorfJan to the north of, 


neah nettr, 
int6 into, 
æfter aftcr, 
unfeor near, 
t6weard toward, 
begeondan beyond, 


betweox betwixt, among, 
biifun dbove, 
butan without, cxcept, 
on-ufan above, over, upon, 
to-eåcan besides. 

wi6 norman to the norlh of, 
betwynan betwecn, 
beneotiau beneatk, 
binnan wlthin, 
on-innan inside, 
t6-emne3 along. 

In the followiiig phrases there seems to be a trace 
of the Icelaiidic constriiction of t6 with the geiiitive, viz. 
to æ fennes in the evenifig ; to fæs. Boet. 24. 1. Bed. 
605. 27. and to ][)æs gemearces Cædm. 62, 4. 

408. Andlang along, through, governs only the 
genitive, as: andlang Wendel-sés along the Medi- 

409. The following govern both the accusative and 

on 011, in, into, 

ofer over, 

under under, 

to-geanes toitards, against, 

ut-on without (cxtra). 

for for, 

beforan before, 

otJ unto, 

gemang among, 

upp-on upon, 

inn-on within {intra), 

Mid wtth governs the accusative and the ablative, as: 
Acc, pÅ com he mid Så f oresprecenan fæm- 
n a n Thefi came he with the lefore mentioned girL 
Ahl. Mid andgite With, underst ånding. 
It sometimes seems to govern the dative, at least, in 
adverbial phrases, as: 

Mid-6ara-J)e Jfliilej when. 

Of Prepositions. 1^29 

For is also, in similar cases, used with the aMa- 
tive, as: for J»y therefore. 

410. Although the rule here is , as in Icelandic, 
German, Greek and Latin, that tliese words gorern the 
accusative, when signifjing motion to a place, and the 
dative, when they indicate rest or motion in a place, 
there nevertheless prevaiis a striking difference among 
these tongues in the application of the rule. Some 
examples will serve to make the A. S. usage, in this re- 
spect, more evident: 

|>a he J)å beforan {)one graman cyning gelæd 

w æ s As he tlien ums led hefore the incensed Jnng. 
Beforan J)inre an syne Before thy countenance. 
For eall cristen fole gebiddan To pr ay for all 

Christian people. 
For hwilcum intingan? For ivhat cause? 
0$ Rin få eå Unto the river Rhine. 
OSDaniele fam witegan Unto the prophet Daniel. 
Seo yrn{) on fæs garsecges earm It runs into 

an arm of the ocean. 
On fa ealdan wi'san Af ter the old manner. 
Reqnies, fæt is rest on Englisc Reqiiies, that 

is rest in English {Anglo-Saj:on). 
On f am heån munte 0?i the high mount. 

411. Wi6 with, against &:c. governs the accusative, 
dative, and genitive, thoiigh in different senses, as: 

Wi^ fin fole Towards thy people. 
Wi§ fone garsecg By the Ocean. 
Wi6 f i'num willan Against thy wilL 
He éfste wi6 fæs heres He hastened against the 

412. A greater number of compound prepositions 
might perhaps be given, as well as other combinations of 
the preceding, thaii are here set forthj but these seem 


130 Syntax 

to be the most general and regular; great caution is also 
necessary to cliscriminate between what is genuine and 
wliat is doubtful, but yet more to avoid being misled by 
tlie inaccuracy of the printed editions of A. S. books. 

Of Conjunctions. 

413. These are numerous, and are partly simple, 
partly compound: some also consist of two or more se- 
parate, but mutually dependent, words, as: 

ge ge or i as well as, o^Se oS^e either or, 

ægSer ge - - ge \ both and, opertvvega or oJ)er J)åra either 

hwæSer J)e J)e whetker or, of the two, is also often foiind 

nåSer ne ne neither nor, in the first clause instead of 

swå swå so as, o^He. 

å J)y (pe) J)e (J)eali) so much mid J)y since, sceing thaty 

the as, for ^am for (Lat. nam) , 

and eåc as also, hothy for J)y therefore, 

swå Jjeåh ncverthelcss, yet, for J)åni pe secing that , 6e- 

Deali nii god gefylle fåra weligra manna 
willan ge mid golde ge mid seolfre ge 
mid eallum deo rwyr{)nessum AlthoughGod 
now fiiJfil the ivishes of the rich, as well with gold 
and Silver, as with all precious thirigs. 
Da wéron ægj>er ge swiftran ge unwealtraii 

They were both sivifter and steadier, 
HwæSer wæs Jéhannes fulluht J)e of heofo- 
n u m , {) e o f m a n n u m ? Whetker was John's 
haptism of heaven or of men? 
Ae ælc com of er påra, o6§e on hy sylfe o^^e 
on på eorSan But every one felt either on 
themselves or on the earth, 
Gef ene nii liwæ6er ænig man beo å fy un- 
weor^ra, fe hine manige men forsedu 
Think now whether any man he so much the un- 
worthier, hecause many men despise him. 

Of Conjunctions. 131 

For fig ge ne gehyra(5, for ^åm fe ge ne 
synt of Gode Ye therefore hear not, hecause 
ye are not of God. 

414. More remarkable are those wliich govern tlie 
verl) in the subjunctive, as: 

J)æt that (Germ. dass) , to J)on pæt tJiat, to the end that, 

J)eåh thoughy although, gif tf, 

swylce as if, hwæSer wJiether, 

^f læs ]^e that noy lest, sam sam whcther or. 

Hwæt do ic, fæt ic e'ce li'fage? }Fhat shall I 

do that I may possess eternal life. 
|>eåh pe god hira bebude Although God comfna?2- 

ded Mm. 
Swylce pli hi gesceope As if thou hadst created 

I>y læs pe æiiig twediiung eow derian mæge 

Lest any douht may trouhle you» 
To pon f æt he his rice gebrædde That he 

might eætend his dominion, 
G i f w é 11 s y If there he hope» 
Læt! iiton gesedn hwæ^er Helias cume Let 

be ! let us see whether Elias will come. 
Sam hit sy sumor sam wiiiter Whether it be 

summer or winter. 
Butan, when signifying unless, governs the subjunc- 
tive, as: 

Butan heora hwilc eft to rihtre bdte ge- 

cyrre Unless any of them turn again to right 

repentance. Boet. 3, 1. 
When signifying but it requires the indicative, as: 

Butoii ic wat But I knotv^ Boet. 3, 1. 

415. But here, as in Latin, it is chiefly in subor- 
dinate propositions that these conjunctions require the 


132 Syiitax 

subjuiictive mode ; many of them are else found with 
the indicative, as : 
f>å axode lie hyne, hwæfier he ålit gesawe 
Then he oshed him whether he saw any thing. 

Hwæ{)er is éSreto hwæ{)er{)e*? Whether is 

it easier to or? 

Da cwædon hig betwux hira: gif we secga5 

of Iieofone; ^onne cwyft he; forhwåm ne 

gelyfde ge him? Then said they among them: 

if tve say of heaven ; then will he say ; wherefore 

helieved ye him not7 

The verbal conjuiiction iiton, utan is used with 

the infiiiitive to express a desire or intention, as: 

Uton gån and sweltan mid him Let us go and 

die with him. 
Utan wircan mannan Let us male man, 

Of Adverbial Expressions. 

416. Besides the interrogatives already given (159, 
160), the following adverbial expressions likewise occur: 
cwyst {)ii? sayest thozi? cwefe we? say we? cwej)e 
ge? say ye? wénst {)ii &c. These give an interroga- 
tive sense to a proposition, thoiigh often scarcely trans- 
latable, and sometimes apparently useless. Ex. 

|)å andswaro de he and cwæS: I c nat, segst 
{)u sceolde ic mi'nne brdfor healdan? 
y4nd he said, I know not, am I my brother's keep- 
er? Gen. 4, 9. 

417. The word ne is the usual negative not, and 
always stands before the verb, like the Latin no?i, as: 

Hwi fæsta^ Johan nis leorningcnihtas, and 
J)ine ne fæstaS? Why fast John' s disciples, and 
thine fast not ? 

N e mag o ii hi fæstan 'They cannot fast. 

Of Adverbial Expressions. 183 

418. Na is the English wo, although, in composi- 
tion, it oftener expresses none, or any, with a negation 
preceding, as: nå hwær no where. 

In antithetical expressions it signifies not, when fol- 
lowed by ae but, as: na swilce ge secgaS ae not 
so as ye say but. 

Ne se no is opposed to gese yes. 

Ne eåc wor, Germ. auch nicht. 

N all es not is perhaps a coutraction of ne ealles 
not at all; n all es {Ⱦt an not that alone. 

419. Nas also signifying not ^ seems not, as Lye 
tliinks, to come from ne-wæs, but rather to be a con- 
traction of n alle s (for ne ealles), as: 

|>y hit bi'S {»æs monnes god, nas pæs anweal- 
des, gif se anweald god biS Therefore it 
is the good of the man, not of the power, if the 
power be good. 
Of his ågenre gecynde, nas of finre Of its 
own nature, not of thine. 
For nas, we soraetimes find næs, as Joh. 14, 22. 
and Mark. 1, 22. This however must not be confeunded 
with næs was not. It is also found with a second ne- 
gation, as: næs né. 

420. Although the negation, as appears from the 
above exaraples, is often, as in other languages, express- 
ed by a single word, yet it frequently consists of two, 
the one of wliich is placed before the noun, the other 
before the verb. Negative words compounded with ne, 
n are in particular not considered as expressing a per- 
fect negation, if the ne be not repeated, as: nan man 
ne siwaS niwne scyp to ealdurareåfe no man 
seweth a new shred on an old garment. Even if the 
sentence contain other negative words, ne is neverthe- 
less repeated, as: ne geseah næfre nan man god 

134 Syiitax of Adverbial Expressions. 

iVb man ever {never) saw (not) God. Ge wéna^ {)æt 
ge 11 au gecyndelic g(Jd ne gesælpe on iiinan 
edw selfura næbben Ye think that ye have no na- 
tural good nor happiness within yourselves. 

421. If the negative belong to a verb, both n e and 
nå are often used, and the verb is placed between, as: 
Ne bepurfon nå på hælan læces, ae {)å fe uii- 
trurae synd The hale need not the physician (leech), 
hut they who are sicJc, Ne eom ic nå Crist / am 
not Christ. 

422. Nor and not are expressed by n e n e, when not 
(ne) precedes, as: NefaregenenefyligeaS Go 
not, nor folloiD (him); but after nåSer neither only a 
single ne foilows in each member, as: GoldhordiaS 
eow soSIice goldhordas on heofenan, {)ær nå- 
\ov om ne moJ)5e hit nefornyraS, and [)ær 
]^e6fas ne delfaS, ne ne forstel aS But lay up 
for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither rust 
nor moth doth corrupt, and ivhere thieves do 7iot break 
through {delve) nor steal. Matt. 6, 20. We have here 
exaraples ol' both forms of expression. 



Of Versification. 

Different Sorts of Rime. 
1. Alliteratio7i. 

423. A he Anglo-Saxon versification , like tlie Ice- 
landic, and tliat of the otlier ancient Gotliic nations, lias 
a peculiar construction, the chief cliaracteristic of wliich 
does not, as in the Phrygian tongues, consist in syllabic 
quantity, but in Alliterative Rime^ or Alliteration ; that 
i^, when, in two immediately successive, and connected, 
lines, there occur three words, beginning with the same 
letter, and so that the third, or last, word stands first 
in the second line, and the two others in the first line : 
the initial letters, in these three words, are then cailed 
Timing letters. The last of these letters is considered 
as the chief letter ; after whicli the two letters, in the 
preceding verse, which are called suh-letters ^ must be 
adjusted; for instance, in Beowulf, 2, 17. 

I^å wæs æfter wisle. Then was after the fcast 

IVåi^ up-a-hafen. A cry taised. 

Here the three words, wæs, wiste, and wop con- 
tain the riming letters^ of which the 2d in wop is the 
chief letter^ and the two others, suh-letters. 

424. If the chief letter is a vowel, the suh Aet ters 
must also be vowels, yet, if possible, not the same, as, 
for instance, Beow. 1, 118. 

Eotenas and ^Ife Giants and elves 

and orceas and spectres. 

Here the o in orceaS is the chief letter, and eo 
and y the sub-letters; all three different. 

136 Different Sorts of Rime. 

425. With respect to this alliteratioii, the following 
restrictions are to be ohserved. The riming letters must 
aiways be found in those words wliich have the stress 
or tone on the syllable that begins with them; but a 
word may comraence with a toneless derivative syllable 
(ge^ he, a) , without disturbing the alliteration. It is 
moreover a rule, that, in the two connected lines, there 
must not be more than three words beginning in this 
manner; though a toneless pretix, or a toneless particle, 
is not considered as any infringement. 

426. The cht'ef letter does not necessarily stand 
iirst in the second line, but is often preceded by one 
or more short words, yet not by such as require the 
tone or emphasis in reading. These short precursory 
words Mhich, though independent of the structure of 
the verse, are necessary to the completion of the sense, 
constitute what may be called the complement, which, in 
arranging verses, that are transcribed continuously, we 
must be careful not to confound with the verse itself, 
lest the alliteration, the structure of the verse, and even 
the sense, be thereby destroyed. 

427. In short verses there occurs soraetimes but 
one suh'letter y especially if the chief letter be double, 
as: se, st^ sw ; for then the suh-letter should also be 
double, and three such alliterations , in two successive 
lines, would not only be unpleasant to the ear, but also 
difiicult to lind. 

428. As an example of all this, I will cite the fol- 
lowing lines from Be6w. 1, 108. 

In Caines cynne In Cain's hin 

|)one cwealiu gevrræc the mur der avcnged 

éce ciriliten, the eternrtl Lord, 

pæs |}e he ylhel slog: because he slcw Abel: 

iie ge/eali he J>ære /æhoe, he got no joy from his hatrcd, 

ae he hine /eor forvvreéc, but he, the creaior, drove Jiim, 

Different Sorts of Rime. 137 

wietod for py måne for that misdeed, 

wiancynne fram. far from tJie human race. 

In the first two lines are three riming letters (423), 
viz. c in Caines, cynne, and cwealra; {)one is 
here the compleraent (426). In the folio wing two, there 
are only two riraing letters (424. 427.), namely, the vo- 
wels e and a in éce and Ah el; fæs {)e he are here 
the complement. In the next two lines, the riming let- 
ter is/, inthewords gefeah, fæhSe and feor, not- 
withstanding the ge in gefeah, which is only a deri- 
vative prelix and void of accent. In like manner, for- 
wræc occasions no vioiation of the law , although it 
hegins with /; as the syllahle for, like the German tJer, 
is unaccented (425). The words ae he hine, here 
form the complement. In the last two lines, all is re- 
gular (423). 

429. In A. S. poetry the two lines connected hy 
alliteration , need not, as is usual in Icelandic, to he 
connected also in sense; on the contrary, their separa- 
tion in sense seeras rather to have been soiight after, 
and regarded as a kind of cæsura: yet it seldom , or 
never, happens here, as in Greek and Latin verse, that 
one period is concluded and another commenced, in the 
middle of a line, perhaps hecause in A. S. the lines are 
so short. 

430. From the circumstance that lines, thus riming 
together, are so often separated in sense, it follows also 
that the A. S. poems are seldom divided, like the Ice- 
landic, into regular stanzas, of six or eight lines each; 
and although this arrangement may sometimes he traced, 
for instance, in the ahove-cited stanza of eight lines, 
which is followed hy another also of eight lines; yet it 
seems a mere effect of accident, and that the verse ge- 
nerally runs on, without any division into strophes: for 


Different Sorts of Rime. 

instance, in a fragment of a metrical version of the 
Book of Judith: 

fæs se lilanca gefeåh 

wulf in walde 

and se wanna hrefn 

wæl-gifre fugel 

westan bégen 

J>æt him J)å peodguman 

j[>6hton tilian 

fylle on faégum <Sfc. 

At this the lank v^olf 

in the wood rejoiced, 

and the sad råven, 

the fowl greedy of slaughter, 

hoth from the west, 

that men for them 

should think to prepare 

a glut on the dying. 

Here the first line, although evidently heginning a 
new sentence, does not belong to the second, but to the 
foregoing ; while the 2nd and 3d, the 4th and 5th <fec. helong 
to eacli other: here therefore there is no regular stanza. 

431. This circurastance often renders the A. S. 
poetry more diffieult to analyse and explain than the 
Icelandic, in which, from the mechanical arrangement 
and connexion of the verses, some judgment raay he 
formed of the general sense and design. Another re- 
markable instance of this is the conclusion of the Meno- 
logium Saxonicum {HicJces Gram. A. S. p. 208). 

Meotod åna wåt 
hrvyder seo sawul sceal 
sySiJan hvreorfan : 
and ealle |)å gåstas, 
S ]^e for gode hweorfaS, 
æfter deåS-dæge 
dornes bida^. 

On fæder fæ^me, 

is seo forS-gesceaft 
10 digol and dyrne, 

drihten åna wåt, 

nergende fæder; 

nænig eft cymetS 

liider nnder Iirofas, 
15 {)e |)æt her for s65 

manutini secge, 

The creator alone knoweth 
whither the soul shall 
afterwards go: 
and all the spirits, 
that wander bcforc God^ 
after death-day, 
abide their doom. 

In the bosom of the Fathcr 
is their future condition 
secrct and hiddeuy 
God alone knoweth {it) 
the preserving father: 
no one cometh again 
hither under {o ur) roofs^ 
who that here in sootk 
may say to men. 

Bifferent Sorts of Rime. 139 

hvrylc sy meotodes gesceaft, wTiat is the condition of God, 
sige-folca geseta, the seats of the victor people, 

J>ær he sylfa wunatJ. where he himself dwelleth. 

In the foregoing, it is the 9th and lOtli, the Uth 
and 12th, the 13th and 14tt\ 15th and 16th lines, which 
are connected in sense; but the lOth and Uth, the 12th 
and 13th &c. that are united by alliteration. 

2. Line-Rime and Final-Rime, 

432. Besides alliteration, the northern poetry ap- 
pears, from the earliest times, even before the intro- 
duction of Christianity, to have had also Line-Rime and 
Final-Rime. Line-Rime is when two syllables, in the 
same line of verse, have their vowels and the conso- 
nants following thera alike, which is called perfect rime 
(consonances) , or unlike vowels, and only the following 
consonants the same, which is called half rime (asso- 

In the t.Riraing poem", in Mr. Conybeare's Introd., 
we find: 

Flan man hwitetJ, They dart the javelin, 

burg sorg bitetJ. sorrow biteth the city. 

Where flan and man, burg and sorg make such line 

433. Final rime is sufficiently known as a chief 
characteristic of raodern versification. This is either 
monosyllabic, dissyllabic, or even trisyllabic. Of tliese 
three sorts occur speciraens in the above quoted poem, 
as: stol and gol, gliwum and hiwum, her eden 
and genereden; and although but a single A. S. poem, 
and that in a very obscure dialect, has hitherto been 
discovered in this rime, namely, the one just cited, which 
has final rime throughout, and occasionally line rime, 
it is nevertheless probable that both these kinds of rime 

140 Different Sorts of Rime. 

were employed by the Anglo-Saxons, and other Teuto- 
nic nations, from a very remote period. With regard to 
final rime, tliere seems to be no doubt; for the Anglo- 
Saxoii poets, as Aldhelm, Ao. 709; Boniface, Ao. 755; 
Venerable Bede, Alcuin, and others, having left behind 
them Latin poems in rime, amounts to a proof that this 
kind of versification was older than, and universally 
known in, their time. Mr. Turner, who in his ,,History 
of the Anglo-Saxons'\ has given ns a view of their lite- 
rature, and, in a separate section, a history of their 
poetry, thinks tliat he has found traces of final rime iip 
to the fourth century; but of alliteration, as tlie leading 
characteristic ') of A. S. poetry (which he considers as 
yet undiscovered, and irapossible to discover), he has 
had no idea. 

*) In the Danish Edit. of my Grammar, I had comprehended 
in this remark both the vernacular and Latin poetry of the 
Anglo-Saxons; but in consequence of a note in the Revd. 
J. Bosworth's ^^Elements of Anglo-Saxon Grammar", p. 219, 
I have in the present Edit. oniitted tliat part which applies 
to their Latin poems. Mr. Bosworth's words are: ^^Mr. Rask 
^Js hcre mistaken; for on tJiese (Latin) verses Mr. Turner 
^^remarks : this singular versification seems to be a peculiur 
,,alliteration. B. IX. G. 5. p. 409. Svo. The alliteration then 
^^was observed by Mr. Turner; but because it was not per- 
fjectly regular and like the Anglo-Saxon, xvith that genuine 
^^candour which always accompanies true learning , he only 
^^says that it seems, Sfc." The passages ia Mr. Turner's His- 
tory, upon which I founded my conclusion, are the fol- 
lowing. B. IX. C. 4. : ^^The best Saxon scholars have con- 
^tfessed that the versification of the vernacular poetry of 
^jOur ancestors was modelled by rules which we have not 
^^explored; but the passage before quoted from Bede shows 
j^that it had really no other rule than the poet' s ear." Again: 
j^That they occasionally sought rime aud alliteration can- 
i^jiot be doubted, for we have some fevv A. S. poems in 
^jime ; but ncithcr of these formed its constituent character. 

Differeiit Sorts of Rime. 141 

434. Alliteration is also found combiiied with some 
of tlie aiicieiit kinds of Latin verse, as in tlie following 
adonic Terses : 

Te homo laudet Non modo parva 

^Ime creator, Pars quia mundi est, 

Pectore mente, Seå tibi sancte 

Pacis amore, Solns imago S^c, 

Be tlie language therefore, and the sense, %vhat it 
may, the alliteration is evident, wMch shews that it was, 
as it were, a national requisite in all poetry, without 
which it would have lost its wonted peculiarity of sound 
for the Anglo-Saxons. 

485. A peculiar kind of alliteration , which occurs 
in these Latin poems, is remarkable. In this kind 
two lines do not rime together, but each contains two 
or three riming letters, without a chief letter; for in- 
stance in the Epistles of Boniface: 

Mtliarde nunc nigerrima 
Imi eosmi contagia 
Terane fauste Tartarea 
Hæc contra hunc supplicia S;c. 

This is however seldora closely attended to entirely 
throughout those pieces, in which it occurs. This spe- 

^^nor was any marked attention given to the prosodical quan- 
^^tity of their syllables, as Hickes supposed." In none of the 
passages above cited does Mr. Turner say one word upon 
tlie nature of the alliteration, or point out the letters con- 
stituting it, either in the Latin verses which be quotes, or 
in any other; nor does he give even the slightest hint re- 
specting the various kinds of alliteration, which occur in 
other specimens of Latin poetry (juoted by himself, for 
instance ; 

^^Lector caste catholice 

,,Atque obses athletice" «Sfc. (435.) 
but (with the exception of the few words (juoted by Mr. 
Bosworth) merely notices the rime. 

142 Different Sorts of Rime. 

cies of alliteration approaches nearly to the Finnish na- 
tional versification, but is never found in the old Scan- 
dinavian, except in the 3d and 6tli lines of the Six-lined 
Narrative Verse (For ny r S al ag), and in detached lines 
of the more modern species of verse. It is perhaps the 
first origin of this kind of rime , as it is also the form 
it last assumed among those northcrn nations, from 
whose poetry it has now disappeared, for instance, in a 
Færoic ballad: 

A]n ér rujman av t/jslandi komin, 
skriva uj 6ewk so ftraja : 
nåka Aavi é um hana Aojrt 
suniman kan é å graja. 

A lay is come from Iceland hither, 
Written in the hook so hroad; 
Something have I hcard about it, 
The purport of it I can explain. 

Also in the Danish ballad of King Diderik (Nyerup's 
Ed. 1, 5, 28.) : 

Først vog han den ^ede Lindorm, 
og så hendes elleve Unger; 
dog fcnnde han ikke af Bjærget fcomme 
for Ædder og Ormetunger. 

Beda has sometimes arranged his Latin Ilexameters 
so, that a word in the raiddle rimes with one at the 
end, which seems to be a sort of perversion, or fanciful 
application, of line rime, but which nevertheless proves 
the antiquity and universality of what is properly termed 
rime. This kind of rime is also found in the more mo- 
dern Icelandic Rimas^ for instance : 

Lomb i iri&i lætr og 'kiii' 
Ijonit hreysti-snjalla (Sfc. 

This species of rime is also the principal characteristic 
of the Monkish, or Leonine, verses (so cailed from the 

Differeiit Sorts of Rime. 143 

narae of tlieir inveiitor), whicli were so much in vogue 
duriiig the middle ages. 

4.36. lu Anglo-Saxon itself, there is iiideed but 
little to be found of all this, at least, in those remains 
ihat have hitherto been comraunicated to ns in print; 
but it nevertheless seems a subject of sufficient interest 
to merit our attention, by enabling us to conclude, with 
tolerable precision, as to the nature of the ancient national 
poetry. By way of an example, in A. S., of several of 
the peculiarities already mentioned, we may take the short 
poem in the Saxon Chronicle, Ao. 975. It is as follows: 

Her EddgÅr gefor Then Edgar departed, 

Angla. reccend, the Angles' prince 

JFest-Seaxena wine West-Saxons' friendj 

and Myrcene mundbora. and Mercians' protector. 

CuS wæs wiåe Was known widely 

geond feala peoda among many people 

afera i<Jadinundes Edmund's son, 

ofer ganotes hæfS.^) over the sea-bird's way, (bath) 

Cyningas hine tuide Kings him from af ar 

ivurSodon side, honourcd highly, 

bugon to cyninge, howed to the king, 

swå wæs him gecynde: so was his nature: 

naés se flota swå rang, no fleet was so daring, 

ne se here swå strang, no array so streng, 

J)æt on y^ngelcynne that in England 

æs him gefetede, it sought hooty, 
J)å hwile J5e se æj)ela cyning while the noble king 

cynestol rehte. reigned on the throne. 

Here, in the first line, is only one sub-letter; the 
3d and 4th have each two sub-letters , without a chief 
letter, and without connexion. In the 2nd stanza, there 

^) I have thus endeavoured to extract a sense from the words ; 
the text in the Saxon Chronicle stands as follows; ciiS 
wæs f)æt wide, g. f. p. pæt aferan Eådmund ofes 
ganetes bat^. 

144 Of the Species of Verse. 

seem to be evident traces of rime. The rime of tlie 
Sd line miglit be assisted, by reading cynge for cy- 
liinge, but whether these final rimes are introduced by 
design or accident is uncertain, since they are not found 
in all the lines, and the whole piece seems very corrupt. 
But whatever may be our conjectures regarding this 
piece, it is evident, from the foregoing , that alliteration 
is the chief characteristic of the poetry of the Anglo- 
Saxons, and that they had final rimes, both monosyllabic 
and dissyllabic; perhaps also line rime, but this is less 

Of the Species of Verse. 

437. In Icelandic, the various species of verse are 
justly referred to three chief classes, according to the 
rime and other properties: the first. Narrative Verse 
(Icel. Fornyr^alag), has only alliteration; the se- 
cond, Heroic Verse (Dr ottkvætSi), has alliteration, 
line rime, and a stricter metre; the third, Popular 
Verse (Runhende), has besides alliteration also final 
rime. But these three classes are again divided into many 
sub-classes, chiefly according to the number of long or 
emphatic syllables. 

438. The above may, with tolerable safety, be ap- 
plied to A. S. versification. Hickes indeed complains 
that being ignorant of the accent and quantity in A. S., 
it is therefore out of our power to discover the rules 
observed by the poets , in the construction of verses ; 
we cannot know, says he, whether heåfod-swima 
giddiness consists of five or of four syllables; whether 
hleow-maga J)eow a hrother's (relative's') servant is 
of six, or four syllables &c. This however would rather 
be ignorance of pronunciation than of metre. But, on 
the coutrary, w e know both the one and the other sufS- 

Of the Species of Verse. 145 

ciently to enable ns to unfold tlie versification, as has 
beeii shewn by the examples already given. Every oiio 
who has a correct and living knowledge of the Icelandic 
prominciation, or merely of the Swedish or Danish, can- 
not possibly doubt whether, for instance, seoif, Icel. 
sjålfr (siålfr or seålfr), Svv. sjelf, and eor], Icel. 
jarl (iarl, earl) are of one or of two syllables ; whe- 
ther heåfod, Icel. haufii^, Sw. ImfDiid, Dan. Hoved, 
is of two, or three syllables &c. ; or respecting the pro- 
nunciation of words ending in e, as: brcJhte, Sw. & 
Dan. hragtey Germ. brachtey and the like. Even without 
a knowledge of other languages, it seeras to reqiiire no 
deep research to discover that those diphthongs were 
pronounced as one syllable, although we may yet be iin- 
certain as to their sound: also that (i c) worhte, (fii) 
worhtest &c. were longer by a syllable than worht 
{wrotight). The accent is likewise very easily ascer- 
tained, from the slightest knowledge of Oerman, or by 
the mere reading of A. S. verses, to the arrangement 
of which the ancient M. S. S. themselves are an excellent 
guide, having the lines of verse in general accurately 
distinguished from each other by a point. But Hickes 
possessed so little of the spirit of discovery, that, after 
having himself arranged hundreds of correct verses, he 
was still iinable to separate them, one from another, if, 
by accident, the dot was omitted, or was indistinct, ia 
the old M. S. S. He tells us therefore : carmina consistere 
ex versibus, seu potius versiculis triam^ quatuor^ quin- 
que, septem^ octo et quandoque novem syllaharum ^ et 
qui eæcedunt Sfc, But for those who wish not to com- 
pose A. S. verses, but merely to analyse such as they may 
meet with, it is easy to determine the metre, as far as 
is necessary. The chief syllable in each word bears the 
accent (11). Compound words, consisting of two inde- 


146 Of the Species of Verse. 

pendent and, in themselves, significant words, are ac- 
cented on the first. According to these simple rules, 
we shall consider the different species of verse. 

1. Narrative verse, 

439. The characteristics of this species of verse 
are «) the alliteration ahove explained, without any other 
sort of rime; h) the number of emphatic syllables. The 
length of each line of Narrative Verse is not so accu- 
rately deterrained as in Latin, by feet. All that here has 
influence upon the raeasure, seems, as in Icelandic, to be 
the long or accented syllables, whicli have an emphasis 
in the context, of which there are two in a line, each of 
which is usually followed by one, two, or even more, 
syllables, provided the natural intonation in the reading 
admits of their being pronounced short; but these long 
and short syllables do not seem, to be arranged accord- 
ing to other rules than those prescribed by the ear, and 
the cadence of the verse ; yet two or more accented syl- 
lables seldom occur unaccompanied by some short ones. 
In Greek and Latin, a dactyl and a spondee are equi va- 
lent, but, in this sort of verse, a dactyl, a spondee, a 
trochee, and an ampliibrachys, are all considered as equi- 
valent, because they have each one emphatic syllable. 
The Revd. Mr. J. J. Conybeare was therefore mistaken 
{^Illustrations of A. S. Poetry'% Introd. p. 11.) in quoting 
sécan and gesittan as three trocheesj for this being 
a verse of the narrative kind , with only two emphatic 
syllables, viz. séc and sit, must consequently be con- 
sidered as a dactyl followed by an amphibrachys, wheii 
referred to the language of Greek prosody. The cora- 
plement, as in Icelandic, having nothing to do with the 
structure of the verse (426), is to be run over as ligthly 
as possible. In this scansion , all words , in the first 


Of the Species of Verse. 147 

line, which stand before the first sub-Ietter, or tlie iirst 
emphatic syllable, are also considered as a complement: 
tilis holds good at least with regard to the structure of 
this species of verse, which is the most usual one exist- 
ing in A. S. poetry. 

440. If, for instance, we apply these principles to 
the verses already cited (431), we shall find, in the se- 
cond line, first, hwy^er seo as a complement, then 
såwul sceal, consisting of three syllables, but of whicli 
two only, viz, the first and the last, arelong; the raiddle 
one ul, being toneless or short, serves, as it were, to 
facilitate the connexion between the long ones. Tha 
third line has no complement, but begins at once with 
a long syllable, which is followed by a short one; af ter 
wliich come another long and a short; this line there- 
fore also contains two long syllables. The fourth, strictly 
speaking, has no proper complement, having only one 
sub-letter, unless we give that name to whatever, in sucli 
a case, precedes the first emphatic syllable; but^ hy 
whatever name we call it, it is easy to perceive that 
and does not belong to the verse, which, strictly speak- 
ing, begins only at ealle få, consisting of one 
long and two short syllables; this is followed by ga- 
stas, a long and a short: here therefore are again two 
long syllables. The fifth, except that it has fe for 
for complement, in other respects resembles the third. 
In the sixth, æfter is the complement, which is fol- 
lowed by two long syllables, the latter of which is ae- 
companied by a short one, being the reverse of the ar- 
rangement of the second line. The seventh is constructed 
like the third. From what precedes, it appears, that 
however unlike these lines may seem to be in their 
structure, they are nevertheless for med according to one 
ruie, viz. they have all two loug syllables, accorøpanied 


14S Of tlie Species of Verse. 

by at least oiie sliort, and are either preceded, or not, 
by a coraplement. 

441. To the same species of rerse belong also the 
specimeiis quoted Nr. 423, 424, 428, 430; having all, 
(correspoiidiiig to the Icelaudic Fornyr^alag) two 
long syllables in each line, followed by some short 
ones, generally by one short af ter each long; they are 
therefore usually foiind to consist of four syllables, 
though it is not the total number of syllables, but only 
of the long or accented ones, which determines the metre; 
for a line may consist of three syllables, viz. when 
one of the long ones has no short one after it ; or of 
five, when one of the long syllables is followed by two 
short. If therefore we bear not in mind that the com- 
plement must be abstracted, and not taken into the ac- 
count, we may, with Hickes, make out, that A. S. Terse 
may consist of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or more syllables ; or, in 
other words, be as long or as short as we please, that is, 
be without metre, and therefore no verse at all, to the 
idea of which, an arrangement, or distribution of words, 
according to time, or determinate measure, seems indis- 
pensable : but by attending to the rules here laid down, 
we find that the metre is as determinate in this, as in 
any other language, though according to peculiar laws. 
A line of this rerse consists sometimes of a single word, 
as (speating of Enoch) : 

Nåles deåøe swealt He died not the death 

røiddangeardes of the u-orld (nature) 

swå her men d6&. as men here do. 

Here middan geardes forms an entire line, which is 
jierfectly correct , for the word contains two long syl- 
lables, midd and geard followed by tvTO short ones, 
an and es. The next line has in the first place, swå 
her for complement, then men, which contains the 

Of the Species of Verse. 149 

chief letter, m, and d(55, both of whicli are long; this 
line requires no short syllable as an accorapaniment to 
tliese two, since it coramences witli a dissyllaLic com- 
plement. Another single-worded verse, viz. (alluding to 
Solomon) : 

gefimbrede he huilt 

tempel gode a temple to God, 

seeras to contain a fanlt, unless a word has slipped out 
l)y accident (perliaps h e a li high) ; for getimbrede has 
only one long syllable, viz. ti mb, which is insufficient ; 
tliough the line has altogether four syllables, being the 
usual nuniber. The number therefore both of these, and 
of the words, is only a secondary point in the scansion 
of the metre. 

The line of three syllables quoted by Mr. Conybeare 
{Litrod. p. 12) , la^es spræc, is correct, as it con- 
tains the requisite two long or emphatic syllables , se- 
parated by a short one; but almightne {Ibid) is faulty, 
there being no such word in the language. It sliould be 
ælmihtigne, which forms a complete line of verse, 
with a riming letter æ and two emphatic syllables, æl 
and Hg. 

443. We should here end our observations regard- 
ing this simple and easy species of verse, if some re- 
cent Scholars had not attempted the arrangement of com- 
bining two lines as one. Upon this point, I appeal to 
every one, having an ear and feeiing for poetry, who 
reads the following lines from Boethius : 

Eåla |)ii scippend O thou creator 

scirra tungla, of the hright stars, 

/(teofones and eoriJaii ! of heaven and of eartk ! 

J)U on /feaJisetle Thou on high seat 

ecum ricsast; cver reignest ; 

and pil ealne hræj)e and thou all the heaven 

heoioxi ymb-fevreorfest ; swiftly turnest round; 

150 Of tlie Species of Versc. 

and f)iirh J)lne Aålige miht and through thy holy mtght, 
tunglu genydest, compellvst the stars, 

J)æt hi ]^e t6-hyra8! that they ohey thee! 

and now kt him suppose thera arranged thus: 

Eålå J)u scippend scirra tungla, 

^eofones and eor^an, (pu on) Aeahsetle 

ccum ricsast (and pii) ealne hræ|)e 

Aeofon ymb-Aweorfest; (and ^urli pine) Aålige miht 

fimglu genydest, (|)æt hi J)e) to hyraS! 

Ilowever, before judgment is pronounced, I may be 
allowed to remark that this junction of every two lines 
is directly against raany indisputable evidences : 

444. Ist. Against the practice of the Scandinavian 
nations, from as far as we can trace it back, down to 
the present day; for iiistance, in the songs of Stærk- 
odder, and in the description given in the Scalda of 
that kind of verse which, after him, has received the 
name of Starka^arlag, and also in the Icelandic trans- 
lation of Paradise Lost, by tlie late Revd. J. Thorlak sson 
(deceased in 1819) , published under the care , and at 
tlje charge, of Mr. J. Heath, M. A. of King's Coll. Cam, 
Copen. 1828 in 1 Vol. 8vo. ; and in Assessor GrdndaVs 
translation of Pope's Temple of Farne. 

445. 2d]y. Against the yet older practice of the 
Anglo-Saxons themselves, who, in raany 31. S. S., care- 
fuUy separate the verses by metrical points, of which 
we may convince ourselves every where in Ilickes ; for 
instance , A. S. Gr. p. 185. 

E-'da bå scippend. Dii on Lealisetle. 

Scirra tnngla. licuni ricsast. 

Heofones and eorSan. And tJii ealne hræpe. &;c. 

and throughout the Avhole of Cædraon's paraphrase. 

446. 3dly. Against all the rules of ancient Gothic 
poetry, which teacli us that every two lines are con- 
nected by alliteration, in all cases, and in every kind of 

Of the Species of Yerse, 151 

ferse, except when, af ter two lines tims counected , a 
single one follows: nay, against the very appellations of 
the riming letters, namely, that the two in the first line 
are cailed suh-letters (stuSlar), and that in the se- 
cond, the chief letter (hofu^staf r) , hecause it always 
stands iirst, has therefore a deterrainate place , and is 
consequently more easily to he found ; hut all this would 
iall to the ground, and the appellation of chief letter 
hecorae absurd, if it were removed to the middle or end 
of a line. 

447. 4thly. Against all analogy with those other 
kinds of verse, which have longer lines, hut the same 
arrangement of alliteration , riamely that every two lines 
are connected together; therefore if we unite two lines 
into one, in short verses, we ought necessarily to do the 
same in long ones, and consequently read the following 
as one line of verse : 

Almåttugr Gu^ allra stétta yfirbjoSandi engla ok |)j6tfa. 
Æmig'hty God, Lord over all arders of angels and people. 

That is, sixteen long syllables, or eight spondees, accord- 
ing to the Icelandic reckoning! 

448. 5tlily. It is at open variance with the entire 
spirit of ancient northern versification, which never ad- 
mits of the cæsura, that is found in Latin and Greek 
hexaraeters and pentameters, and therefore never has 
longer verses than those answering to verse of 4 feet 
among the Greeks and Latins. It moreover seems very 
iiatural to place the compleraent hefore the chief letter, 
as it usually consists ouly of uniraportant adverhs or 
conjunctions, which serve to connect tlie two lines; hut 
to throw this (consisting sometimes of Ihree or four syl- 
lables) into the middle of a line, without reckoning it 
in the metre, would be higly absurd. In the 8tli line, 
for instance, of the verses just quoted, the words and 

152 Of tliis Species of Verse. 

J)urh {)ine are a complement, which, aftera pause, and 
wlien beginning a new line, may be uttered in a softer 
and lower tone ; hut which, in the middle of a line (the 
4th line according to the second arrangement), seems 
completely to destroy the whole, as live short syllable» 
would then come together, four of which do not belong 
to the metre; and this is not merely a solitary instance, 
but what, from the very nature of the combiiiation pro- 
posed, would be of constant occurrence, as the comple- 
ment has its place invariably before the chief letter (426) 
and therefore would always be found in the middle of 
a line: not to be speak of the sense, which, by this 
means, would be often interrupted at the end of a line, 
or, on the contrary, corapleted in the middle of one, 
which, as we have already seen, is directly opposite to 
the genius of the ancient Gothic versification, in which the 
sense rarely, if ever, concludes in the middle of a line. *) 

^) Mr. Wm. Grimm of Cassel, in his very leamed work, 
^^Dcutsche HeldensagCj Gotting. 1829"? has, in his quotations 
of several A, S. verses , strictly adhered to the combination 
of two lines in one, maintained chiefly by his Brother, Dr. 
J. Grimm, and has consequently been often obliged to begin 
or end his quotations in the middle of a line, as at p. 14 5j'c. ; 
but at p. 18 a most singular mistake has been occasioned 
by this forced union of tv.o lines ; the passage is from 
the ,jSong of the Traveller" {Conyheare's Illustration ^c, 
p. 11) , which is thus quoted : 

jjhåm gesohte eastan of Ongle 
Eormanrices v\'ra|)es wærlogan." 

Here the last half of the Ist line is not at all con- 
nected vvith the first half, but witli the first word of the 
next line , and this again has no coiaiexion with the rest 
of the 2nd line , which has evidently two sub-lettersj and 
therefore, according to Mr. Grimm's own rule , ought to 
be the first part of a line. 

Thus not only are the verses improperly arranged, but 

Of the Species of Verse. 153 

449. Hickes tliinks that this species of rerse woiil^ 
prove to be the same as the pindaric verse of the Greeks, 
and that we shoiild iind the A. S. versification to coii- 
eist of the same feet, hoth simple and compound, if we 
were only acquainted with the syllabic quantity; and It 
cannot be denied that, inasmuch as the Greek feet 
comprize every possible arrangement of long and short 
syllables, it is easy to resolve or divide every human 
discourse into such feet: but if we attempt to scan one 
of the examples quoted, or any other A. S. verse, accord- 
ing to the rules of Greek quantity, we shall soon dis- 
cover that such scansion was just as far from the thoughts 
of the poet, as it was from Hickes's, to divide his long 
preface, according to the Greek metres. In another 
place, he compares the A. S. narrative verse, as Olafsen 
the Icelandic, with the adonic verse, and they certainly 
bear rauch resemblance to each other; but that this 
coraparison also is very futile, we may easijy convince 

the alliteration is entirely deranged, whereas they are per- 
fectly right in Conybeare, who has only committed a slight 
niistake in the preceding lines, and in tlie translation. 
The passage ought to be tlaus : 

/^red-cyninges crudelis principis 

hån\ gesolite, domum quæsivit 

eåstan of Ongle, ex oriente ab Anglis, 

l?ormanrices, Hcrmanriciy 

ivrå^es irærlogan; irati fædlfragi ; 

ongan |)å worn sprecan. incepit tune multa loqui. 

Mr, Grimm, vvhose quotation begins in tlie middle of 
a comma, or proposition , has also been mistaken in the 
sense, translating gesohte by ich besuchte {I visited), in- 
stead of er besuchte (Jie visited), and not observing tliat 
the introduction of the poem ends only liere , and that the 
Traveller does not begin his speech till the next line : 
4^Fela ic monna gefrægn 1 heard of raany men 

mæg^um wealdan ^c." governing the tribes Sfc. 

154 Of llie Species of Verse. 

oiirselves, by reading tliree or four A. S. lines of verse 
in connexion. The resembiance is perhaps occasioned 
only by both consisting of short lines, and having two 
ictuSy or emphases , which must necessarily prodiice an 
apparent sirailitiide; but, in all other respects, they are 
iinlike; the adonic verse being measured according to 
determinate feet, while the narrative verse is filled up 
v^-ith short syllables arbitrarily arranged, and a com- 

450. An observation, which I owe to Professor Fin 
Magnusen, has, without doubt, far more scientific worth 
and truth; namely, that the narrative verse of the Go- 
thic nations seems the foundation of the Greek hexa- 
meter. For it is acknoAvledged that the hexameter is the 
oldest national verse of the Phrygian nations, as the 
narrative is of the Gothic; and if we look at the arran- 
gement of each, the resembiance is exceedingly striking, 
and the hexameter seems to be merely a somewhat 
(though very little) restricted variety of the freer, 
rougher, and, probably, elder, form exhibited in the nar- 
rative verse. As an example, I will arrange some Greek 
and Latin hexameters, chosen at random, according to 
the rules of narrative verse. 

Ti]V fcsv yaq ad^avarof 

xaxoTTjra xai tXaSov fiay.gog Ss Ttai ogd^ioi 

i<;iv iXaad^aL otjuos an avrtjVj 

^Tj'iSlOJS' Xai TQTj'/vg 

7,stt] fisv 6So$ TO ngojTov j btitjv Se 

fiala S* eyyvdi vatsu etg ayiQov ixi^rac 

T7/S d^ ag£T7jS Qr]'C§i7] Ss 

i^QOira '&S01 iJTSiTa neXet, 

TTQOTTCtQOt&SV tOtjUUV %aXsnT] TXiQ £80a» 

Arma viruraque Italiam, 

cano, Trojæ fato profugus, 

■qui primus ab oris Lavinaque venit 

Of the Species of Verse. 155 

littora : multum multa quoque 

ille et terris et bello passus, 

jactatus et alto, duin conderet urbem, 

vi superum, inferretque 

sævæ memorem deos Latio, 

Junonis ob iram genus unde Latinum 

451. This decomposition produces neither pindaric 
nor adonic verse, but the Gothic narrative verse so com- 
pletely tliat, in these eighteen verses of Hesiod and of 
Virgil, there is not a single deviation from, or fault 
against, the rules of narrative verse, but the whole reads 
just as fluently Avhen arranged according to the Icelandic 
metre, as according to the laws of hexameter. We have 
here, as in A. S. and Icelandic, some verses of one word, 
and others of several, for instance, the 4tb and llth 
verse of the Greek, and the IGth and 3d of the Latin; 
and these, for the most part, consisting of four or tive 
syllables, though sometimes of seven or eight; as the 
9th and 2nd ©f the Greek , and the 18th of the Latin. 
These indeed are but minor points, yet these, like the 
essential parts of the structure, all concur in the resem- 
blance. Thus we have here, in every verse ^ two long 
syllables, or pauses for the voice, each of which is 
usually followed by one, and, sometimes, two short ones : 
more than one however is not required; for instance, in 
the first line : zf]v is long, and is followed by f^ev, which 
is here nearly toneless ; ya^, on the contrary, has no 
short syllable af ter it. In the 7th line, xijg is long, and 
has two short syllables after it; the last T?yg, on the con- 
trary, has none, as also the St\ lOth &;c. The 6th line 
has ^cika d' for a complement, as the 14tli has to, and the 
15th 6ig. So also in the Latin: in the 3d line quz, in 
the 15th dum, and in the 18tb genus are complements. 
All the rest of the arrangement is as flowing Forn- 
yréalag as any part of the Edda or of Beowulf, though 

156 Of the Species of Verse. 

tlie Pbrygian metre is totally subrerted. The whole of 
Hesiod and Virgil caniiot however be so easily turned 
in to narrative verse as tliese passages ; as, in order to 
effect tilis decomposition, it is sometimes necessary to 
divide m ords , wliicli is a great faiilt in Icelandic versi- 
fication, but as this is not unusual in pindarics, and iii 
tlie choriises of the Tragedians, it cannot well be here 
considered as an inaportant objection. 

452. The reverse of the process does not hold good; 
for narrative verse cannot, by any raeans, be so easily 
turned into hexameter; the reason of which is that the 
hexanieter is subjected to greater restriction. The Ice- 
landic metre raay conveniently admit the arrangement of 
long and short syllables, which is found in the hexa- 
meter, and which is, in faet, natural to it, but the hexa- 
meter does not reciprocally allow itself those liberties 
which are assumed by the Icelandic metre , in which 
each line, not excepting the third, may indiscriminately 
end in a single long syllable, or a long, followed by one, 
or even two, short. The first and last of which cases 
are inadmissible in the conclusion of hexameters: nor 
can the corapleraent be made at all times to coraply with 
the demands of the hexameter, yet it often falls in pretty 
exactly, as, in the Voluspå: 

Hljofis biii ek [ allar | Iielgar | kindir | meiri ok | minni 
mogu I Heimdallar ] vild' at ek | ValfoSur | vel £ram-|teljak? 
Be silent all holy heings, greater and less, 
Sons of Heimdal! Wilt thou that I reveal the wonders of Odin? 

and in Beoividf 4, 5. 

We synt | gumcynnes | Geåta- [ leode and | Hige- 1 låces 
heorS ge- ] neåtas : } waés min [ fæder | folcuna ge- 1 cy^ed. 

We are of the race of the Gothic people and Iligelac's 
retainers : my fathcr ivas knoivn to the nations. 

Which are tolerable hexameters, but the alliteratioii 

Of the Species of Verse. 157 

h destroyed by this transformation, as tlie metre is hy 
the decomposition of the hexameters. Notwithstaiiding 
then that each of these races has changed this species 
of verse, according to its own fancy, it nevertheJess 
seems evident that the original idea was the same, and 
consequently that the groundwork of the poetry, no less 
than of the language itself^), was, in the heginning, 
eommon to hoth, 

453. That it was eommon to all the Gothic tongues 
is hest proved hy examples. The Old-Saxon Harmom'a 
Evangeh'ca Cottoniana (the heginning of which is quoted 
hy Hickes, Gramm. A. S. p. 189, and by Nyerup in his 
Symholæ ad Litteraturam Teiitonicam ^ p. 13^)) is com- 
posed throughout in this kind of verse, as Prof. von der 
Hagen has shewn, in a fragment of considerable length, 
in the Jenaische Jllgemeine Lit. Zeitung for 1809 CoL 
182. The heginning of the poem runs tims: 

Manega waron, Many were 

tlie sia iro mod gespon, wkom their minds impellcd 

that sia bi^unnon to hegin 

■word ^odes reckean. to expound God's word. 

AIso another passage {Hickes p. 190. Nyerup p. 143) : 

Tliu bist tliie w^aro (quat Petrus) Thou art the true {said Peter) 

Ifaldendes suno, Son of the Lordj 

Zibbi åndes godes, of the living God, 

the thit ^joht giscop, who created this light, 

Crist cuning éwig; Christ the eternal King; 

so welliat wi g-uethan alla, so will ive say all, 

jungron thina, thy disciples, 

that thn sis god selbo. that thon art God himself. 

^) On this head the curious reader may consult my Prize- 
essay: Undersøgelse om det gamle Nordiske eller Islandske 
Sprogs Oprindelse i. e. Researches on the Origin of the 
old Scandinavian or Icelandic language, Cop, 1818. 8vo. 

158 Of the Species of Verse. 

As a specimen of the Bamberg M. S. of the same 
hook, the following passage, extracted from B. J. Doceii's, 

Miscellaneen zur Geschkhte der teutschen Literatur, 

Miinchen 1808, Ind vol. p. 11, maj serve, beiiig Christ's 

answer to the questiou of his Disciples, when the last 

day shotild come? 

Thtit habad so bifiernid (qvad he) That hath the Lord (said Ae), 

drohtin tbe godo, the Good, so hidden, 

jac so /tardo farAolen, and the Father of Heaven, 

Aimirikjes fader, the Lord of the world, 

ujaldand thesaro weroldes, so entirely concealed, 

so tliat iriten ni mag that no child of man 

enig 7uannisc barn may know, 

hvan tbjxi marje tid when the awful time 

geicirdid an tbesaru weroldi : shall come on this world: 

ne it ok te waran ni kunnun yea, God's angels 

g-odes engilos Icnow it not for ccrtain; 

tliie for imu g-eginwarde ulthough thcy are always 

simlun «indun present befor e him, 

sie it ok giseggian ni mngun. they cannot say it. 

454. The same structure is fouiid in the Fraiikish 
fragments of Hildebrand and Hadubrand , published at 
Cassel in 1812, by the Brothers Giimm, with so much 
erudition. Nevertheless, the connecting of two lines to- 
gether as one, has, in a few instances, prevented them 
from distingiiishing the coraplement from the chief verse, 
and discovering the true alliteration, and the division of 
the stanzas: but those ancient Teutonic poems are the 
less calculated to endure this blending, as they seem to 
have longer complements , and more frequent insertions 
of words unconnected with the metre, also a less regu- 
lar structure ; it is therefore much easier to be led astray 
here than in A. S. and Icelandic verses. 

2. The Long Narrative Verse, 

455. Narrative verse is so general and established 
among the Anglo-Saxons, that only a single essential de- 

Of the Species of Verse. 159 

viation from, or rather variety of, it has been foiiiid, 
correspoiiding nearly to the six-liiied FornyrSalag, 
which is also among the Icelaiiders an ancieiit and regiilar 
ofFspring of the same. Such licence as the metre itself 
allows, in its original nature, cannot, of course, here be 
taken into consideration. This variety, which may be 
termed the Long Narrative Verse, is sometiraes used by 
Cædmon, along with the ordinary kind; for instance, at 
p. 6. 1. 13. 

Gesett hæfde he hie swå gesæliclice; 

ænne hæfde he swå swi^ne geworhtne, 

swå røihtigne on his 7»6d-ge|)ohte, 

he let hine swå wiicles wealdan, 
5. nehstne to hivci on Aeofena rice, 

hæfde he hine swå Awitne geworhtne; 

swå ujynlic M8és his luæstm on heofonum, 

pæt him com from lueroda drihtne, 

geZic wæs he |)åni ^eohtum steorrum, 
10. loi sceolde he drihtnes wyrcean, 

dyran sceolde he his fZreåmas on heofonum, 

and sceolde his drihtne Jiancian, 

J)æs Zeånes pe he him on |)åm Zeohte gescerede; 

fonne læte he his hine Zange wealdan: 
15, ae he awende hit him to wyrsan pinge, 

ongan him w^inn uphebban 

wi6 |)one Æehstan Aeofnes waldend, 

pe siteS on |)am Aålgan stole, 

deore wæs he drihtne lire; 
20. ne mihte him hedyrned weordan, 

|)æt his engel ongan 

ofermod wesan^). 

^) Ile had placed them in such bliss; 
one he had made so potent, 
so mighty ia the force of his mind, 
he allowed him such extensive sway, 

5. next to himself in the kingdom of heaven^ 
he had created him so hright, 
so bcautiful was his form in heaven. 

160 Of the Species of Verse. 

458. We have here in the first line of each cou- 
plet, three ictus, besid es a number (3 — 6) of short syl- 
lables, especially between the lirst and sccond ictiis. In 
the second line are only two ictus at the conclusion, 
but preceded by a very long complement of from four 
to eight short syllables, which usually makes the second 
line of each couplet as long as the first : it has more- 
over a half ictus in the beginning, nearly as foUows: 

Ist line < 


2d line / , v 

The first line has always two sub-letters at the two 
first ictus. The second line has its chief letter at the 
first ictus; that is, in the raiddle of the line, after the 
complement, very seldom in the beginning, where the 
Aveaker emphasis, or half ictus is found. 

I have inserted this piece entire, for the sake of 
giving a distinct idea of the system : it consists of twenty 
lines , or ten couplets , and , both at the beginning and 
the end, stands in immediate connexion with the com- 

that came to him from the Lord of Hosts, 

he was like the light stars; 
10. he should work the praise of the Lord, 

he should hold dear his Joys in heavcn, 

and should thank Iiis Lord, 

for the bounty he bestowed upon him in that light; 

then he would have let him possess it long: 
15. but he turned it for himself to a worse purpose, 

began to raise war, 

against the highest ruier of heaven, 

who sitteth on the holy seat : 

dear he had been to our Lord; 
20. it might not be hidden from him, 

that his angel began 

to be presumptious. 

Of the Species of Verse. 161 

mon narrative verse of the poem; the poet's design, iii 
this transition to a metre of a more solemn kind, heing 
ohviously to suit his verse to the grandeur of his siih- 
ject, viz. the exalted: splendour and heinous rebeilion 
of the archangel; and, in this respect, it also answers 
accurateiy to the Icelandic six-lined narrative verse, which 
(foriinstance, in the Hakon ar mål) is mixed with eight- 
lined, for variety. 

457» The late Revd. J. J» Conybeare, in his Illus. 
©/ A. S. Poetry, Introd. p. 11 §* 13» has snpposed this 
species of verse to consist of four feét, in consequence of 
having included the short syliahles of the iirst line, and 
the complement of the second, in the measure of the 
verse; hut that this was not the intention of the author, 
is evident; 

458. Ist. Because then there wonld oftén he more 
than three accented words, in each conplet, heginning 
with the same letter, which wonld be a violation of tlie 
laws of alliteration (425); for instance, in line 1, there 
wouid be three 5, in the wOrds gesett, swå, and ge- 
sæliclice, and in /. 7, three z^, wliich Mi- Conybeare 
has been compelled to adrait. In L O, he has snpposed 
hæfde and hine to contain the riming letters, though 
a comparison with lines 2 and 4 shews that hwi'tne 
is the word containing the chief letter, and that hæfde 
and hine are short or toneless. 

459. 2ndly. Because the chief letter would tlien be 
placed in the back ground , and ^ as in the example just 
cited, be, in a manner, hidden hy stibordinate words, 
(pronouns^ auxiliaries, or particles) which would conse- 
quently become accented, in direct Opposition to the rules 
of ancient versification* 

460. Sdly- Bécansé these versés would then assume 
an entirely different character from that of the commoa 


1^2 Of the Species of Verse. 

narrative verses, and indeed be of twice the length, and 
therefore could not well be connected with them in thé 
same poem, nor pass for a mere variety of thera ; where- 
as tilis may very well be the case , according to the 
analysis liere given; for the Ist line answers nearly to 
two ; its first part consisting of an ictus , and several 
short or iinaccented syllables, instead of the second ic- 
tus, its last part having two ictus regularly. The 2nd 
line, is yet more regular, provided only the coraplement be 
uttered in a lower and calmer tone than the verse itself ; 
the difference therefore between this and the common 
narrative verse is chiefly that, in the long species, three 
lines, with some little variation in the arrangement, are 
always connected together by alliteration, nearly thus: 

Ist line ( ^ ) 

2d line 


3d line -I , ^. 

461. That this is a correct view of the longer nar- 
rative verse, seerøs to be confirmed by a comparison WÉ 
with the Icelandic six-lined verse ; for instance, from the 
Soiarljoé, in the Edda: 

ist <Sf 2nd line Yfir J)å gotii, er hann varåaSi, 
Bd line nåiJi engi kvikur komast, 

Ist Si 2nd line Hræddn lijarta hann lézt trua 

Sd line peim er åSr haftii 1 vålyndr | verit. 

The 2nd and the 4th lines cannct here possibly be 
considered to consist of more than two feet, as na6i 
engi, and {)eim er å$r haféi are evidently comple- 
ments that ouglit not to be included in the verse, either 
in the scanning or the recital. Of precisely the same 
nature are the words énne hæfde he swa, and f æt 
him com from, in Cædmon. That the alliteration falls 
occasionally upon the first half ictus, as in 1. 10. «/of 

Qi the Species of Verse. 163 

$ceolde he drihtnes wyrcean," occurs also iu Ice- 
l^dic, as: 

1. 8( 2. line En J)6 leizt peirra hagr 

3. line annau veg almåttkum gut5i. 

In the Ist line of every couplet there is this diffe- 
rence, viz. that, in Icelandic verse, it has four ictus, 
and often three alliterations, always dliferent from those 
of the 2nd line, which shews plainly that it is intended 
to he divided into two, according to the general usage: 
whereas , in A. S. , it has only three ictus , and two 
alliterations, always the same as that of the 2nd line, 
which proves just as clearly that it is meant to consti- 
tute one line only; an arrangement which is hesides 
confirmed hy the metrical points in Cædmon, which are 
rightly and regularly inserted at the end of every one 
of these lines. 

462. Mr. Conyheare has the merit of heing the 
first that noticed this kind of verse, which had escaped 
me, while engaged in the Ist Edit, of this Grammar, not 
having Cædmon then at hånd, where alone it is to he 
found. His account of this discovery is contained in a 
communication to the Revd. J. Bosworth, an extract from 
which is given in the Anglo-Saxon Grammar of the latter, 
p. 246; hut when he, in the same place, expresses his 
opinion, that «^Æe questioriy as to whether the two hemi- 
stichs shall be regarded as one or two lines, is evidently 
that of a writer or printer, not of a singer or reciter" ^); 
I cannot refrain from surprize, at his not perceiving that 

*) The custom of placing each verse on a separate line, was, 
it is true, unknown among the Auglo-Saxons, their method 
of punctuation rendering such an arrangement unnecessary ; 
for with them, each line of verse, though written conti- 
nuously like prose, was divided from the preceding one by 
a point, though the sense might not admit even a comma, 

164 Of the Species of Verse. 

this long species of verse, which he Iiimself discovered, 
supplied the strongest argument against him ; as two of 
these lines , if added together , would thereby become 
so long, tliat they could not possibly be tolerated. Neither 
in music nor singing can it be indifferent wliether a line 
has its natural length or a double one. 

Heroic Verse. 

463. There are but few specimens of verse in any 
metre decidedly different from the preceding. That the 
Icelandic Drottkvæ^i, or Heroic Verse (consisting of 
a union of aliiteration with line-rime, and of regular 
lines, of equal length, of 4, 6 or 8 syllables) was knpwn 
to, and common among, the Anglo-Saxons may be doubted. 
A passage in the ^Jlistory of the Anglo-Saæons", where 
it is mentioned that Æthilbald , hesides heæameters and 
pentameters , left hehind him a species of Latin verse, 
not fornied on quantity, hut consisting of eight syllables 
in every line'', does not seera applicable in this place, as 
the exaraples given by Mr. Turner, vol. 3. p. 357, have 
final rime, and therefore belong to the Riinhenda, 
and are not the Icelandic Liljulag, as might be in- 
ferred from the above description, the chief characteri- 
stic of Liljulag being, that every stanza consists of 
eight lines, each of which has four long syllables, accom- 
nied by its long, and sometimes also, short syllable, 
without a coraplement; it has, likewise, line-rime (432), 
perfect in the first, and half in the second of the two 
lines connected by aliiteration, but never final rime. 

e. g. werodes wisa. wordhord onleåc. Here is no 
confusion; but, witli the modern punctuation, the case is 
very different, according to that, we should read werodes 
wisa wordhord onleac, thus entirely subverting the 
structure of the verse. (445. Cf, the note p. 152.) 

Of the Species of Verse. 165 

Popular Verse* 

464. Runhenda, or Popular Verse, cousists also 
iisually of regiilarly divided lines, of equal lengtli, witli 
alteriiate loiig and short syllables. According to the 
niimber of the long syllahles, it is divided into several 
species, only the shortest of which have a corøplement, 
but all are distinguished hy final rime. The passages, 
quoted by Hickes, from Cædmon's paraphrase, in which 
a few lines, out of a whole book of manifest narrative 
verses, happen by chance to rime together, prove as 
little as the rimes in Horace and Virgil, and cannot be 
seriously adduced by any Scholar (cf. p. 6 1. 14 sqq.) ; 
but that rime was universal among the Anglo-Saxons, is 
evident from the Latin examples already quoted, and be- 
sides the equivocal instance at p. 143, \ve have now evi- 
dent Anglo-Saxon examples, of various lengths and ca- 
dences, in the riraing poem, published by Mr. Conybeare. 

465. I will not fatigue the reader, by citing any 
passages from this poem, as scarcely any of tlie stanzas 
are perfectly clear and intelligible, thougli tlie Revd. W. 
D. Conybeare has made a meritorious attempt to trans- 
late the whole. I wiU merely observe that, with respect 
to the structure of the verse, it bears a great resem- 
blance to the Icelandic poem Hofu^lausn, by Egill 
Shalla-Grimsson ; for instance, in. the beginning: 

Me lifes onlåh He gifted me with life 

se dis leoht onwråh. who dlsplayed this li^ht. 

Vestr f6r ek urri ver, 
en efc ViSris ber. 

Even the structure of the burthen (Icel. stef) and 
the intermediate sections (stefjamal) seem to be dis- 
coverable here, and, in general, there seems to be no 

106 Gf the Species of Verse. 

doiibt til at an acciirate comparisoil witli the Icelandic 
would cast rauch light oii the A. S. versification, 

466. In tlie more recent language, namely the old 
English, or corrupt A. S. , the old versification was long 
preserved, and hut gradually changed; especially the 
narrative, and the popular species. Of the former we 
have a considerable and very regular specimen in the 
Vision of Peirce Plowman , vvritten by Robert Langland 
in 1350; from which we shall merely quote a passage to 
he found in M^. 3Iatthias's Edition of Gray's Works, 
Vol. 2. , where some mistakes are committed in mark- 
ing the aliiterations ; it is as foUows: 

I Zooked on my leit halfe 
as the Zady me taught, 
and was waxe of a woman 
wjorthlyith clothed, 
5. piir/iled with pelure, 
the /inest upon erthe, 
crowned with a crowne 
the fcing hath no better; 
/etislich her /ingers 
10. were /retted with gold wiers, 
and thereon red rubies 
as red as any gléde, 
and tZiainonds of dearest price 
and double maner saphirs (Jfc. 

In the Sd line, røas is not connected with the alli- 
teration, beiiig toneless (425). In the 5th and 6th lines, 
the riming letter is not p but /, though only twice oc- 
curriiig (427); for the word upon being a compound, 
trp-on, and having the p at the end, not at the begin- 
ning, of a syllable, cannot, by any means, be made to con- 

1. Halfe side, Icel. hålfa. 5. pur fil ed hordered, Fr. 
pourfile; pelure for p eliure /urs, from L.a.t, pellis, I. pell. 
9. fetislich handsomely. 12. gléde burning coal, A. S. 
gled, Dan. Glød. 

Of Dialects. 167 

^;aifl p ag a riming letter. This species of verse however 
-felli at 4ength into disuse, and the Popular Verse ^ or 
R lin hen da, becarae the foundation of the modem poe- 
try, as far as this is not a mere imitation of the classic 
models; this also soon underwent a change; the allitera- 
tion, except in single lines, heing rarely observed, and 
the final rimes being used in lines not immediately suc- 
cessive, nay sometimes only iii alternate lines; examples 
of which are also to be found among the other ancient 
Germanic and Northern people (435). As an example, I 
>vill give a few verses of an old English poem, of which 
Ilickes has published some fragments. C. 24. p. 222. 
The passage relates to the attributes of God. 

S8. He wot hwet tJencheS and hwet d6J>, 

alle quike wihte, 

nis no louerd swich is Crist, 

ne no fcing swich is Drilite. 

39. Heuene and erj)e and all pat is, 
biloken is on his honde. 

he déS all pæt his wille is, 
on seå and éc on londe. 

40. He w\lé6 and iwialdeii alle |)ing , 
he isc6p alle sceafte, 

he wrolite /ise on per sae, 
and /ogeles on par lefte. 

41. He is ord abuten ordcy 
and ende abuten ende, 

he is afre on eche stede, 
leende (pe) wér pii lidende. 

38. 1. wot, A. S. vv^åt knowetk 2. wihte, A. S. wihta or 
wuhta, pi. of wilit thing-, being, wight. 3. Ion er d 
A. S. hl af ord Lord. swich, A. S. swylc such. 4. 
drihte, A. S. drihten hord, crcator. 

39. 1. Heuene for heofon kcaven. 3. éc for eåc also. 

40. 1. witetJ ordains, decrees. wialdeft for wealde^ or 
wvlt governs, rules. 2. iscop for gescép created. 
4.1efte for lyfte, dat. of lyft. 

41. 1. ord bcginning (Icel. oddr a poini), 3. afre for 
aefre cvGr. éche for ælcere, dat. fem. of ælc Gach, 

168 Of Dialects. 

We have liere a epecimeii (much older than the pre- 
cediiig one) of tlie language iu its iiitermediate state, 
between the genuine, ancient, Anglo-Saxon, and the mo- 
dem English. The old, regular, structure is indeed much 
irapaired, though not entirely subverted. 

Of Dialects. 

467. A Sixth Part ought perhaps to be dedicated 
to the suhject of dialects, of >vhich the Anglo-Saxon, 
like other languages, had, without douht, several; but 
they are now of little importance, having long since dis- 
appeared, excepting what may possibly yet be preserved 
to us in documents from difFerent shires or districts. 
From these, were it possible to arrange them locally, 
an idea might be forraed of the dialects of the seven 
tribes, which cannot however be supposed to have varied 
much the one from the other, as the various races had 
long been melted into one nation, and were indeed unitcd 
as one kingdom, before the chief epoch of their litera- 
ture began; and it must be borne in mind that whatever 
was composed anterlor to that epoch has most probably 
been transmitted to us in the dress that was given it, 
at a later period, by transcribers who never dreamed of 
attaching any importance to an old and obsolete ortho- 
graphy or pronunciation. At least, in the A. S. works 
hitherto printed, no clear traces are to be met with of 
any thing that can well be called a variation of dialect, 
iinless the uncertain orthography to be found, in one and 
the same author, may be thought deserving of that name, 
which seems to me highly erroneous, as, upon this prin- 
cipie, we should find among authors in every ancient 
language, especially at the beginning of its literature, an 
endless number of dialects. 

Gf Dialects. 169 

468. Hickes, it is true, divides the A. S. into three 
dialects ; thc) first , wliicli prevailed tiil the invasion of 
the Dånes (337 years) ; the secpnd, till the Norman Con- 
quest (274 years) ; and the third, till the reign of Henry 
the Second. But it must strike every one that these 
are periods in the history of the language, not dialects. 
Of the first there is nothing genuine extant, except a frag- 
ment, in Beda, of Cædmon's paraphrase of the Bible, 
the language of which does not dilFer from that in Ca- 
nute the Great's time. Hickes likewise cites the Cotto- 
luau Harmonia Evangelica, in verse, but this is in Old- 
SaxoHy not in Anglo-Saa;o?i, of which every one may be 
convinced by the examples quoted (453). It is indeed 
inconceivable how he could introduce it on this occasion, 
when, Gr. A. S. p. 189, (where he has given long speci- 
mens of it, as examples of its versification, yet without 
arranging them as verses,) he expressly calls it Francic. 
Eodem genere carmtm's, says he, etiam usus est Ger- 
manorum quisquis ille fuit, qui Francice composuit 
HarniQniam illam 4 Evangeliorum^ qiiæ Liher Canuti in- 
scribitur, in Bibi. Cottoniana 8fc. To the second period, 
which he calls the Dialectus Dqno-Saxonica ., he refers, 
in particular, two interlined M. S. S. of the Gospels, the 
one called the Rushwoithian and the other the Cottonian. 
But it is singular that he was not aware of his own in- 
consistency, in describing this dialect as barbarous and 
corrupt to the highest degree, notwithstanding that all 
the A. S. iiterature beloiigs to the same period. The 
faet is that his meaning is not, as he expresses it, the 
Vano-Sason historical period, but only the Northumbrian 
dialect f which was probably mixed aud cormpted enough ; 
as Northumberland was often subject to norlhern prin- 
ces, and haif inhabited by Scandinavians. The third 
period, which he subdivides into two parts, the Norman- 

170 Of Dialects. 

Saxon and the Half-Saæon, lies without the limits of 
the ton^e, i^^hich was then in a state of dissolution, 
and transition to the English. * 

469. Altliough I cannot, by any means, a^ee with 
Hickes in this division of the Anglo-Saxon dialects, yet 
the examples which he adduces from the two before- 
mentioned M. S. S. contain so many deviations from 
Anglo-Saxon, that they raay justly be considered as a 
separate dialect, which may be called the Northumbrian. 
For instance; æ is of frequent occurrence, as: nellaj) 
ge doerne nolite judicare ; instead of déman. The in- 
finitive often ends in a or e. In like manner, n is often 
rejected in the simple order of nouns-snbstantive, and 
in the definite form of adjectives (fec, as: få ælmessa 
instead of ælmessa n, from seo ælmesse alms ; 
^one stranga for fone strangan, from strang 
^trong ; pæs ilca godspelleres for i 1 c a n of the 
same Evangelist; habba for habban to have; buta 
for butan without. In the gen. plur. , the termination 
~ana is often found, which seems to be the Icelandic 
^a-nna, and to express the article, which is not else 
appended to the nonn, in this language, as: ne gef en- 
cas fif hlafana for ge ne gef enceaS færa fif 
hlåfa ye think not sn the Jive loaves: ~s is often used, 
instead of -S or -jS, in the termlnations of verbs, as: 
we habba s for habba^ we have; and raid py ge 
liim (hine) findas, s eg gas me and when ye find 
hun, tell me; hvk^æt sæcas ge? tohat seeli ye? Here 
it appears also that the difference between Ǥ and e in 
the plur. (viz. that e is used when the personal pronoun 
immediately follows) is lost. Gecennes sunu (for 
g e c e n $) she shall hear a son ; D æ r n e h r u s t n e é c 
raoh{>e (mo^fe) gespilles tvhere neither rust nor 
moth corrupt, The 2nd person often ends in -s instead 

Of »ialects. 171 

af st, as: f ii gesohtes thou sougktest ; hwær wu- 
tias orbyes-to? where dwellest thou? The first person 
of the 1. class, 1. Conj. ends in -a for -ige, as in Icelan- 
dic, as: ic fulwa iuih / hapti%e you ; but in the 
other classes of verbs it often terminates in -o or -m, as : 
i c 8 end o I send; ic cwefu / say; ic awecco / 
awake; which seems however to be a remnant of the 
old Germanic dialects, brought to the country by the 
Anglo-Saxons themselves, and is an accordance with 
the Lettish and Phrygian tongues, which the Scandina- 
vians have not preserved: o is also found, instead of e, 
in other terminations, especially in feminine words, as : 
|)ére yldo for ylde, from yld age. In this dialect, 
the vowels also often undergo a change, and the inflec- 
tions and rules of construction are frequently neglected ; 
yet not so often as Hickes would lead us to think, when 
(p. 100) , for the purpose of shewing how barbarously it 
confounds the genders and cases of words , he adduces 
as an example: 5y leas Sii wi{)spurne to ståne 
fot {)inne lest thou dash thy foot against a stone ; 
and adds, uli fot finne pro fot pin: masculinum 
Scilicet pro neutro: whereas, on the contrary, this ex- 
ample proves that the dialect is far from irregular, but, at 
the same time, betrays an unskilfulness in Anglo-Saxon 
quite unpardonable in the autlior of a work, containing 
a Mæsogothic, a Francic, an Anglo-Saxon, and an Icelan- 
dic Grammar ; for, in A. S. , as in all the Gothic tongues, 
foot is of the raasculine gender (like pes, jroy^), and 
the whole passage is, in every respect, grammatlcally 
correct , as well as the pure A. S. translation , which 
runs thus: pe læs fe pin fot æt ståne ætsporne. 
The whole difference is that fot stands liere in the 
nominative, but in the accusative in the other transla- 
tion, where a difFerent turn is given to the sentence. 

172 Of Dialects. 

In the next example, which he gives, he is without doubt 
again mistaken; it is the foUowiiig: for ansidiine J)iii 
hefore thy countenance. Here too, as in the preceding 
instance , he takes fin to he of the neuter gender ; 
though the termiuation ein ansionne shews that the 
translator has rightly inflected the word as a feminine, 
and simply used fin undeclined, as the genitive of f li ; 
instances of which occur in the other Gothic languages. 
But it woiild he tedious to correct all Hickes's errors of 
this nature ; and to describe tliis dialect more accurately 
af ter liis description, as long as there is nothing of it 
given in print, would he to little purpose. It is much 
to he regretted that, instead of an unsatisfactory account 
in six folio pages, he did not give us some considerahie 
and connected specimens of this dialect of the A. S., 
which alone seems to have any claim to that appella- 

470. At the same time, it must he observed that, 
even in the purer A. S. pieces , some of the peculiarities 
of this dialect are, here and there, to he traced, as a 
for 072, and o for e, in the terminations, also eo for y 
and e for eo , ea, m the middle of words, which per- 
haps are to he ascribed to the dialect of the transcri- 
hers, and raight, should this tongue ever become an 
object of critical investigation , possibly help to deter- 
mine the age of M. S. S. and the place where they were 
written. Some of these peculiarities being common to 
the Frisic and Old-Saxon, may safely be ascribed to 
that tribe of Angles which seated itself in Nortliumbcr- 
land , and not to the Scadinavians , in wliose language 
they are not to be found, and thus contribute to prove 
that the Angles were of genuine Teutonic, and not of 
Scandinavian, origin. 



IN prose: and verse, 


The New Testament. 

Qiiatiior D. N. Jesu Christi Evangeliorum versiones 

perantiquæ duæ, Gothica scil. Sf j/nglosasonica Sfc, 

opera Fr. Junii Sf Th. MareschallL Dordrechti 1665. 

(Matth. 5, 43.) 

VH"e gehyrdon poet gecweden wæs lufa pinne nextaii% 
and hata {)innefe6nd; soflice* ic secge eow: lufiaS eowre 
fynd, and do5 wel f)ani fe eow yfel d66, and gebidda5 
for eowre ehteras^ and tælendiira'^ eow; pæt ge sin eow- 
res fæder bearn, {)e on heofonuni ys, se-^e dé6 pæt his 
sunne iip-a-spring6 ofer {)å godan and ofer {)å yfelan, 
and he læt rinan ofer {)å rihtwi'san and ofer J)å unriht- 
wi'san. Gif ge soSlice {)å lufiaS, pe eow liifia§, Iiwylce 
me'de habba$ ge? liii ne^ d66 raånfulle"^ swa? And gif 
ge fæt an d6§, fæt ge eowre gebrd^ra wylciimia^", hwæt 
do ge måre? hii ne ddS hé{)ene swa? Eormistlice beo5 
fulfremede^, swa eower heofonlica fæder is fulfremed. 

Begyma^^ fæt ge ne don eowre rihtwisnesse beforan 
manniim, J)æt ge syn geherede*° fram him, elles *^ næbbe 
ge mede mid eowrum fæder, fe on heofenura ys. Eor- 
nustlice fonne fii fine ælraessan** sylle, ne blawe man 

1) Nextan or nyhstan ne^-f, neighhour, 2) Verily, but, 
3) PI. of elite re persecutor. 4) More correctly tsélendan, 
subint. ^å, for in this signification not governing a dative, as 
is evident from ehteras; R. tælan to speak ill of. S) H li n e 
an interrogative form, like the Lat. nonne. 6) Månfull wickedf 
nefarious, from man nefas. 7) Wylcumian to wclcome, 
salutc. 8) Fnlfremed per f eet. 9) Begyman to take heed. 
10) P. P. of lierian to praise. 11) Else. 12) Æ.1 messe alms. 

176 From the New Testament. 

byman^ beforan ^e, swå liceteras* d65 on gesomnnngum 
and 011 wycuin^, fæt hy sin gedrvvur^ode''- frain man- 
iim; soS ic eow secge hig onfengon hyra mede. SoS- 
lice {)oiine {)u fine ælmessan do, nyte J)in wynstre^ hwæt 
do J)in swyj)re^ ; pæt fin ælmesse sy on diglum^, and 
pin fæder hit agylt^ fe, se-fe gesyh$ on dihlura. 

And f onne ge eow gebiddon, ne bed ge swyice lice- 
teras, fa lufiaS fæt hig gebiddon^ hi standende on ge- 
somnungiim and on strætahyrimra^°, fæt men hig ge- 
seon; so6 ic secge eow, hi onfengon hyra mede. Dii 
soélice, fonne fii fe gebidde, gang into fi'num bedcly- 
fan*^ and, fi'nre dura belocenre, bide finne fæder on 
dihhim; and fin fæder, fe ges3^h§ on dighim, he hyt 
agylt fe. So^lice fonne ge eow gebiddon, nellen ge 
sprecan fela swå hæf ene, hig we'naS fæt hig syn gehy- 
rede on hyra menigfealdan sprséce, nellen ge eornost- 
lice^* him geefenlæcan^^ ; s6(5lice eower fæder wåt hwæt 
eow fearf ys, ær fåm fe ge hine bidda$. Eormistlice 
gebidda^ eow fus : Fæder ure ! f li fe eart on heofenura, 
SI fin nama gehålgod: tci-becume^''^ fin ri'ce: gewurSe 
fin wiila on eorfan, swå swå on heofenura: lirne dæg- 
hwamlican hlåf ^ ^ syle us to dæg : and forgyf us ure gyl- 
tas'^, swå swå we forgifaS lirum gyltendura: and ne 
gelæd^^ fii us on costnunge^^, ae alys us of yfele. S63- 

1) B y m a trumpet. 2) Licetere hypocrite. 3) Wi c 
Street, wick. 4) honoured. 5) heft (hånd). 6) Right (hånd), 

7) O n d i g 1 u m (or d i li 1 u m) in secret, from d i g u 1 secret. 

8) Agyldan to pay^ recompense. 9) I" æt hig g. h. , pi. Subj. 
i c me gebidde, verb. refl. 10) Corncrs of ways, from s træt e 
a Street, way, and li y rn é a corner. 11) B e d c h am b e r , from. 
clyfa, Icel. klefi, Lat. conclave. 12) Therefore, then» 
13) Imitate. 14) To -b ecu man to come. 15) Bread, loaf. 
16) Gylt sin, debt. 17) Conjecture for gelædde in the ori- 
ginal, which is the imperf. 18) Temptation, v. costnian to 


From the New Testameiit. 177 

lice*. Witodlice® gif ge forgifaS mannura hyra synna, 
ponne forgyf^ eower se lieofeiilica fæder^ eow eowre 
gyltas : gif ge so^lice iie forgyfa^ raanmim , ne eower 
fæder ne forgyfS eow eowre syuiia. 

(Marc. 4, 1—9.) 

And eft he oiigaii hi æt Sære sæ læraii, and hym 
wés mycel raenegu to-gegaderod ; swå {)æt lie on scip 
eode, and on J)ære sæ wæs, ajid ealle seo menegu yml)e 
J)a sæ wæs on lande. And he hi fela on bigspellum 
lærde, and hym td-cwæS on hys lare: GehyracS ! lite eode 
se sædere hys sæd to såwenne; and få he sew, sum 
feoll wi^ jone weg, and fugelas comon and hyt fræton*. 
Sum feoll ofer stan-scyligean^, far hyt næfde mycel 
eorSan, and sona up-eode, for-{)am-J)e hyt næfde eorSaii 
ficcnesse; J)å hyt up-eode, seo sunne hyt forswælde*^, and 
hyt forscranc, for-J)åm hyt wirtruman^ næfde. And sum 
feoll on j^ornas ; få stigon M fornas and forSrysmodon^ 
fæt, and hyt wæstm ne bær: and sum feoll on god land, 
and hyt sealde, upstigende and wexende, wæstm, and åii 
brohte frittigfealdne, sum syxtigfealdne, sum hundfeald- 
ne. And he cwæ6: gehyre se-Se eåran hæbbe t6 ge- 

(Luc. 15, il---32.) 

He cwæS soSlice: Sum man hæfde twt^gen suna; få 
cwæS se gyngra^ to hys fæder : .^Fæder ! syle me mi'nne 
dæl {)inre^° æhte, fe me td-gebyreS * ^ ;" ^å dælde he 
him his æhte. Då æfter feawa dagum ealle his f ing ge- 

1) Truly, amen. 2) For^ since. 3) E o w e r s e h. f , , li_ 
terålly your the heavenly Father. 4) F r e t a n to devour. 5) S t å n- 
scylig stony. 6) Forswælan to hum, scorck. 7) Wirtru- 
m a root. 8) F o r - tJ r y s m i a n to choke. 9) The text has y 1 dr a 
both in Daye's Edit. and in that of Junius ; the Vulgate has 
adolescentio:\ 10) Conject, for min re. 11) T6-gebyriaii 
to helong to, 


178 From the New Testament. 

gaderiule se ginffi'a suim, and férde vvræclice^ on feor- 
len* ri'ce, and forspilde^ {)ar his æhta, lybbende on his 
gælsan''^. fa he hig hæfde ealle amyrrede^ fa wearS 
niycel hunger on |)åm ri'ce, and he wear5 wædla; jté. 
fe'rde he and folgude ånum burh - sittendura men fæs 
ri'ces; få sende he hyne to hys tiine^, fæt he heolde 
his swyn. på gewilnode he his wamhe^ gefyllan of f am 
heån-coddum, fe $å swyn æton, and him man ne sealde ; 
få bef dhte he hyne and cwæ§. ,,Eålå hu fela hyrlinga 
t,on mines fæder hiise hlåf genéhne habba^, and ic her 
i,on Iiungre forwurSe^, ic an'se and ic fare to minum 
j^fæder, and ic secge hym: eålå fæder! ic syngode on 
j^heofonas and beforan fe, nu ic neom wyr(5e, fæt ic 
tjbeo fin sunu genemned^, do me swå ånne of fi'num 
tjhyrlingum." And he aras få, and com to his fæder, 
and få gyt få he wæs feorr hys fæder, he hine geseåh, 
and wear§ mid mildheortnesse astyrod^°, and agen hyne 
arn, and hyne beclypte^^, and cyste hyne. |>å cvvæ5 his 
sunu: ,^Fæder! ic syngude on heofon and beforan fe, 
,^nu ic ne eom wyrSe, fæt ic fin lunu beo genemned.'* 
j>å cwæS se fæder to his feowum: ,^Bringa§ ra§e fæne 
tjSelestan gegyrelan^^, and scryda§ hyne, and sylia6 hym 
jjiring on his hånd and gescy to hys fotum ; and brin- 
<,ga§ au fætt styric^^, and ofsleå^, and utun etan and 
^jgewistfiillian^'* ; forfåra fes min sunu wæs deåd, and 
tJie geedcucude^^, he forwear$, and he ys geme't."*^ 
på ongimnon hig gewistlæcan^^. 

1) Jbroad. 2) Distant. 3) To destroy , dissipate. . 4) On 
his gælsan luxuriously, from gælsa luxury. 5) Amyrran to 
hinder, dissipate. 6) Town, farm. 7) Wamb helly {Scot. ivame, 
Engi. ivomh). 8) Fo rw urban to jjer/^Å. 9) Gene nm an to 
name, call. 10) A s t y r i a n to excite, move. 11) B e c }\y p. p, a n 
to embracc, dip. 12) Rohe. 13) Calf. 14) Ge vvistf ulli an 
to f^ast, make merry. 15) Ge-edcucian to live again^ 
16} Gexr\é to find. 17) G e w i s 1 1 æ c a n to fcaiit, rejoice. 

Frdm King Alfred's Boethius. 179 

Sd^lice hys yldra sunu wæs oii æcere, and Ke com, 
and på he fam htise géneålæhte, he gehyrde {)æne 
sweg' and ^æt wered*; J)å clypode he ånne peow, and 
stxode hyne hwæt pæt wære. f>å cwé5 hé: «,j>m bro^or 
<,com, and fin fæder ofsloh an fætt celf, fbr-påm-f e he 
,«hyne hålne onfeng." få bealh^ he hyne, and nolde in- 
gån; få eéde his fæder lit, and ongan hyne hiddan; få 
cwæS he, hys fæder andswariende : ^.Éfne''" swå fela geåré 
«jc fe feowude, and ic næfre fiu bebod ne forgymde', 
^^and ne sealdest f u me næfre an ticcen , f æt ic mid 
,,minura freondum gewistfullude ; ae sy^San fes fin sund 
,^cora, fe hys spede^ mid myltystrum"^ amyrde, f li ofsldgé 
j^hym fætt celf!" |>å cwæS he: t^Sunu! fii eart symlé 
,<mid me, and ealle mine fing synt fine; fe gebyredé 
,,gewistful]ian^ and geblissian; forfåm fes fin brd^oi* 
<«wæs deåd, and he geédcucede; he forwearS, and he 
tJs gemét." 

From King Alfred's BoetLius. 

1. \fn fere tide fe Gotan of Scr65iumægfe^ vif 
Romanarice gewin'° up-a-hdfon'^', and niiid heora cynin- 
gum'*, Rædgota and Eallerica wæron håtne, Romana- 
burh a-bræcon'^, and eall Itah'arice, fæt is betwux fåm 
muntum and Sicih'a ^åiri eålonde, in anwald gerehton'*; 

1) Sound. 2) Company, assemhly, 3) Imp. of belgan to 
he angry (verb. refl.). 4:) Lo! 6) F o r g y m a n *o neglecty trans- 
gress, 6) Substance. 7) Myltystre meretrix. 8) Rejoice. 
9) Mæg^ nation y country. 10) War. 11) Imp. of up-a-liebban 
to raise, hegin {war upon). 12) The relative f e must be under- 
stood before Rsédgota. 13) Imp. of abrecan to destroy, con- 
quer. 14) Imp. ofgereccan to reduce (under thcir power,) 


180 From King Alfred's Boethius. 

and ])Å^ æfter {)åm foresprecenan cyningum Deodric 
feng to {)am ilcan rice*, (se Deddric wæs Amulinga, he 
wæs cristen, f eah he on {)åm arrianiscan. gedwolan^ {)urli- 
wiinode"^), he gehet' Ilomamim his fredndscipe, swå 
{)æt hl mdstau heora ealdrihta*^ wyrSe^ hedn; ae he få 
gehåt swi^e yfele gelæste^, and swi^e wrål)e geendode 
mid manegiira måne, (J)æt >væs td-eåcan oJ)runi iinari- 
mediini^ yfliim, pæt he Jdhannes fone papan het of- 
sleåii) ' ° : J)å wæs sum consiil , J)æt we heretoha håtap, 
Boetiiis wæs håten, se wæs in bdc-cræftura^^ and on 
woriild-{)eawum^^ se rihtwi'sesta; se ][)å ongeat J)å manig- 
fealdan yfel, J)e se cyning Deddric wij) f am cristenanddrae 
and wi{) fåm rdmanisciira witum' ^ dyde ; he J)å gemun- 
de^'*^ fara e'{)nessa*^ and {)åra ealdrihta, $e hi imder 
j^åra cåseriira hæfdon heora eald-hlåfordura. Då ongan 
he smeagan'^ and leornigan*^ on him selfum, hii he f æt 
ri'ce påm unrihtwisan cyninge a-ferran' ^ mihte, and on 
riht-gclcjif-fiilra and on rihtwisra anwald gebringan ; sen- 
de |)å digellice ærend-gewritu'^ td påm cåsere td Con- 
stantin dpolim (pær is Creca heah-biirh, and heora cyne- 
stdl)-°, for-f):!m se casere wæs heora eald-hlåford-cyn- 
nes^^, bædon hine fæt he him td heora ealdrihtiim ge- 
fuitiimede-'. Då fæt ongeat se wæl-hreowa*^ cyning 
Deddric, ^å het he hine gebringan on carcerne^*, and 

1) Then. 2) Feng to rice assumedthe government, from 
fon to take Sfc. 3) Gedwola error, hercsy, v. gedwellan 
to ntislead. 4) To perscvere, persist. 5) Inip. of gehåt an to 
promise. 6) Of tkeir ancient privileges, gen. pi. of ealdriht. 
7) Worthy. 8) Imp. of gelaéstan to fulfd, per form. 9) Num- 
berless. 10) To slay. 11) Liter ature, booJc-craft. 12) Secular 
institutions. 13) Wita a wise man, a chief. 14) Imp. of ge- 
miman to remember; governs the gen. 15; Epnes liherty, 
facilify. 16) To inquire, to consider. 17) To learn, meditate, 
18) To tal-e away. 19) Letter, message. 20) Royal seat. 21) Cynn 
fatjiily, kin. 22) Imp. of gef ultumian to help. 23) Cruel. 
24) c a r c e r n prison. 

From King Alfred's Boethius. 181 

færiime belucan. Da hit 5a gelomp pæt se årvryrha.^ 
J)ær* on swå micelre iiearonesse^ becom''^, {)å wæs lie 
swa.micle swi^or on his mode gedre'fed^, swa his mod 
ær swiSor to ])åm woruld-sæl{)um gewunod^ wæs, and he 
Sa nanre frdfre he-innan påm carcerne ne gemunde, ae 
he gefeoll niwoF of diine on få flor, and hine a-strehte^ 
swi^e iinrcJt^ and ormod, hine selfne ongan wépah, and 
pus singende cwæf : 

2. Då lioS, fe ic wrecca geo lustbærlice*° song, 
ic sceal nii heofiénde^^ singan, and mid swiSe migera- 
dum** wordum gesettan^^, feåh ic geo hwilum gecop- 
lice*''" funde; ae ic mi wéperide and gisciende^^ of ge- 
radra worda misfo'^. Me a-blendan^^ fås ungetreovvan'^ 
woruld-sælfa, and me forletan*^ swå bliudne on fis 
dimme*° hol; $å bereåfodon^'^ (me) ælcere lustbærnesse^*; 
få-éå ic him æfre betst truwode*^, Så wendon hi me 
heora bæc** to, and me mid ealie^^ from-gewitan^''. To 
hwon*^ sceoldan, lå! mine fri'end seggan f æt ic gesælig 
mon wære? Hii mæg se beon gesælig, se-Se on Sam 
gesælfum Surhwunian ne mot? 

3. Då ic få Sis leof, cwæS Boetius, geomriende*^ 
a-sungen hæfde , Så com Sær gån in to me heofencund 

1) Venerable (Dan. Ærværdig). 2) My own conjecture for 
wæs, which cannot be combined with the imp. becom. 
3) NarrownesSy straigkt. 4) To come. 5) Gedréfan to afflict. 
6) Gewunian to he accustomed, wont. 7)Niwol, niwel 
lirostrate. 8) Inip. of astreccan to extend, strctck. 9) Sad, 
from r6t gay. 10) Merrily. 11) Heofian to wail, lament. 
12) Rude, dissonant. 13) To compose, 14) Fitting. 15) Gi- 
s c i an to sob. 16) To deviate, lack. 17) Imp. of ablendan 
to blind. 18) False. 19) Imp. offorlætan to le ave. 20) Dim. 
21) Imp. of bereåfian to bereave, governs the pers. in acc. 
and tlle thing in gen, 22) Pleasurc. 23) Imp. af t r u w i a n to 
trust. 24) Back. 25) Mid e a 1 1 e altogether, quite. 26) Depart 
from me. 27) Wherefore. 28) Geomrian to sigli, groan. 

18? From King Alfred's Boethius. 

Wfsddm, and fæt mm murnende Mod mid his wordum 
gegrétte; and {)us cwæj). Hii ne eart fu se mon, pe oa 
minre scole wære aféd^ and gelæred? ae hwonon* wur- 
de {)u mid pissum woruld-sorgum {)us swi^e geswenced^ ? 
buton ic wåt pæt pu hæfst éåra wæpna to hra{)e for- 
giten, ée ic pe ér sealde. Da clipode se Wi'sdom and 
cwæf: Gewita|) nii, a-wirgede"*- woruld-sorga ! of mi- 
nes pegenes mede, for-{)åm ge siivd få mæstan scea- 
J)an^ Létap hine eft-hweorfan to minum larum! Då 
eode s^ Wisddm near, cwæj) Boetiiis, mi'num hreowsieu- 
dan geJ)ohte, and hit swå niowol hwæt-hwegu up-a-rsrr. 
de, a-drigde*^ på mines Modes eågan, and hit fran^ blir 
j^um wordum, hwæj>er hit ou-cneo>ye^ his fostormodor? 
]V[id-{)ara-J)e Så fæt Mdd wif his bewende^; Så gecneow 
)iit swiSe svveotele his agne modor, {»æt wæs se Wi'sdom, 
pe hit lange ær tyde^° and lærde, ae hit ongeat his 
låre &wi{>e to-torene andswipe to-brocene'* mid dysigra** 
hondum, and hine på fran hii pæt gewurde. Då and- 
Vyrde se Wisdcjm him and sæde, pæt his gingran hæf- 
don hine swå to-torenne, pær-pær hi tiohhpdon'^, pæt 
hl hine ealne habban sceoldon, ae hi gegaderiaS moni 
feald dysig^"*^ on pære fortruwunge*^ and on pam gilpe*"^ 
butan* ^ heora hwele eft to hyre bdte^^ geeirre. 



1) Fed. 2) Whence, wherefore. 3) Troubled, afflicted, 
^) Accursecl V. awyrgian. 5) SceaJ)a robber, enemy. 6) Imp. 
pf adrigan to dry up, 7) Imp. of frinan to ask. 8) Imp. 
subj. on-cnåwan to knoiv, recognize. 9)WiJ> his bewende 
turned towards him. 10) Imp.. of ty an to teach. 11) P.P. to- 
brecan to break. 12) Foolish. 13) Imp. of tiohhian to 
imagine, think. 14) Fvlly (126). 15) Precipitcition, presumption, 
16) Arrogance, vamting. 17) Unless, 18) Reparation. 

Queen Edgifa's Declaration Ao. 960. 

From the Siippl. to Lye's Diet, Vol. 2. 


(ådgifu cyp f am arcebisceope and Cristes-cyrceaii hy- 
rede^ liii hire land cora æt Culingoti*. {>æt is fæt liire 
læfde hire fæder land and bdc^, swå he mid rihte beget, 
and hira his yldran leTdon"*^. Hit gelamp {)æt hire fæder 
ahorgude^ 30 punda æt Godan, and betæhte^ him pæt 
land fæs feds to amvedde^, and he hit hæfde 7 winter. 
Da gelarap emb \i. tid f)æt man beonn ealle Cantware to 
wigge^ to Holme: få nolde Sigelm hire fæder to wigge 
faron mid nånes mannes scette^ unagifniim, and agef'° 
fa Godan 30 punda, and becwæf^^ Eådgife his déhter 
land, and bdc sealde. Da he on wigge afeallen wæs, 
fa ætsdc^^ Goda fæs feds ægiftes, and fæs landes wyrn- 
de^^, 0$ fæt^"*^ on syxtan geare; få spræc hit fæstlice^^ 
Byrhsige Dyrincg, swå lange of få witan, fe få wæron, 
gerehton^^ Eådgife fæt hed sceolde hire fæder hånd 
geclænsian*' be swå miclan fed; and hed fæs åS lædde^^ 
on ealre '6^6^^ gewitnesse td Æglesforda^^, and fær ge- 
clænsude hire fæder fæs agiftes be 30 punda åée. Då 

1) Hyr ed family, convent. 2) Cowling in Kent. 3) Title 
deecl. 4) For leéfdon, r. læfan to leave. 5) Aborgiaii to 
borrow. 6) Imp. of betæcan to deliver, 7) pæs feds t. a. in 
pledge for that money, from wæd a pledge. 8) Wig ivar. 
9) Scett or Sceatt property, trcasure. 10) Agifan to pay, 
restore. 11) Imp. of becwej)an to bequeath. 12) Imp. of 
ætsacan to deny. 13) Imp. of wyrnan, Icel. varna to 
withhold, ref lise. 14) O^ |)æt until; the text has o^ ^æs, which 
is prolDaljly a typographical error. 15) s. h. fæstlice claimed. 
16) Imp. of gereccan to direot, determine. 17) H. f. h. g e - 
clænsian cleanse her father's hånd, i. e. clear her fathcr. 
18) Ab lædan to make oath ; G. cinen Eid ablegen ; D. ajlæg- 
g-e en Ed. 19) Aylesford. 

184 Qneen Edgifa's Declaration. 

gyt lied ne moste landes brucan', ær hire frynd fim- 
don æt^ Eådwearde cyncge, {)æt he him fæt land for- 
beåd, swå he æniges brucan wolde^, and he hit swå 
ålet*. Då gelamp on fyrste f æt se cynincg Godan on- 
cu^e^ swå swy^e, swå hira man æt-rehte*^ hec and land 
ealie få ^e he åhte, and se cyning hine J)å and ealle 
his åre^ mid bdcum and landum forgeaf Eådgife , to 
ate6nne' swå-swå heo wolde. Då cwæf hed, faet hed 
ne dorste for gode him swå leånian^ swå he hire to 
geearnud^° hæfde, and agef him ealle his land, butoii 
twåra sulungum^^ æt Østerlande, and nolde f å bec agi- 
fan, ær hed wyste hii getriwlice^* he hi æt landum heal-^^ 
dan wolde. Då gewåt Eådweard cyncg, and fencg Æ<5el- 
ståu td Tice. Då Godan sæP^ fuhte, få gesdhte he fone 
kynincg ÆSelstån, and bæd fæt he him gefingude^* vif 
Eådgife his bdca edgift^^^ and se cyncg få swå dyde; 
and hed him ealle agef buton Osterlandes be'c, and he 
få bdc, nnnendre'^ handa, hire td-let, and fåra oferra 
mid eå(3mettum^^ gef anende, and ufen-an^'^ fæt twelfa 
snm hire å6 sealde for geborenne and ungeborenne'^, j 
fæt fis æfre gesett sprséc*® Mære. And fis wæs geddn 
on Æ5eiståncs kynincges gewitnesse, and his wytena æt 
Hamme wif Læwe^^; and Eådgifu hæfde land mid bd- 

1) Enjoy, possess. 2)Findan æt to ohtaiii from. 3) As 
(if) he would cnjoy any. 4) Imp. of alcétan to renouncc, re- 
sign. 5) Oncunnan to rcproach. 6) Æt-reccan to ahjudi- 
cate, deprive of ; this word, whicli is not in Lye's Diet. , is here 
tra.nsla.teåhj exponcr et. 7) Ar propertij,possessions. 8)Ate6n to 
dispose of. 9) Rcward, requite. 10) Earnian to earn, descrve. 
11) Sulung acre, carucatc. 12) Faithfully. 13) Afit opportu- 
nity. 14) J' in gi an to arrange, intercede. 15) Restitution. 
"16) Unnendre handa donante manu, voluntarily, from u n n a ii 
to give, grant. 17) Mid eåSmettum lumihly. 18) Besides, 
af ter. 19) For bom and unhorn. 20) Gesett spræc a fixed 
agrcement. 21) At Ham near Lewes. 

From Canute the Cfreat's Secular Laws. 185 

cura "Jara twégea cyninga dagas, liire sima. Då Eådred 
geendude*^, aiid man Eådgife berypte*' ælcere åre; Ja 
naraon Godan twégen suna Leofstån and Leofric on Eåd- 
gife {)ås twå forespreceiiaii land æt Culingon and æt 
Osterland, and sædon fåm cilde Eådwige, Je få geco- 
ren^ wés, fæt hy rihtur Mora wæren fonne hire. fæt 
J)å swå webs oS Eådgår astihtod*, and he and his wytan 
gerehton fæt hy månfuU reåflåc gedon hæfden, and hi 
hire hire åre gerehton and agefon. Då nara Eådgifn be 
Sæs cynincges leåfe^ and gewitnesse and eallra his bi- 
sceopa ]^å bec, and land betæhte into Cristes-cyrcean, 
mid hire ågenum handura up-on J)one altare lede'^, fan 
hyrede on e'cnesse to åre, and hire savvle to reste; and 
cwæj) f æt Crist sylf raid eallura heofonlicura mægne f one 
awyrgde on ecnesse, fe fås gife æfre awende o6§e ge- 
wanude^. Dus cora feds år intd Cristes-cyrcean hyrede. 

Edward the Elder had three wives : 1. Eguina, the 
mother of Athelstan, wlio died Ao. 940; 2. Elflida, who 
had daughters only; 3. Edgifa, the mother of Edmund and 
E d r e d. Edmund had two sons , E d ^t y and Edgar. Edwy 
died Ao. 959, and Edgifa Ao. 963. 

Ganute the Great's Secular Laws, 


'is is ^onne sed worldcunde^ gerednes', ^e ic wille 
mid mi'nan witena-ræde f æt man healde ofer eali Engla- 

1) Died. 2) Berypan to bereave. 3) Chosen (king). 
4) Astihtod perhaps an error for astihtode, imp. of astih- 
tiaii to dispose, order; or: (waés) astihtod was estahlished 
{king). 5) Leave. 6) Laid, imp. of lecgan. 7) Diminish, 
impair, 8) Secular. 9) Institution. 

186 From Canute tlie Great's Secular Laws. 

1. Dæt is ponne ærest, f æt ic >ville fæt man rihte 
laga iipparære*, and æghwylce unlaga* georiie afylle^, 
and fæt man aweodige''' and awyrtwalige' æghwylce un- 
riht swå man geornost mæge of dissum earde*^, and 
arære up godes riht, and heonan-forj)^ læte^ manna ge- 
hwylcne, ge earrane ge^ eadigne^", folc-rihtes weorpne", 
and liira man rihte ddraas dérae. 

2. And we læraf)^* fæt, feåh hwå'^ agylte'^, and 
hine sylfne deope forvvyrce^^, Sonne gefadige^^ man M 
steore^^, swa hit for gode sy gebeorhlic^^ and for wor- 
iild aherendlic*^ ; and gepence swife georne se-$e ddmes 
gevveald-° åge, hwæs he sylf georne^ ',t5onne he Sus cweS: 
et dimitte nohis debita nostra, sicut et nos dlmitttmus, 
pæt is on englisc: .^and forgif us, drihten! ure gyltas, 
swå we forgyfaS Sara Se wi]^ us agyltaS." And we for- 
heddad pæt man cristene men for ealles** to lytluiii 
huru to deå{)e ne forræde-^ ae elies geræde*'* man frip- 
lice*^ steora folce to Searfe, and ne forspille- ^ man for 
litium godes hand-geweorce, and his ågenne ceåp, Se he 
deore gebohte. ^m' 

3. And we forheodaS pæt man cristene men ealles 
to swife of earde ne sylle, ne on hæfenddme huru ne 

1) Raise, establish. 2) Illegality, injustice. 3) Af y 11 an 
cast down, suppress. 4) Awe6dian to weed, pluck up, from 
vreååwccd. 5) Awyrtw an to root up. 6) Land. 1) Ilencc- 

fortk. 8) Let also esteem, consider. 9) Ge ge as well — as. 

10) Eådig rich. ll)WeorJ)e or wyi|)e worthy. 12) Instruct, 
exhort. 13) I^eali hwå etoi qiiis^, 14) A gylt an delinquere. 
15) Forwyrcan to losc, implicate {himself). 16) Gefadian 
to dispense, ordain. 17) Penalty, punisiiment. 18) Defensibley 
moderate. 19) Tolerable. 20) Power. 21) Geornan or gyr- 
nan to dcsire, yearn. 22) For too little. 23) Adjudge, pr odere. 
24) Gerædian to decree, appoint. 25) Mild. 26) Forspil- 
Ian to dcstroy. 



From Canute the Great's Secular Laws. 187 

^ebringe, ae Leorge* man georne; fæt man Så sawla ne 
forfare*, Se Crist mid his agenum life gebdlite. 

4. And we beodaf pæt man eard georne clænsian 
agynne^ ou æghwylcum ende, and manfulra dæda æg- 
hwær"^ geswi'ce 5 5 and gif wiccean^, o|)J)e wigleras*^, mor{)- 
wyrhtan^ oJ)Se hdrcwe'nan^ ahwær on lande wurfan'^^ 
agytene^^, fyse hig man georn« lit of {»ysan earde, opfe 
on earde forfære^* hig mid ealle, buton hi geswicaii, 
and Se deopor gebe'tan. And we beddap pæt wiSersacan^^ 
and litlagan^''" godes and manna of earde gewitan, buton 
hig gebiigon'5, and {>e geornor gebétan. And Seofas 
and Seddsceapan to ti'man^^ forwyr{)an'^, buton hig ge- 

5. And we forbeddaf eornostlice ælcne hæSenscype. 
HæSenscype bi'S fæt man idola weorJ)ige, fæt is J)æt 
man weor|)ige hæ{)ene godas, and sunnan o{)J)e monan, 
fyre o|){)e flddwæter'^, wylias'^ o{){)e stånas o{)J)e æniges 
cynnes wudu-treowa*°, oJ)J)e wiccan-cræft lufige, o{)fe 
morj^weorc gcfrerame on ænige wysan; o{)]^e on hlote^^ 
o{)J)e on fyrte^^, o{)J)e on swyicra gedwymera^^ enig 
J)ing dredge^'''. 

C. Manslagan and manswaran*^^ hådbrecan-'^ and 

1) Beorgan guard, preserve. 2) Forfaran perdere. 
3) Agynnaii to hegin , set about. 4) Every wli&re i. q. 
ahwær. 5) Cease, ahstain from, gov. Gen. 6) Wicce a witch. 
7) Wiglere a soothsayer, enchanter. 8) Morj^wyrlita a 
mur der er. 9) H 6 r c w é n mcretrix. 10) For w e o r 5 o n. 
11) Known , found, p. p. of agytan. 12) I. q. forfare. 
13) WiSersaca an apostate, traitor. 14) Utlaga an outlaw. 
15) Suhmit. 16) Instanthj, 17) Perish, 18) River. 19) Wyll 
a well. 20) OJ)|)e céniges cynnes w. t. or forest trees of 
any kind. 21) Lot. 22) Torch ; the printed text has fyrhte* 
23) Juggling, deception. 24) Do y perform. 25) Månsvvara 
perjurer. 26) Hådbreca a violator of holy orders,^ 

188 From Camite tlie Great's Secular Laws. 

æwbrecan^, gebiigan and gebétan ofjfe of cy|)J)e* mid 
syiinan gewitan. 

7. Licceteras and ledgeras', ryperas* and redferas^ 
godes graman*^ habban æfre, buton hig geswycan, and 
Se deopor gebétan. And se-fe wille eard rihtlice clæn- 
sian and unriht alecgan^, and rihtwysnesse lufian, ^onne 
mot he georne ^illices styran^, and éillic ascunian^. 

8. Utan'° eåc ealle ymb fry]^es-b(Ste*' and feosbdte 
smeågan'^ swi{)e georne: swå ynibe fry{)esb(5te swå ^åra 
bundan" ^ sy selost*''", and ^åm J)eofan sy låj)ast* ^; and swå 
ymbe fedsbdte, J)æt ane mynet gange ofer ealle Sås {)edde, 
butan ælcon false, and J)æt nån man ne forsace^^. And 
se-(3e ofer Sis false wyrce, Solige'^ Sære handa Se he 
J)æt false mid worhte, and he hi'g'^ mid nånum Singum 
ne gebioge, ne mid golde ne mid seolfre. And gif man 
J)onne Sæne gere'fan*^ ted^°, fæt lie be his leafe fæt 
false worhte; ladige-* hine raid Sryfealdre lade, and gif 
seo låd Sone^* berste*^, hæbbe penne ylcan dom Se se 
pe pæt fals worhte. 

9. And gemeta*"*^ and gewihta-' rihte man georne, 
and ælces unrihtes heonon-forj) geswice. 

1) Æwbreca an adulterer. 2) Cy|)(Je countnj. 3) Leo- 
gere a Har. 4) Rypere a thief. 5)Reåfere a robbcr. 
6) Anger. 7) Suppress. 8) Punisk. 9) S/iun. 10) A verbal 
particle o£ exhortation equivalent to let us. 11) B6t restora- 
tioUy prescrvation ; whence frj-^Jjes-bot prescrvation of thc 
peace , and feos-bot restoration of tke coin. 12) Inquire. 
13) Bunda husbandman, peasant. 14) Sup, of sæl good. 
15) Lad detrimcntal, destructive. 16) Eefuse. 17) Stiffcr. 
18) Hig i. e. tke hånd. 19) Rceve (D. Greve, G. Graf). 
20) Teon to accuse. 21) Lå di an to clear, vindicate , wlience 
tlie subs. Låd. 22) Done bere seems to have been transposed 
with tbe J)onne following. 23) Berstan to be wanting; defec- 
tive. 24) Gerne t a mcasure. 25) Gewiht o weight. 

A Spell &c. 189 

10. Burgbøte' and bricgbote and scipforfunga* 

agynne man georne, and fyr|)unga^ eåc swå, a fonne'^ 
t)earf sy for geménelicre' neode. 

A Spell 

to promote the Fertility of the Land. 

From Prof. Nyerup's Symholæ ad Litteraturam Heutoni- 
cam antiquiorem, Hafniæ 1787. 

iler ys seo bot, hu ]^ii meaht fine æceras be'tan*^ gif 
hi nellaj) wel wexan^, o^^e fær hvile nngedefe^ fing on- 
gedon biS, on dry^ 0(36e on lyblåce^°. 

Genim*^ ponne on niht, ær hyt dagige, feower tyrf 
on feower heaJfa** fæs landes, and geraearca*^ hu hy 
ær stodon. Nim fonne éle'"^ and hunig and beorman*^ 
and ælces feds meolc'^, fe on fæm lande sy, and ælces 
treowcynnes dæl, fe on fæm lande sy gewexen, butan 
heardan beåman'^, and ælcre nani-cufre*^ wyrte^^ dæl, 
butan glappan^° anon; and do fonne halig wæter Sær- 
on, and drype^^ (man) fonne friwa on fone staSol^* 
fåra turfa, and cwe^e fonne Sås word: crescite o: wexe 

1) Burgbot and bricgbot the keeping of toivns and 
bridges in repair. 2) Scipfor|>ung the equipment of ships. 
3) The signification o£ this word seems very doubtful; perhaps 
we sliould read fyr|)runga furtherings y conveyances. 4) A 
J) o n n e whenever. 5) Common. 6) Restore , ameliorate. 7) JVax, 
grow, prodiice. 8) Improper, evil, unfitting, from g ede fe quiet, 
convenient Sfo. 9) Wizard , but liere it signifies witchcraft, 
IlO) Enchantment. 11) G enim.a.n to take. 12) Side. 13 Mark, 
notice. 14) Oil^ 15) B e o r m a barm. 16) Milk. 17) Except- 
ing hard timber trees, 18) Ofwhich the name is known. 19) Wyrt 
a plant f wort. 20) Perhaps burs (lappa); the word is not inXye, 
21) Drip. 22) Foundation, place. 

190 A Spell &c. 

(ge) 8r multtpUcamini o: and gemænigfealde (ge), ^ 
reptete o : and gefylle (ge) terram o : fås eorSan ! sl?^^ 
nomine patris et fUii et spiritus saiicti [sit'l benedictz, 
and Pater noster swå oft swå J)æt oSer, and bere siffan 
få tyrf to circean, and raæssepreost a-singc feower mæs- 
san ofer fån turfon, and wende man fæt grene' to $ån 
weofode, and siffan^ gebringe man få tyrf fær hi ær 
wæron, ær sunnan setl-gange^, and hæbbe him gevvorht 
of cwic-beåme''^ feower Cristes-mælo^, and awri'te on æl- 
con ende : Matthéus and Marcus , Lucas and Johannes, 
lege"^ fat Cristesmæl on f one pyt neof eweardne^, cwe§e 
fonne: crux Matthéus, crux Marcus, crux Lucas, crux 
sanctus Johannes, Nim fonne få tyrf, and sete f ær- 
iifon-on^, and cwe^e fonne ni'gon si^on fås word: cre^ 
scite, and swå oft Pater noster^ and wende fe fonne 
eåstweard, and onliit^ nigon si^on eådraddlice*°, and 
cweS fonne fås word eåstweard : 

Ic stante arena ^* and lieofones nieaht^'*" 

ic me bidde, and heah-reced^^ . 

bidde ic |)one mæran fat ic mote J)is gealdor*^ 

bidde pone miclan drihten, niid gife drihtnes 

bidde ic |)one håligan t6|)uni ontynan^^; 

heofonrices weard^*, fiirh trumne'* ge|)anc^^ 

eorSan ic bidde aweccan pas wæstmas 

and uplieofon^^, us to woruld nytte -'^j 

and |)å s6|)an gefylle |)ås foldon-* 

sancta Marian mid fæste geleåfan^^, 

1) T7ie green side. 2) Afterwards. 3) Sunset. 4) Living 
timher. 5) C ristes-mæl Crucijix. 6) Lay. 7) Nctherward. 
8) Thereupon^thereover. 9) Onlutan to how, incline. 10) Humh- 
ly. 11) Apparently intended for Latin, but void of meaning. 
12) Préservér, guardian. 13) High heaven. 14) Power, might. 
15)Reced house, palace. 16) Or galder incarrtation. V7) Den- 
tibus aperire, i. e. utter. 18) Firm, stedfast. 19) Mind, thought. 
20) Nyt use. 21) For fold an earth. 22) Mid f. g. through 
firm belief. 

A Sixell &c. 191 

wlitigian^ Jas waiicg-turf* se-Jie ælmj'ssan^ 

swå se vvitega cwætJ: dsélde domlice* 

J)æt se hæfde are on eorårice, drihtnes J)ances5. 

Weiide Se poniie priwa sungaiiges^, astrece*^ (fe) 
foniie Oli aiidlang, and ari'm^ pær Letanias, and cwe§ 
fonne Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus oS ende, sing ponne Be- 
nedicite awe nedon earmen^ and Magnificat and Pater 
noster 3, and bebedd'° hit Criste and sancta Marian 
and fære hålgan rode^^ to lofe and to weorSunga^^, and 
fan to åre' 3, fe fat land åge, and eallon fåm fe hira 
underSeddde synt. 

foniie f at eall si'e geddn, fonne nime man uncuS^* 
sæd æt ælraes-mannum*^, and sellehimtwå swylc swylce 
man æt hira nime, and gegaderie ealle his sulh-getedgo^^ 
tdgædere; horige fonne on f an beåme stdr*^ and iinoP^ 
and gehålgode såpan»^, and gehålgod sealt: nira fonne 
fat sædrete on fæs sules hodig^®, cwe5 fonne: 

Erce, erce, erce-* eacniendra-' 

eorcJan modor and elniendra ! "^^ 

geunne iie se alwalda** sceafltahen^''' 

éce drihten se scine-^ wæstma, 

æcera wexendra*^ and f aére brådan 

and wri-Sendra-'^, bere^^ wæstma, 

1) Beautify, adorn. 2)Wang afield. S) Alms. 4)D6mIice 
here seems to signify liberally. 5) For the sake of the Lord. 
6) Round With the sun. 7) Prostrate. 8) Count, repeat. 9) A w e 
n. e. I am unable to explain these words. 10) Bebeddan to 
commit, commend. 11) Rod rood. 12) To the pr ais e and honour. 
13) Vse. 14) Belonging to another , alienus, 15) AlmsmeUé 
16) Ploughittg- implements (G, Gezeug). The word is wanting in 
Lye. 17) Frankincense. 18) Fennel. 19) Såpe soap. 20) Body, 
21) Erce perhaps the Engl. arcA-, as erce-bisceop, so erce- 
m 6 cl o r i. e. the earth. 22) Omnipotent. 23) Growing i. e. fer- 
tile. This and the following genitives are governed by the verb 
geunnan. 24) WritJian to hud, fructify. 25) Eåcnian to 
con^eive, bring- forth, 26) El ni an to strengthen , comfort. 
27) Evidently an error, either in the transcribing or of the 
press. 28) Scine /««>, beautiful, sheen. 29)Bere barley. 


A Spell &c. 

and |)ære hwitan 
hwaéte wæstma, 
and . . . ealda 
eoråan wæstma. 
Geunne liim 
éce drihten 
and his hålige, 
J)e on heofonum synt : 
J)æt liys yrt5* si gefripod* 
wia ealra feonda gehwæne^. 

and he6 si geborgen* 

witJ ealra bealwa^ geliwylc, 

J)æra lyblåca 

geond land såwen! ^ 

Nii bidde ic ^one^ waldend, 
se-J)e Sås woruld gesceop, 
J)at ne sy nån to |)æs^ cwidol v\i£ 
ne to |)æs cræftig man, 
J)æt awendan ne mæge 
■word J>us gecwedene ! 

|)onne man på sulh for^-drife, and på forman furh' 
on-ste6te^°, cweS ponne: 

Hal wes tJii, folde! on godes fæSme^*: 

fira^^ modor, fodre ^3 gefylled 

beo tJu growende firuni to nytte. 

Nim ponne ælces cynnes melo, and abace^"^ man 
(on) inne^verdre handa brådne lilåf, and gecned^^ hine 
mid meolce and mid hålig wætere; and lecge under fa 
forman furli, cwe^e ponne: 

Fnll æcer fodres and ^as eorSan, 

fira cinne, J)e we on-lifiaS, 

beorht blowende^*^ se god se |)ås grundas geworhte 

tJii gebletsod weortJ ! geuwne us growende^'' S^^^j 

|)æs håligan noman, J)æt ns corna gehwylc 

J)e Sone heofon gesceop cume to nytte, 

C\ve$ J)onne priwa: Crescite: in nomine patris (et 
Jilii et spiritus sancti) [5?Y] henedicti, amen, and Pater 
noster priwa. 

1) Seed, corn. 2) Protected, from gefritJian. 3) Whom- 
soever. 4) Secured. 5) Bealu malice, evil, hale. 6) Geond 
land såwen sown, dispersed through the land. 7) For J>one. 
8) To |)æs cwidol wif and to |)æs cræftig man adeo 
maledica femina and adeo potens vir. 9) Furrow. 10) On- 
steote push^ drive (G. stossen). The word is not in Lye. 
11) Fir as (Icel. firår) men. 12) FæSm bosom. 13) Foder 
food, f odder. 14) Abacan to hahe ; it here seems to signify 
to heat (in the inward part of the hånd). 15) Gecnedan to 
hnead. 16) Blovvan to blow. 17) Growan to grow. 


From Abbot Ælfric's View 


The Old Testament. 

A SaÆon Treatise concerning the Old and Nezv Testa- 
ment y written ahout the time of King Edgar 70(> 
yeares ago §"c. London 1623. 


)e ælmilitiga scippend 
geswutelode hine sylfne 
J)urh på naicclan weorc, 
tJe he geworlate æt frunian^, 
and wolde |)æt |)å gesceafta 
gesawon his niæråa-, 
and on wvildre^ mid him 
wunodon on écnisse, 
on his under|)e6dnisse 
him æfre gehyrsume; 
for-tJam-|)e hit ys swije wolic''- 
J)æt tJci geworhtan gesceafta 
j^åm ne beon gehyrsume, 
J)e hi gesceop and geworhte. 

Næs peos woruld æt frnman, 
ae hi geworhte god silf, 
se-J)e æfre |)nrhwunode 
buton ælcum anginne 
on his miclan v/uldre 
and on his mægen-J)rymnisse^ 
eall swa mihtig swå he mi ys, 
and eall swa micel on his leohte, 

for-San-Se he ys s6^ leoht and \ii 
an d soSf æstnisse'^ ; 

And se ræd''' waés æfre 
on his raédfæstum^ ge|)ance, 
J)æt he wyrcan wolde 
J)a wundorlican gesceafta ; 
be-San-Se^' he wolde 
j^urh his micclan wisdom 
fci gesceafta gescippan^°, 
and |)urh his soSan lufe 

hig liffæstan 

on |)am life |)e hi habbaS, 
Her is seo hålige |)rinnis 

on |)isum prim luldmn^'): 

se ælmihtiga fæder, 

of nanum otJrum gecumen, 

and se micla wisdom, 

of pam wisan fæder 

æfre (of him ånum 

butan anginne) acenned^^, 

se-pe us alysde 

of urum peovvte^^ sySSan 

1) Fruma heginning, 2) PI. of mær S grcatnesSf g^ory. 
3) Wuldor glory. 4) Unjust, iniquitous. 5) Majesty, from 
mægen might, mairiy and prymnis glory. 6) Perhaps more 
correctly on soSfæstnisse in trutJt. 7) Designerede. S) Firm, 
stable. 9) Seeing that, sicut. 10) Create. 11) Had person. 
12) P. P. of acennan to beget ^ gignere, 13)f eoAvet bondagc, 



From Abbot Ælfric's View &c. 

mid pære menniscnisse, 
J)e he of Marian genam, 
Nii is heora iDegra lufu 
Kim båm æfre gemæne^ : 
J)æt is se liålga gast, 
|)e ealle ping geliffæst, 
swå micel and swå militig 
J)æt he niid his gift 
ealle |)å englas on-lyht^, 
J)e eardiat$ on heofenum; 
and eaira manna heortan, 
J)e on niiddan-earde' libloa^, 
J)å-|)e rihtlice gelyfaU 
on pone lyfigendan god; 
and ealra manna synna 
sétJlice forgifS, 
påm-pe heora sj^nna 
silf-willes"^ behreowsiaJJ, 
and nis nÅn forgifenis 
buton purli his gife. 
And he spræc purh witegan, 
pe witegodon^ ymbe Crist; 
for-pan-pe he ys se willa 
and .witodlice'^ lufvi 
J)æs fæder and J>æs suna^ 
sv\å-svvå we sædon ær, 

Seofon-fealde gifa 
he gif5 man-cynne, 
git"^ be Mm ic awråt^ ær 
on sumuni o\5rnm gevvrite 

on engliscre spræce, 
swå-swå Isaias se witega 
hit on béc sette 
on his witegunge^. 

Se ælniihtiga scippend 
M-t5å he englas gesceop, 
J)å geworhte he purh his wlsdom 
tyn engla werod^° 
on påm forman dæge 
on micelre fægernisse^ ', 
fela piisenda 
on iJåm frmiisceafte^'^, 
pæt hi on his w uldre 
hine "wurbedon*^ ealle, 
leohte and Strange 
biiton eallum synniini 
on gesælpe^^ libbende, 
swå wlitiges gecyndes^"^ 
swå we secgan ne niagon, 
and nån yfel tiing 
næs on tSåm englnm b'å git^', 
ne nån yfel ne com 
purh godes gesceapennisse**, 
for-^an-b'e he sylf ys eall-g6d, 
and ælc god cym^ of him. 

And på englas på wunodon 
on påm wuldre mid gode; 
hwæt på^^ binnan six dagum, 
pe se s6^a god 

1) Common. 2) Onlyhtan to enh'ghtcn. 3) The earth. 
4) Voluntarily. 5) Imp. of witegan to prophesy. 6) Manifest, 
7) Yet ^ but. 8) Imp. of awritan to write. 9) Propkecy, 
10) Multitude, host. 11) Beautij, fairness. 12) Fru ms ceaf t 
the first cveation. 13) Imp. of wurtsian to ivorship. 14) In- 
corporcat 15) Bliss. 16) Swå wlitiges gecyndes of so 
bcautiful a nature. 17) Yet, 18) Creation. 19) Hwæt på 
ivhat then, but; a form of expression of frequent occurrence in 

From AbLot Ælfric's View &c. 


J)å gesceafta gesceop, 

J)e he gescippan wolde, 

gesceawode^ se ån engel, 

J>e pær ænlicost- waés, 

hu fæger Iie silf wæs, 

and hil scinende on wuldre, 

and cunnode^ his mihte, 

pæt he mihtig wæs gesceapen, 

and him wel gelicode 

his wuråfiilniss^ |)d; 

se hatte Lucifer, 

J)æt ys leoht-berend, 

for |>ære miclan beorhtnisse 

his inæran^ hiwes^. 

Då Mhte him to huxlic'^ 

pæt he hyran^ sceolde 

ænigum hlåforde, 

J)å he swå ænlic weés, 

and nolde wurpian |>one 

|)e hine geworhte, 

and him tJancian æfre 

tJæs J)e he him forgeaf^, 

and beon him undertJeodd 

J)æs pe switJor geornlice^° 

for J)ære micclan mærJJe 

J)e he hine gemæ^egode^*. 

He nolde M habban his scippend 

him to hlåforde, 

ne he nolde J)urhwunian 

on pære s6tJfæstnisse, 
J)æs soiSfæstan godes sunii, 
J)e hine gesceop fægerne; 

ae wolde niid riccetere^* 
him rice gewinnan, 
and purh modignisse ^^ 
hine macian to gode : 
and nam him gegadau^* 
ongean godes willan, 
to his unreéde^^ 
on eornost geiæstnod ^ '^. 

Då næfSe he nån setl, 
h>Yær he sittan mihte, 
for-tJan-tJe nån heofon 
nolde hine a-beran^''', 
ne nån rice næs, 
|)e his mihte beon 
ongean godes willan, 
J)e geworhte ealle Sine. 
Då afunde ^^ se modiga^^ 
hwilce his milita weron, 
Jå-|)å his fét ne mihton 
fur-t5on^° ahwar-^ standan, 
ae he feoll M adiin 
to deofle awend, 
and ealle his gegadan 
of tJåm godes-hirede-* 
into Helle-wite 
be heora gewirhtum-^. 

1) Gesceawian to perceive. 2) Most heautifiil, match- 
less. 3) Gunnian to essay. 4) Dignity, grandeur. 5) Mære 
hright, splendid. 6) H i w hue, form. 7) Base, degradlng. 8) Ta 
ohey, gov. dat. 9) Forgifan to give. 10) l^æs pe s. g. for 
that the more willingly. 11) Bestowed on. 12) Power violence, 
13) Pride, moodiness. 14) Gegada a companion, accomplice. 
15) Evil council. 16) Gefæstnian to fix, confirm. 17) Bear, 
endure. 18) Imp. of a fin dan to find, experience. 19) Proud, 
moody. 20) Quidem, saltem. 21) Jny where. 22) Palacc, also 
family, 23) Gewirht deed. 



From Abbot Ælfric's View 
The New Testameiit. 


'å æfter sumiim fyrste 
férde se apostol, 
swa-swå he gelaSod^ wæs 
i[)iirli |)ci geleåffullan, 
to gelienduni^ burgum, 
bodigende^ geleåfan . . . 
He becom |)å to ånre byrig, 
swå-s\Yå he gebeden'*" wæs, 
geliende Epbesan, 
and J)ær bisceop gelicidode'', 
and ^å circlican |)eawas'» 
himsylf pær getaélite'^ 
J)åni gehcidoduni preostum, 
tJe he |jær gelogodo^, 
and mid niicelre meérjie 
J)æt mennisc J)ær leérde 
to godes geleåfan 
niid glædre lieortan. 
Då geseåh lohannes 
sumne cniht^ en J)åni folce 
innglicre ylde 
and ænlices hiwes ; 
stranglic on wæstme^^ 
and wenlic^^ on ncbbe^-. 

s-\vifte glæd on mode 

and on angite^^ caf*''', 

and begann. to lufiénne 

on his litfnm*' Jieawum 

J)one iungan cniht, 

J)æt he hine Criste gestrynde^'^. 

Dii beseåh^'^ lohannes 

swå iip to J)åni bisceope, 

J)e ^å niwan^^ waés gehådod, 

and hini Jjus to-cwæS : 

Wite |)ii, la bisceop ! 

J)æt ic wille Jiæt J)u hæbbe 

pisne iungan man mid J)e 

on Jiinre låre æt håm^^, 

and ic hine pe befæste^° 

mid heålicre^^ gecneordnisse** 

on Cristes gevvitnysse^^ 

and J)issere gelaSunge^'*'. 

Hwæt J)å se bisceop 

bli^elice underfeng-^ 

|)one foresædan cniht, 

and sæde ^æt he wolde 

his gymene-^ habban 

mid geornfulnysse*^, 

1) G el a (Si an to call, congrcgatc. 2) Gehende ncigh- 
houring. 3) Bodian to preach. 4) Gebiddan to hescech, 
lyraij. S) Ge ha di an to ordain, consccrate. 6) P å c. J». tke 
ecclcsiastical rites. 7) Imp. of getæcan to teach. 8) Gelo- 
gian toplace. 9) Boy, youth. 10) Growth, stature. 11) comely. 
12) Countenance. 13) Understanding. 14) Acute. 15) Kind, 
vicek. 16) Imp. of ges tryn an to get, gain. 17) Beseon to 
look. iS) NciL'ly. 19) Jt home. 20) Commit,entrust. 2i) High, 
chief. 22) Care^ diligence. 23) Witness, testimony. 24) Con- 
gregation. 25) Underfon to undertake, 26) Care. 27) Zeal, 

From Abbot Ælfric's View &c. 


swå he hirii bebeåd, 

on his wununge^ mid him. 

lohannes J)å eft 

geedleahte* his word, 

and gelome^ bebeåd 

|>åm bisceope mid hæsum*, 

{)æt he |)one iungan cniht 

gewissian^ sceolde 

to aåm hålgan geleåfan, 

and he håm J)å gewende'^ 

eft tå Efesan-byrig 

to his bisceopstole. 

Se bisceop tJå underfeng, 
swå-swå him beboden wæs, 
J)One iungan cniht, 
and him Cristes låre 
dæghwåmlice tæhte, 
and hine deérwu'rSlice'' heold, 
otf ^æt he hine gefiillode^, 
mid fuHum truwan^ 
Jjæt he geleåfful wære, 
and he wunode swå mid him 
on drwnrtJnysse^°, 
otJ paet se bisceop 
hine let faran be his willan; 
wénde J>æt he sceolde 
on godes gife purhwunian 
on gåstlicum J)eawum. 

He geseåh J)å sona, 
J)æt he his sylfes geweold^^, 
on ungeripedum^ * freodome 
and unstæ^Sigum^^ peawum, 

and begann J)d to lufienue 

leahtras"'' to swiSe 

and fela uniJeawas ' ^ 

mid his efenealdum cnihtum, 

J)e unrædlice*^ férdon 

on heora idelum liistum, 

on gewemmednyssum^'' 

and tv6clicum*^ gebærum^^o 

He and his geferan 

J)å begunnon t6 lufienne 

tå micclan druncennisse 

on nihtlicum gedwylde^°, 

and hig J)å hine ongebrohton, 

J)æt he begann to stelenne 

on heora gewunan, 

and hé gewenede swå 

hine sylfne simble 

to heora synlicum peawuni, 

and to mårum mor^dædum-'* 

mid J)åm månfuUum flocce. '' 

He genam jiå heardlice*^ 

J)urh heora låre 

on his orJ)ance^^ 

|)å égeslican^''" dæda, 

and swå-swå m6dig hors, 

]^e ungemidlod*^ by^, 

and nele gehyrsumian 

J)åm ])e him dn uppan sitt, 

swå férde se cniht, 

on his fracedum-*^ dæduni 

and on morSdædum 

micclum gestrangod*'^. 

1) Dwelling. 2) Imp. of g e - e d 1 sé c a n to repeat. 3) Often. 
4) Hæs precapt, command. 5) Skcw, instruct. 6) Gewendan 
to departf return. 1) Dearly. 8) Gefullian to haptize. 
9) Confidence. 10) Honour, respect. 11) |>æt he h. s. g. that 
he was master of himself; gewealdan to govern. 12) Unripe^ 
13) Unsteady. 14) L e a h t e r crime, vice. 15) Fml practices. 
16) Thoughtlessly, malo consilio. 17) Pro/ligacy. 18) depraved. 
i. q. wolic. 19) G eb ær habit, pr actice. 20) Error. 21) Dcadly 
sinsy murders. 22) Quickly. 23) Mind. 24) Horrid , atrocious. 
25) Gemidlian to hridle. 26) Evil , detcstable. 27) Ge- 
strangian to strcngthen, confirm. 


From Abbot Ælfric's View &c. 

on orwennysse^ 
his agenre hæle, 
swå |>æt he ortruvTode 
011 his drihtnys niildheortnysse, 
and his fulluhtes ne rohte, 
J>e he underfangen hæfde. 
Hiin Jjuhte |)å to v«'åclic 
J)æt he wolde gefremman 
J)å leasan^ leahtras, 
ae he leornode æfre 
måran and måran 
on hys månfulnysse, 
and ne let nånne 
his gelican^ on yfele. 
He ne geJ)afode på 
J)æt he under]>e6d wære 
yfeluin gegadum, 
|)e hine ær forlærdon''', 
ae wolde beon yldest^ 
on J)åm yfelan flocce, 
and geworhte his geferan 
to weald^erigum*^ ealle 
on -vTidgilluni^ diinum^ 
on ealre hreownysse'^. 
Eft på æfter fyrste 
férde se apostol 
to pære foresædan byrig, 
J)e se bisceop onvvunode, 
|>e pone cniht hæfde 
on his gymene ærer, 
swå-swå lohannes het, 
and he hine befæste; 
and he swi^e blitie wæs 
set påm bisceopstole. 

SySSan he gedon hæfde 
his drihtenes penunga^°, 
and på ping gefy Ilede, 
pe he fore^^ gelapod waés, 
he cwsé'5 på ånrædlice^^: 
Eålå pli, lå bisceop ! 
gebring ine nii ætforan^^ 
pæt-pæt ic pe befæste 
on mines drihtnes truwan, 
and on pære gewitnj^sse, 
pe pu wissian^''" scealt 
on pissere gelat'unge. 
He vveartJ på ablicged^^^ 
and wénde pæt he bæde 
snmes opres sceattes 
oiStSe sumes feos, 
pæs pe he ne nnderfeng 
franr påm apostole; 
ae he eft bepohte 
pæt se eådige lohannes 
him leogan nolde, 
ne hine pæs biddan, 
pæt he eér ne befæste, 
and fcrhtmod^^ wåfode^^. 
lohannes på geseåh 
pæt he scét ablicged, 
and cweép him eft pus to: 
Ic bidde æt pe mi 
pæs iungan cnihtes, 
pe ic pe (cér) befæste, 
and pæs bropor savvle 
pé me be sorh ys^^. 
Då begann se ealda 
incutJlice^^ siccettan^^. 

1) Despair. 2) Weak , contemptihle. 3) False, deccitful. 
4) Misled. 5) Chief. 6) Wealdgenga a robber. 7) Widgil 
wide, spacious. 8) Dun hill, down. 9) Cruelty, rougJiness. 
10) fenung service, duty. li) Fore for, prcpter. 12) Serious- 
ly, zealously. 13) Beforc, coram. 14) Shciv, instruct. 15) ylsto- 
nisked. iiS) Fearfid, frightciied. 17) Wåiia n to hesitate, be 
astGnished. 18) t> e me be sorh is about wkich I am solicltous. 
19) Vnconseiously. 20) To sigh. 

From Abbot Ælfric's View &c. 


and mid vvope wearS 
witodlice^ ofergoten% 
and cwæj) to léhanne : 
he, le6f!^ ys nii deåd. 
Då befran'^ I6hannes 
færlice and cwæj) : 
hii ys he lå' deåd, 
oMe hwilcum deåSe? 
He cvv£é|) him eft ^us 
to andsware : 
he ys gode deåd, 
iox-^an-^e he leahterfull 
and geleåfleås æt-bærst^, 
and he ys geworden nu 
to wealdgengan, 
and |>æra sceaSena ealdor, 
J)e he him-sylf gegaderode, 
and wunatJ on ånre dune 
mid maneguni scea^um, 
J)åm-J)e he nu ys ealdor 
and heretoga. 

Hwæt |)å I6hannes 
mid ormætre'7 geomerunge 
cwehte^ his lieåfod, 
and cwæj) to |)åm bisceope: 
g6dne hyrde let ic J)e, 
pæt J)U "^æs bropor såwle heolde^; 
ae bed mc nu gegearcod^° 
an gerædod^^ hors 
and latteow^^ pæs weges, 

Jie lib to J)åm scea^mn, 

and man him sona funde 

J)æs-|)e he frimdig^^ wsés, 

and he fram {Ⱦre ciriceau sona 

swi'Se éfste^'*, 

otJ {)æt he geseåh 

paére sceapena fær^'^ 

and to |)ånx weardmannum'* 

"witodlice becom. 

Då gelæhton^"^ på weardmen 

his weald-letJer^^ fæste, 

Jiæt he mid fleåme huru'^^ ne 

ae he nolde him ætfleon, 
ne nånes fleåmes cépan**, 
ae he clypode ofer eall: 
ic com me-sylf tå eow, 
a-laédatJ me nii to, 
butan lå|)e"^, eowerne ealdor. 
Hig clipodon J)å mid |)åm-5 
pone cniht him raSe to, 
{)e hira heåfodman wæs, 
and he com |)å gewæmnod'-'*: 
and he mid sceame wear^ 
sona ofergoten, 
J)å-|)å he oncneow 
pone Cristes apostol, 
and began to fle6nne 
fram his andweardnysse. 
lohannes M heow*' 

1) Witodlice evidently, visihly. 2) Overcome r. over- 
geotan. 6) Beloved , also (as in this instance) , SiVj, Lord. 
4:) Inquiredj r. frinan. 5) Liå particle of exclamation. 6) Æit- 
b er Stan to run away. 7) Ormæte great, exceeding. 8) Imp. 
of cweccan to shahe. 9) Imp. of heal dan to hold, pre- 
serve. 10) From gearcian to prepare, make ready, 11) From 
gerædian to prepare, equip. 12) Guide. 13) Desirous. 14) Imp. 
of éfstan to hasten. 15) JVay, kaunt. 16) Watchmen. 17) Imp. 
of gelæccan to seize, 18) Rem. 19) Saltem, at all events. 
20) Imp. S. ofætberstan to escape. 21) Captare, observare, 
heep, take. 22) Harm, injury. 23) Mid |)åm then, thercupon. 
24) Armed i. q. g e w æp n o d. 25) Imp. of h e a w a n to kewj strike. 


Frora AbI)ot Ætfric's View &d 

J)æt hors mid påm spuran^, 

and wearS Iiim æfterweard, 

and his ylde ne gymde, 

clypode |)å hliide* 

and cwæ^ to pdm fleondum: 

Edld |:u min sunn! 

hwi flyhst Jiii pinne fæder, 

hwi flyhst {)U J)isne ealdan 

and ungewæpnodan ? 

Ne ondreéd pe, Id earming^ ! 

git J)u hæfst lifes hiht; 

3C wille a-gildan gesceåd'* 

foi^ pinre sawle Criste, 

and ic histlice'' wille 

min lif for |)e sylian, 

sv\å-swå se hælend sealde 

hine sj'^lfne for us, 

and mine sawle ic wille 

(sjdlan) for |)inre : 

æt-stand linru nu 

and gehyr J)ås word, 

and gelyf pæt se hælend 

me a-sende to |)e. 

Dd æt-st6d se wealdgenga. 
syiJ'San he J)ds word gehyrde; 
and a-ledt^ to eortSan 
mid eallum lichama, 
and a-wearp'' his wænina^, 
and wedp swiSe biterlice, 
and he bifiénde^ feoU 
to I6hannes fotum 
mid geomerunge and |)0teriin- 


mid tearum ofergoten, 
biddende miltsunge*^ 
be-J)am ]^e he mihte^*, 
and behydde^3 i^ig switJran 

hånd 14.^ 
ofsceamod^5 for^earle^^ 
for paére mortJ-dæde, 
tJe he ged6n hæfde, 
and for ])dm manslihte^'', 
J)e he sloh mid pære handa. 

Dd swor se apostol, 
J)æt he soSlice wolde 
him mildsunge begitan^^ 
æt pdm mildheortan haélende, 
and ede he sylf a-ledt to him 
and gelæhte his swi|)ran, 
for bære pe he ofdrædd^^ waés 
for his morcJdædum, 
and alcédde nweg 
wépende to circean, 
and for hine gebaéd 
mid brotJorlicre lufe, 
swa-swd he him behet*°; 
té pam hælende gelome*', 
and ede mid fæste-- 
fela daga on ån^^ 
0(S J)æt he him mildsunge beget 
æt J)dm mildheortan Criste. 
He hine fréfrode ede 
mid his fægera Idre, 
and his a-fyrhte^^ mod 
swij)e fægerlice 

1) Spura a spur. 2) Loudly. 3) Unkappy, poor. 4) A- 
gildan gescedd to render an account. 5) Joyfully. 6) Imp. 
of alutan to hoiv himself. 7) Imp. of aweorpan to cast 
away. 8) Weapons. 9) From bi f i an to tremble. 10) Groaning. 
11) Mercy. 12 Be J>dm p e he mihte as much as he ivas ahle. 
13) Imp. of behydan to hide. 14) Seo swij)re hånd his 
right hånd. 15) Ashamed from of-sceamian. 16) Much, 
exceedingly. 17) Mur der, homicide. 18) Get, procure. 19) Jf raid. 
20) Im-p/ok hehåta n to promise. 21) 0/7 e«. 22) Fast. 23) Suc- 
eessively. 24) Affrighted. 

From Abbot Ælfric's View &c. 


mid his £r6fre gelifiewæhte^, 

J)æt he ne wurde ormod, 

and he iiateshwon* ne gesvråc^, 

ær-J)an-J)e his sawul wæs 

wi5-innan gegladod 

j^urh J)one hålgan gast, 

and he mildsunge hæfde 

ealra his misdeéda. 

He hine hådode eåc 

tå J)æs heélendes J>eowd6me, 

ae us ne segtJ nå se6 racu^ 

tå hwåm he hine sette, 

buton J>æt he sealde 

så^e gebyshunge* 

eallum dædbétendum' 

pe t6 drihtene gecyrraS, 

Jieét hig magon a^-risan 

gif hig rædfæste beoS 

fram heora sawle deåj)e 

and fram heora synna^ bendum, 

and heora scippend gladian 

mid sotJre dædbote, 

and habban pæt éce lif 

mid ]^åm le6fan heélende, 

se-])e å rixaS^ 

on écnysse. Amen, 

A Fragment of Cædmoiij 

universally considered as genuine. 
Bedæ 4, 24. Vers. Anglo-Saæon. 8f Hickes p, 187. 


d rre sceolon herigean^ 
heofon-rices weard 
metodes^ mihte 
and his m6.d-gej)anc'°; 
weorc wuldor-fæder, 
swå he wundra gehwæs 
éce drihten 
ord^i onstealde^*. 
He ærest scop 

eortJan bearnum 
heofon tå hrofe^^, 
hålig scyppend: 
6å middangeard 
moncynnes weard, 
éce drihten 
æfter teode^*, 
firum foldan 
freå ælmihtig^^. 

1) GelitJewæcan to appease, calm. 2) By no means ; not 
at all. 3) Imp. of geswican to clesist. 4) Examples. 5) Peni- 
tents, 6) In the text stands synniim, which is evidently 
an error, either of the transcriber or printer. 7) Rixian to 
rule. S) Praise. 9) Met od or Meoto å God, Creator. 10) Con- 

ordain. 13) Roof. 14) Te og an to prepare, er Gate. 15) Lord, 


A Specimen from Cædnion, 

considered as spurious; 

Cædmon p. 61. HicJces p. 182. 

The Offerlng of Isaac. 

«'^3f ewit^ Hu. ofestlice*, 

Abraham! féran, 

låstas^ lecgan, 

and tJé læde mid 

tJiix ågen beam: 

J)u scealt Isaac me 

onsecgan''' sunu Jinne 

sylf t6 tibre^ ; 

siiJSan pu gestigesf* 

steåpe^ diine^, 

hrincg^ Jæs heån landes, 

J)e ic iSe lieonon getæce, 

■up iJinum ågnum f6tum. 

I^ær J)U scealt åd gegærvan^° 

bcélfyr^^ bearne J)inum, 

and bl6tan^^ sylf 

sunu mid sweordes ecge^^, 

and |)onne sweartan^"'- lige 

leofes ^5 lic forbærnan 

and me låc^*^ bebeodan. 

Ne forsæt ^"^ he py sicJe, 
ae sona ongann 
fysani8 to fore^^^ 
him wæs freå engla 
word on drysne-"^, 
and his waldend leof. 
^å. se eådga 
Abraham sine 
niht-reste of-geaf-*, 
11 alles nergendes-- 
hæse-^ wiS-hogode*^, 
ae hine se hålga wer-' 
gyrde^^ grægan^^ sweorde, 
cySde pæt him gåstaweardes 
égesa^^ on breostum 
(å) wunode: 

ongan |)ci his esolas^^ bsctan 
goldes brytta^', 
heht^* him geonge twégen 

1) Gewitan to depart. This verb is sometimes placed pleo- 
nastically before other verbs in the infinitive, as here before 
féran; gewitan, gangan (5f c. 2) Quickly. 3) L å s t a 
trace, footstep ; låstas lecgan vestigia ponere. 4) Devote. 
5) Tiber sacrlfice. 6) Gestigan to ascend. 7) Steep, laf ty. 

8) Dun a hill, doivn. 9)Hringc^ geteéce; these words 

seem to be in a parenthesis. 10) Prcpare. 11) From bæl (D. 
Bål) a pile, a halefire. 12) Sacrifioe. 13) Ecg edge. 14) For 
s w e a r t u m blaok , dire. 15) Gen. of leof beloved dcar. 
16) Oblation. 17) Forsittan to abstain from, recusare. IS) To 
hasten. 19) F or journey. 20) Drysn dread. 21) Of-gifan 
to give up {G. aufgehcn). 22) Nergend saviour. 23) Command. 
24) W i o - h o g i a n to despise, disre gård. 25) Man. 26) G y rfS a u 
to gird. 27) For g r æ g n m gray. 28) Fear. 29) E s o 1 (G. Esel) 
ass. 30) fVise, from g am ol (D, gammel) old, and feorh mind. 
31) Lord. 32) For het. 

A Specimen from Cædmoii. 


men mid-eiSian', 

mæg^ waés liis ^gen J)ridda 

and he fe6rSa sylf, 

få he flis gewåt 
fram his ågenum hofe^ 
Isaac laédan 
bearn unweaxen, 
swå him bebeåd metod; 
éfste J)å swiSe 
and onette"*" 
forS fold-wege, 
swå him freå teéhte 
wegas ofer westen : 
o^ J)æt "wiildor-torht^ 
dæges J)riddan 
up ofer deop wæter 
ord^ arænade"^ : 
J)å se eådega wer 
geseåh hlifigan^ 
heå dune, 
swå him sægde ær 
swegles^ aldor. 

^Å Abraham spræc 
to his ombihtuTn^°: 
rincas^^ mine! 
restaiJ incit her 
on dissum wicum; 
wit eft-cumaS, 
siSSan wit ærende 
uncer twega 
agifen habba^. 

Gewåt him |)å se æSeling 
and his ågen sunu 
t6 ^æs gemearces^- 
^e him metod taéhte^ 
wadan^^ ofer wealdas^"*; 
wudu bær sunu, 
fæder fyr and sweord. 

^å J)æs fricgean*5 ongann 
wer wintrum-geong 
wordum Abraham : 
wit her fyr and sweord, 
freå min ! habbat^, 
hwær is pæt tiber, 
J)æt Sd torht-gode 
to J)åm bryne-gielde""^^ 
bringan pencest? 

Abraham maSelode^'^ 
hæfde on ån^^' gehogod^^ 
J)æt he gedæde^'? 
swå hine drihten het: 
him pæt s6^ cyning 
sylfa findetJ, 
moncynnes weard, 
swå him gemet^'^ pincets. 

Geståh |)å stitJ-hydig^a 
steåpe dune 
up mid his eaforan^-^, 
swå him se éca bebeåd. 
I'å he on hrofe gestod 
héån landes, 

on pæne^'* J)e him se stranga 
iå (stigan hrab'e) 

1) Accompany. 2) Son, 3) House, dwelUng. 4) Onettan. 
to hasten. 5) The sun, qu. the hright-glorious , from torht 
hright. 6) Point. 7) Aræman to raise. 8) Rise^ eminere. 
9) S w eg el firmament. 10) O xnh ih t slave, servant. 11) Ri n c 
man. 12) Gemearc pZace appointed. 13) To ivade , go. 
14) Weald forest, weald. 15) To inquire. 16) Burnt offer ing. 
17) Ma«elian to say. 18) On ån constantly. 19) RcsoUed. 

20) Hæfde g e d æ d e ; these words seera to form a paren- 

thesis; gedæde for gedyde, Imp. of gedon. 21) Fitting, 
meet. 22) Firm, resolved. 23) Eafora heir, son, child. 24) My 


Å Specimen from Cædmon. 

vrær-fæst* metod 

wordum tæhte: 

ongan J)å åd hladan*, 

æled^ weccan, 

and gefeterode* 

fét and honda 

bearne sinum, 

and |>å on beél ahof 

Isaac geongne, 

and på ædre^ gegråp^ 

5weord be gehiltum, 

wolde his sunu cnellan 

folmum sinum^, 

fyre sencan^ 

mæges dreore^. 

på metodes ^egn 
ufan^° engla sum 
Abraham hlude^' 
stefne cygde^-. 
He stille gebåd^^ 
ares^'* spræce, 
and påm engle oncwæS'^. 

Him på ofstum^'J to 
uf an of roderum*'' 
Tvuldor-gåst godes 
wordum mælde** : 
Abraham leofa! 
ne sleah iJin ågen bearn, 
ae tJu cwiene abregd*' 
cniht of åde 
eaforan tJinne; 
him ann^° wuldres god. 
Mago** Ebrea! 
tJii médum scealt 
J)urh pæs hålgan liand 
s65um sigor-leånum'** 
selfa onfon-^, 
ginfæstum-'*' gifum : 
Se wile gåsta-weard 
lissum^5 gyldan, 
pæt tJe wcés leofra his 
sibb^*^ and hyldo 
ponne bin sylfes bearn. 

Beowulf, Canto L 

Jf å wæs on burgum 
Be6wulf Scjddinga-*^ 

leof le6d-cymng^ 
longe prage*^, 

conjecture for pære, which does not agree with se hrof. 
1) fidus, verax. 2) To load. 3) Fire (D. Ud). 4) Gefe- 
t er i an to f etter. 5) SiraigJitways^ forthwith. 6) Gegripan 
to seizc , gripe. 7) With his oivii hånds; fol ni an members, 
especially the hånds and fect. 8) Quench. 9) Blood. 10) From 
above. 11) Loiully. 12) cygan to call 13) To bide, await. 
14) Ar messenger. 13) Oncwe5an to answer. 16) Ofost or 
ofest haste, used liere in abi. pi. 17) K o åox firmament, sky. 
18) M æ 1 a n to speak, say (Icel. m æ 1 a). 19) Abregdan to 
take off^ eriperc. 20) Ann or an (p. 79) holds dear. 21) Farent. 
22) Sigor-leån reward of victory. 23) Onfoii sometimes (as 
in tilis place) governs tlie dative. 24) Ginfæst most ample. 
25) Lis se grace, favour. 26) Sibb and hyldo love and fa~ 
vour. 27) Scyldiugas the flrst race of Danish kingSy so called 
from Scyld or Skjold. 28) Leof leéd-cyning a bcloved chief 
of the people. 29) A space of time, while. 

Beowulf, Canto L 


fokum gefrsége' 
fæder ellor-, 

(Ne)5 hwearf- aldor o£ earde 
oJ> J)æt him eft on-woc^ 
heali Healfdene, 
heold<* J)enden^ lifde, 
gamol^ and guS-reonw^ 
glæde Scyldingas. 

I^æm feower beam 
in worold w6con: 
weoroda^* ræswa^* 
Heoro-går and Hr6(J-gar 
And Helga tiP^. 
hyrde ic Jæt Elan cwén** 

hea&o^ 5_ scylfingas* *5 
heals gebedda^^. 

på wæs Hro^gåre 
here-sped^^ gyfen 
wiges*^ weorSmynd-", 

J)æt him his wine-magas^* 

georne hyrdon, 

otf tJæt seo geogod geweox 

niago-driht micel^*: 

him C^å) on mod be-arn*' 

pæt (he) heal-reced'^'*" 

håtan wolde 

medo-ærn^5 micel 

men gewyrcean^*^, 

J)one yldo^*^ bearn 

æfre gef runon^ ^ ; 

and J)ær-on-innan 

eall gedælan^^ 

geongom and ealdum, 

swylc him god sealde, 

buton folc-scare^° 

and feorum^^ gumena^*, 

på ic wide gefrægn^^ 
weorc gebannan^''" 
manigre mæg|)e 
geond J)isne middangeard. 

1) Notede rcnowned. 2) Moreover, alias. 3) Ne this word 
I have inserted from conjecture. 4) Imp. o£ hweorfan to de- 
part. 5) Imp. of on-wæcan oriri. 6) Imp. of h e a 1 d a n to 
koldy rule, 7) Whilc. 8) Old (D. gammel), 9) Cruel in war, 
from g 11 -5 (Icel. gut$r) tvår, and hreow raw,riigged. 10) Lit. 
numbcred forth, i. e. in succession, from geriman to number. 
11) Weorod host,turma. 12) Chief, dux. ^13) Good. U) Queen, 
also ivoman (Icel. kvæn). Both the sense and tlie alliteration 
shew that, in this place, a line is wanting, contain i ng the verb. 
15) Hea^o a prefix, signifying /jrecmznejice or nobility. \6) A 
Scandinavian race, so cailed from Skelfir. 17) Socia thori, 
from hals or heals the neck, and gebedda ivife, I. be^ja. 
i%) Power, command. 19) War. 20) Autkority, glory. 21) Win e- 
m a g a s relations, friends. 22) Lit. a great cognate people, from 
mag o par ens, cognatus, and driht familia, plebs. 23) On 
mod be-arn eniered into {his) mind. 24) A hall-house. 23) Lit. 
a mcad house. 26) To work , construct , governed by håtan. 
27) Yldo bearn children of men. 28) Imp. subj. of gefri- 
nan to inquire, hear. 2^) Divide, impart. 30) Folc-scarn a 
portion of ter ritory. 31) Feorh life. 32) Gnma mati. 33) Lup. 
of gefregnan to understand. 34) Proclaim. The sense oi 
this obscure passage seems to be ; then I learned tJiat he ordered 
or set to work many a nation or tribe. 


Beowulf, Canto I. 

Folcstede* frætwan* 

him on fyrste gelomp 

ædre mid yldum^, 

])æt hit wear|) eal gearo*, 

heal ærna niæst, 

sc6p5 him Heort naman 

se-J)e his wordes geweald^ 

wide hæfde. 

He heot"^ ne aleh^, 

heågas^ dælde, 

sinc^° æt symle^^, 

sele^- hlifade^^ 

heah and horn-geap^'*'. 

Heabo-wylma^ 5 båd^^ 

la^an liges. 

Ne wæs hit lenge |>d gen^'^ 

|)æt se secg^^ hete 

å])um'^ swerian, 

æfter Tvæliii3e-° 

■wæcnan scolde. 

"på se ellen-gsést-^ 

J)rage ge|)olode-^, 
se-|)e in |)ystrum båd 
J)æt he dogora'^'^ gehwåm 
dreåm^^ gehyrde 
hludne in healle; 
pær waés hearpan sweg^'^, 
swutol sang scopes-^ 
sægde se-|)e cu|)e-^ 
frumsceaft^^ fira^*^ 
f eorran^ ^ reccan^ - : 
cwæS |)æt se ælmihtiga 
eort$an worh(te), 
wlite-beorhtne^^ wang 
swå^"^ wæter bebugeti^^: 
gesette sige-hré|)ig^'^ 
sunnan and monan. 
leoman^'^ to leohte 
landbuendum^ ^ : 
and gefrætwade 
foldan sceåtas^^ 

1) Villa, vicus, residence. 2) To ornament, perhaps fret as 
in fretwork Sj'c, 3) Jmong men. 4) All-prcpared, all-complete. 
5) Or sceop, imp. of sceapan to shape ^c. ; thus, sceop 
nihte nanian, Cædm. 6) Power. 7) Beot a tkreat, pro- 
mise. 8) Or aleåh, imp. o£ aleogan to hclie. 9) Jiing-, bra- 
celct, croivn. 10) Gold, stiver, treasure. 11) Sy mb el banquct. 
12) House, mansion. 13)Hlifian splendescere. 14) Lit. horn- 
curved, though horn may, like the Dan. Hjorne, here signify 
angle, corner. 15) Wylm or wælm heat, burning. 16) Imp. 
of bid an to awaitj bide gov. gen. The sense is: but {the man- 
i^ion) was doomed to be a prey to the flanies ; lit. it awaited the 
intense heat of loathed flame. 17) 1^ å gen af ter, 18) Secg 
vir strenuns (Icel. seggr). Betv\een this and the follouing two 
lines seem to be wanting. 19) A'8 oath. 20) Tyranny., cruel- 
ty. 21) The mighty spirit. 22) Ægre , moleste. 23) i^ ol i an 
ferre. 24) Dogor or doger day. 25) Music, joy. 26) Sound. 
27) S co-p poet, minstrel. 28t) Kncw. 29) Beginning. 30) Fir as 
men. 31) Far. 32) Relate, trace back. 33) Wlite-beorht 
v.-ang a splcndidly bright plain. 34) Which , nsed relatively, 
like the Germ. so. 35) Rends round, i. e, encircles. 36) Triiun- 
phant., from sige victory and lir ét) i g elate. 37) L e 6 m a (Icel. 
Ijémi) light, luminary. 38) To the inhabitants of the earth, 
from bu an to inhabit. 39) Sceat partj region. 

Beowulf, Canto I. 


leomum^ and ledfnm, 
lif eåc^ gescedp 
cynna"^ gehwilcum, 
J)åra |)e cwice liwyrfaj)'*', 

Swa |)å driht-guman 
dreårnuni lifdon 
06 6æt ån ongan 
fyrene 5 fremman 
fe6nd on helle, 
Wæs se grimma gæst 
Grendel håten, 
mære stapa*^, 
se-J)e nioras^ heold; 
fen and fæsten^, 
fifel-cynnes^ eard 
wonsæli^° wer 
weardode^^ hnile^-, 

si^b'an hine scyppend 
forscrifen*^ hæfde. 

In Caines cynne 
J)one cwealm gewræc 
éce drihten 

J)æs J)e^'^ he Abel slog: 
ne gefeåh he J)ære fæhtJe^^; 
ae he hine feor forvvræc*^ 
metod for py måne^'^ 
niancynne fram. 

I^anon uncydras^^ 
ealle onwocon, 
eotenas^^ and ylfe*° 
and orceas-^, 
swylce-^ gigantas, 
på wiS gode wunnon, 
lange prage 
he him tJæs leån forgeald-'. 

Jl he specimen of A. S. handwriting given in the plate 
is found in a splendid Latin M. S. , containing the New 
Testamente preserved in the Royal Library at Stoclholmy 
called ^Æe Codex aureus ; from which it appears that 
the volume has been the property of an Anglo-Saxon, 
The inscription is written in the margin of the llih leaf, 
above and below the test, and is as follotvs. 

1) Branches (Icel. lim). 2) Also^ eJce. 3) Genus. 4) Lit. 
of tJiose ivJio wander living. 5) Fyren factum Jfagitiosum, mi- 
racle (Icel. firn). 6) A stepper or traverser of the meres {mar- 
skes). 7) Mor a moor. 8) Fastness. 9) Icel. fifl a fool, 
a giant, fifel-cynn here s\gr\\^es the fallen angels. 10)Won- 
sælig infelix. 11) Weardian to inJiabit. 12) A whilc. 
13) Perhaps a transl. of the Lat. proscriptus. 14) Vsss p e be~ 
cause, eo quod. 15) Hate. 16) Forwrecan to cast out, drive 
forth. 17) Crime. 18) Perhaps uncyndas (Icel. ékynd) a 
monster. 19) Icel. Jotun gigas. 20) Ylf elf. 21) Monsters, 
goblins. 22) Also. 23) Forgyldan retribmre. 


In nomine domini nostri Jesu Christi. Ic Ælfréd 
aldormon and Werburg min gefera begetan Sås béc æt 
hæ^mim lierge mid uncre clæne feo, Sæt onne wæs mid 
clæne golde, and Sat wit deodan for godes liifan and for 
uncre saule Searf, ond for-Son Se wit noldan Sæt Sas 
hålgan beoc lencg in Sære hæSenesse wunaden, and nii 
willaS heo geselian innto Cristes-circan , gode to lofe 
and to wuldre and to weorSunga, and his Srowunga to 
Soncunga and Særa godcundan geferscipe to brucenne, Se 
in Cristes-cyrcan dæghwæmlice godes lof ræraS, to Særa 
geråde, Sæt heo mon are'de eghwelce raonaSe for Ælfre'd 
and for Werburge and for AlhSrySe, heora saulura to 
e'cum le'cedome, Så hvvi'le Se god gesegen hæbbe, Sæt 
fulwiht æt Seosse stowe beon mdte. Ec swelce ic Ælf- 
réd dux and Werburg biddaS and halsiaS on godes al- 
mæhtiges noman and on allra his håligra, Sæt nænig mon 
seo t6-Son gedyrstig, Sætte Sås hålgan beoc aselle oSSe 
aSeoSe from Cristes-circan, Så hwi'le Se fulwiht standan 
mdte . . . 

In the margifi stand the names: 

Ælfred, Werburg, AlhSryS eorung. 

For an accoimt of this M. S. see M. O. Celsii Hist. 
Bibi. Reg. Stockh. pp. 119 &:seq., where the inscription 
is given entire , though very incorrectly. Ihre gave a 
Latin translation, with some emendations of the text, 
which I have seen in M. S., hut this is also faulty, and 
the corrections seem made from co7ijecture , as the in- 
scription itself is written in an eJoceedingly plain and 
legible hånd. 



. . P. 4 

a myrran . 

P. 74 

awend . 

. . P. 4S 

aad . . 

... 4 

an . . 2,79,80,93 


, . . 99 


. . 123 

an . . . 

. . 61 

awht . 

. . . 61 


, . 106 
. . 117 

and . , 

. . 2 

awiht . 
awuht . 

. . . 61 


and eåc 

. . 130 

. . . 61 

abite . . 

... S 

andettan . 
andgit . . , 

. 113 

. 105 

awylm . 
axian . 

. . . 105 

abiitan . 

. . 127 

. 4,17,21 

ae • • 

. . . 4 

andlang . . 
andsaeian . . 

. 128 


. . . 61 

de . . 

. 2, 4, 19 

. 100 

d J>y (T>e) 

. fe . 130 



andswaru . 
andweard . '. 

. 124 
100, 107 
00, 109 

acsian . 

. • • ^ 

... 17 

... 83 

Bi. . 

. . . 63 

acwele . 

bace . . 

. . . S6 

åd . . 

. . . 4 
... 36 

andwlit . . 
andwyrdan 16 
anfeald , . . 

. 99 

båd . . 

. . . 91 

adl . . 

båm . . 

. . . 63 

adreéfan , 

... 73 

, 1 1/, j-^n: 

. 66 

ban . . 

. . 5,33 

a dun 

. . 111 

angin , . 

. 105 

band . . 

68, 69, 89 

afligan . 

. . 113 

anweald . . 

. 121 

barn . 

. . . 113 

a-for . . 

. . 126 

aras . 17, 68, 

91, 113 

båt . . 

19, 69, 91 

afyrran » 

. . . 19 

arisan 68, 91, 


båtwå . 

. . 63 

ågan . . 

. 18, 79 

arist . , . 

. 106 

bavian . , 

. . 125 

egen . . 
agift . . 

55, 80, 127 
. . 106 

arleås . . . 

. 117 

be . . . 

. . 127 

arleåsnis . . 

. 117 

beåd . . 

. . 69 

agnes J)ances , 110 

arn . . . 

88, 113 

beåh . . 

. 19, 113 

åh . . . 

. 79,80 

aryst . . . 

. 106 

bealh . , 

. . 89 

ahafeii . . 

. 93,99 

areéran . . . 

. 17 

bearh . . 

. . 89 


. . 75 

aslad . . . 

. 91 

bearn . . 

. 18,34 

ahsian . 


aslide . . . 

. 91 

beate . . 

\ , S5 

åht . . 

. . . 61 

asyndrian . . 

. 17 

bebeodan . 

. . 131 

åhte . . 

. . . 18 

atynan . . . 
awtJer . . . 

. 99 

bebodu (-a) 
bebycgan . 

. . 39 

alysan . 

19, 74, 75 

. 61 

. . 101 


. . 107 

awæean . . 

. 99 

béc . . 

. 5,16,42 

amdnsumian . ^ 9d\ 

aweallan . , 

. 99 

bedælan . 

, . 115 



Verbal Index. 

bedæle . . 

P. 111 

betst ... P. 51 

bregde . . 

. P. 89 

beforan . 

. . 128 

betweox . . . 128 

bridd . . 

. . 21 

begangan , 

. . 101 

betwynan , . . 128 

bringan . 

. . 77 

bégen . . 

. . 63 

bejearf ... 79 

bro c . . 

. . 42 


. . 128 

beJ)urfon . . . 79 

brord . . 

. . 21 

beginnan . 

. . 7 

beæftau . 116, 128 


. . 105 

bégra . . 

. . 63 

biddan . 75,83,101 

bro'Ser . 

. 14, 40 

begyrdan . 

. . 101 

bide . . . 83,91 

briice . . 

. . 92 

behabban . 

. . 101 

bigan .... 113 

bryce . . 

. . 103 

bebangeii . 

. . 101 

bigspell ... 34 

bryd . . 

. 8,23 

belieåfdiau , 

. 101 

bindan . 68,69,89 


. . å 

belieonaii . 

. . 128 

bindele ... 107 

bryne . . 

. . 103 

beliindan . 

. . 128 

binnan , . . 128 

bryrdaii . 

. . 21 


. . 101 

bisceop ... 13 

bræd . . 

. . 89 

beleåc . . 

. . 92 

bisceopdom . . 106 


. . 9 

beige . . 

. . 89 

bisceoprice . . 117 

braédo . . 

. . 41 

belifan . . 

91, 101 

biscop .... 13 

brægd . . 

. . 89 

beMcaii . . 

92, 116 

bitan . . 69, 74, 91 

brægen . 

. 12,21 

belæwan . 

. . 73 

blåc .... 71 

biian . 

. . 76 

bén ... 

20, 36 

blån .... 88 

bude . . 

. . å 

beneo|)an . 

. . 128 

blawe .... 85 

blide . . 

. 4,76 

beniman . 

. . 125 

bleot .... 85 

bufan . . 

. . 128 

benorSan . 

. . 128 

bleow .... 85 

bugan . . 

. . 113 

beodaii 10, 1'' 

r, 69, 70 

bletsian ... 72 

burli . . 

. 17,42 

beon . . 

. . 83 

blice .... 91 


. . 41 

beorge . . 

. . 89 

bliime .... 88 

buta . . 

. . 63 

beorh . . r 

7, 19, 24 

blod . . . 5,34 

butan . . 

. . 131 

beorht . . 

. . 21 

blodgyte ... 103 

biitan . . 

. . 128 

beot . , 

. 85 

blote .... 85 

butu . . 

. . 63 

bepæcan . . 

. 93 

boc . 5,16,24,42,86 

butwa . . 

. . 63 

beran . . 

. 7,83 

boga . . . 8, 25 

by . . . 

. . 127 

bereåfian . . 

. 125 

bond .... 90 

bycgan . . 

77, 101 

beren' , . . 

. 108 

boren .... 8 

bydel . . 

. . 103 

berste . . , 

. 89 

borian .... 73 


. . 104 


. 89 

bot .... 5, 74 

byrging . 

. . 106 

besmitenes . 

. 107 

botl .... 107 

byrig . , 

. . 42 

beswåc . . . 

. 91 

bråd .... 19! 

byrnan . . 

87, 113 

beswice . . 

. 91 

breåc .... 92 1 

byr|)en . 

. . 104 

bet . . . 

. 23, 51 

brec .■ . . . 42j 

byt . . 

. . 17 

betere . . . 

. 51 

brece .... 70 

bæd . . 

. . 83 

betesf . , . 

. 51 

brede .... 89 


116, 128- 

Verbal Index. 


bær . 


P. 48 

cliwe . 

. . P. 31 

cycen . 

. . P. SI 



. 83 

clomm . 

. . 89 

cyle . , 

. . 103 


. 70, 

71, 113 


. . 108 

cymtJ . 

. . . 81 


. . 

. 106 

clufe . . 

. . 92 


. . 48 

bærst . 

, -. 

, 89 


. . 72 

cynerice . 

. . 117 

bætan ^ 

♦ ■» 

. 74 

clænsian . 

. . 112 

cyning 1, 

23, 34, 103 

bæS . 


. 38 


. . 106 

cyningdom . .105 


cnapa . . 

. . 104 

cyran . . 

, . 20 

— — ^ 

C/an - 

•• '• 

. 79 


. . 85 

cyre . , 

. . 103 


. 117 

cneorisse-b6c . 114 


. . 20 


. 117 

cneow . 

20, 38, 85 


. . å 

caru . 

. 41 

cnæpling . 

. . 104 

cyst , , 

, . 4 


. 19,29,35 

coc , . 

. . 21 


. . 13 

caul . 

. 11 

com , 

. . 87 


:. 17,74 

cawl . 

. . 


cråwe , . 

. . 85 

cæg . . 

. . 13 

ceaf . 

. 13 

creåp . . 

. . 92 

ceald . 

. 13 


. . 92 

Dagian . 

. . 95 

cealf . 

13, 39'cristend6m 

. 105,114 

daru . . 

. . 41 

ceåp . 

10, 24^cræft . . 

. 10, 24 

deåd . . 

. . 19 

cearf . 

. 89 

cræt » ■. 

. . 21 

deåh . . 

. 79, 81 



GU . . 

. . S, 42 

dealf . . 

. . 89 


. 93 

cucu . . 

. . 101 

dear . . 

. . 79 




cum <. • 

. . 81 

delfe . . 

. . 89 

ceåw . 

. 92 

cuma ♦ . 

31, 103 

déman . 

10, 20, 73 

cef . 

. 13 

cume . 

. . . 87 

démeiid . 

. . 103 


. 89 

cumena hiis . .114 

dene . , 

. . 41 

ce6san < 

13, 20, 81, 93 

cunnan . 

. 79, 80 

denisc . . 

. . 108 

ce6we . 

. 92 

cure . . 

. 17, 93 


. 41, 107 

cester . 

. 2 

cu-S . . 

. . 17 

deofol . . 

. . 40 

cicen . 

. 2l'cut>e . . 

. . 79 


. . 109 

cidan . 


cwartern . 

. . 107 

deop . . 

. . 20 

cielf . 

. 13 


. . 105 


. . 110 

cild , 



77, 105 


, . 108 


. 105 

cwellere é 

. . 54 

deor . . 

. 20, 34 


. 108 

cwén . . 

. . 1 

deorc . . 

. . 21 


. 108 

cwej)an 16 

18, 80, 83 

de6rwyrj)nes . l30 


. 1 

cwic . . 

. . 101 

dépan . . 

. . 20 


. 13 

cwyde . . 

. . 103 


. . 131 

cleåf . 

. 92 

cwyst . . 

. . 83 

digellice . 

. . 110 


. 89 

cwyst J>u 

. . 60 

disc . . 

. . 36 


. -58,121! 

cy . . . 

. . 42 

dixas . . 

. . 36 


Verbal Index. 

dohte . 

. . P. 79 

eåhum . . 

. P. 3 


P. 116 


. . 12, 40 

eald . 18, 

51, 112 

emnsdr . . 

. 116 

d6m • 

. . 16, 20 


. 112 

emJ>eow . . 

. 116 


... 107 


. 35 

ende . . . 

26, 34 

don . . 

. . 5, 76 

ealdorscipe , 

. 105 

engel . . . 

. 35 

dorste . 

... 79 

eall . 3, ic 

5, 18, 61 

engle . . . 

, 41 

dråf . 

... 113 

eallunga . 

. . 110 

englisc . . 

. 108 

drage . 

... 86 

eår . . . 

. . 34 

eode . . . 

. 76 

dreåh . 

... 92 


. . 72 

eom . . . 

. 83 


. 74, 113 

eåre . 19 

, 26, 31 

eored . . . 

. 107 


... 92 

earm . 18, 

106, 112 

eorl , . , 

. 10 


... 108 

earn . , 

. . 36 

eorSe . . . 

19, 31 

dri . . 

. . . 3 

eåS . . 

. . 51 


. 107 

drifan . 

. 70, 113 

eåtJe . . 

. 2, 51 

eortJlic . , 

: 4S 

drig . 

... 3 

eåSelice . 

. 110 


3, 10 


. 22, 35, 104 

eufJmetto . 

. . 39 


. 107 


eåSost • 

. 51 


53, 55 

dr6h . 

... 86 

eåSre . . 

. . 51 

eowic . . , 

. 53 


. . 117 

ebbe . . 

. 31 

eo\Yih . . . 

. 53 

dryg . 

. . . 3 

éce . . 

. . 46 

eowu . . . 

. 41 

dryht . 

... 104 

écelice . , 

. 110 

erian . . . 

. 73 


... 104 

écenys . . 

. 107 

etan . . . 

81, 82 


. . . 113 

. . 79, 81 

écnys , . 
edcenning . 

. . 36 
. 101 

éiJ . . . . 

. 51 

dugu5 . 

éfJe . . . 


. 22, 106 

, . 101 

étJre . . . 

. 51 

durre . 
duru . 

... 79 
... 42 

edniwian . 

93, 113 

. 101 

Fagnian . . 

. 124 


. . . 91 

edwitan . 

. 101 

fand . . . 

81, 89 


... 74 

efeneald . . 

. 116 

fandian . . 

. 124 

deéd . ■ 

10, 18, 36 

efenlæcan. . 

. 113 

faran . 70, 81 

, 82, 87, 

dæg . 

. . 16, 34 

efennilit . . 

. 116 


dæl . . 

10, 34, 35 

efenwyrhta . 

. 116 

faru , . . 

. 41 

dælan . 

... 10 

éfstan . . 

. 129 

feaht . . . 

. 89 


... 10 

eft . . . . 

. 131 

fealde . . . 

. 84 

ége . . . . 

. 126 



Ea . 

... 37 

égeleås . 

. 117 

feawa . . . 

. 61 

eåc . . 

. 48, 125 

elata . . 

. 2 

feccan , 

. 21 


. . . 5 

ele . . . , 

. 121 

fédan . . 7, 

20, 75 

eddig . 

. 48, 108 

ellen . . . 

. 37 

fela . . . 

. 61 


. . . 30 

emfeåla . . 

. 116 

feld . . . 

. 36 

cahta . 

. . . 2 


. 116 

fellen . . . 

. 103 


fen (fenn) . P. 13 

20, 22, 39 

. . i 89 

... 105 

... 84 

19, 85, 113 

... 40 

19, 51, 128 

... 39 

... 39 

... 104 

. 87, 113 

. 16, 23 

. 114 

70, 89 

13, 36 

. 106 

. 27 

21, 36 

. 91 

. 21 

92, 113 

. 105 

. 92 

. 18 

. 108 

68, 92 

92, 105, 113 

. 92 

feoh . . 
feold . 
feoU . 
feond . 
feor . 
feores w 
feorh , 
féran . 
fét . , 
finde . 

fiscatj . 
fixas . 
flåt . 
flaxe . 
fleåh . 
fleåm . 
fleåt , 
fle6n . 
fleote . 
fleow . 
flite . 
fl6d . 
flor . 
flowe . 
flæse . 
fnæd . 
iå . . 
foh . 
fole . 


Verbal Index. 


for . P. 4, 

128, 129 

fremman . 

. P. 21 

for . . , 

4, 113 

fre6d6m . 

. . 106 


. . 100 

freols . . 

. . 105 


. . 21 

freoman . 

. . 117 


. . 100 


. 40 


. 100 


. . 105 


. 100 

fredt . . 

. . 106 


, 103 

frete . . 

. . 82 


. 103 

frine . . 

. . 88 


. . 48 

fr6fer . . 

16, 37 


. . 108 


. . 46 

forgiteu . 

. . 124 

frymtJ . . 

. 106 

forgytol . 

. . 108 

frynd . . 

. 41 


. . 83 

frægn . 

. 88 


. 132 

fræt . . 

. . 83 


17, 93 

fugel . . . 

21, 35 

forloren . 

17, 93 


. 21 


. . 93 

fugelere . 

. . 35 

forleétan , 

. . 48 

ful . . . 

. 5, 8 


. . 51 

fulian . . 

. 72 


. 134 

fuU . . . 

. 8,74 

forrldel . 

. . 103 

fullian . , 

. 72 


. . 89 

fuUice . . 

. 110 


. . 130 

fuUneåh . 

. . 116 

forst . . 

. . 21 

fulluht . 

. . 106 

forstelan . 

. . 134 

fulluhtere . 

. 103 


. . 37 

fuloft . 

. 116 


. . 130 

fulrihte . 

. . 116 


, 57, 130 


. . 116 


. 57 


. . 116 

for |>y 124, 

129, 130 

funde . . 

. . 70 

for« . . 

. . 51 

furSor . . 

. . 51 


. . 115 

furSre . . 

. . 51 


. 115 
. . 107 

fus . . . 

. . 17 

fyligan . . 

76, 124 


. . 48 

fyll . . 

. . 105 

fot . . 5, 

8, 16, 40 


101, 113 

fram . . 

. . 127 

fylled . 

. . 21 

fran . . 

. . 88 

fynd . . 

. . 41 

fréfrian . 

. . 16 

fyr . . . 

. . 51 


. . 88 

fyr . . . 

. . 8 




fyrd . . 

. P, 122 


. P, 131 

gehusan . . 

P. 100 

fyrmest . 

. . 51 

gebro^ra (-i 

Cl) 40, 100 

gehwå . . . 

. 60 

fyrre , . 

. . 51 


. 17, 92 

gehwider . . 

. 102 

fyrrest . 

. . 51 


. . 5 

gehwilc (-ylc) 

60, 102 

fyrst , . 

. . 21 

gebyrd . 

. . 106 

gehwær . 

. 102 

fysan . . 

. . 17 

gebyrian . 

95, 125 

gehwæt . 

. 60 

fyj>er . . 

. . 39 

gecoren . 

. . 93 

gehwæ&er . . 

. 60 

fæder . . 

. 18,40 

gecuS . . 

. . 80 

gehyran . • 

. 101 

fægen . . 

. . 22 

gecwydræden . 104 

geliyrned . , 

. 109 

fæger , 

. 22,48 

gecynd . 

. . 106 

gehyrsum , 


fægnian . 

. . 111 


. . 134 


. . 72 


. . 128 

gecyrran . 

. . 59 

gebaélan . , 

. 16 

færlic . . 

. . 48 


. 95,125 

gelamp . 

. 89 

fæst . . 

. 18,46 

gedeåf . 

. . 92 

gelde . . . 

. 89 

fæstan . . 

120, 132 

gedearf , 

. . 89 

geledfa , 


fæsten , 

. . 104 

gedeorfe . 

. . 89 

geleåffuU . . 

. 117 

fæt . . 

. . 38 


. . 92 

gelese . . . 

. 38 

fætt . . 

. . 9 

gedwellan . 

. . 77 

gelic . . . 

. 101 


. . 125 

gelice . . , 

. 110 


. . 111 

geendian . 

. . 100 

gelicnes ^ 

. 107 

gale . . 

. . 87 

gees . . 

. . 4 

gelinipe , 

. 89 

gån . . 

5, 12, 76 

gef . . 

. . 2 

gelomp , 

. 90 


. • 76 

gefeå . . 

. . 105 

gelpe . . . 

. 89 

garsecg . 

. . 129 


. . 83 

gelyfan . 16 

, 74, 124 

gast . . 

. . 19 

gefeolit . 

. . 39 

gelytlian . . 

. 111 

gåstlic « . 

48, 107 

gefeon . 

83, 105 

gelaéte . . 

. 38 

ge . . . 

. . 53 

geféra . . 

. . 100 

gemacan . . 

. 100 

geaf . , 

2, 12, 83 


. . 104 

gemagas . . 

. 100 

geald . . 

. 12, 89 


. . 73 

geman . . « 

. 79 

geall . . 

. . 3 

gefyllan . 

, . 101 

gemåna . 

103, 107 

gealp . . 

. . 89 


. . 100 

gemang . . 

. 128 

gean . . 

. 79,80 

ge.,.ge . 

. . 130 

gernédryd . . 

. 43 

gear . 

. . 22 


. . 112 

geniet . , 

. 39 

gearcian . 

. . 112 

gegripen . 

. . 37 

gemiclian . . 

. 111 


. . 112 

gegylda . 

. . 100 

gemiltsian . 

. 112 

geat . . 

. '. 38 

gehåt . . 

. . 34 

gemunan . . 

. 79 

geåt . . 

. . 92 


. . 101 

gemæne , 

. 107 

gebeåli . 

. 17, 92 

geliende , 

. . 128 

gemære . 

. 3, 38 

geLétan , 

. . 74 

gehered . 

. . 46 

geneålæcan , 

. 113 

gebiddan , 

. . 101 

geliirsnm . 

. . 3 

genese . . 

. 82 

gebletsod . 

. . 58 

gehroren . 

. . 93 

geni^erian , 

73, 111 

Verbal Index. 


gen6h . . 


geteld . . 


gnoh . . . 

P. 86 

genæs . . . 

. 82 

getimbrian 46,72, 100 

god . 

4, 12 

geo . . . 

. 20 

getryvve . 

. 46 

g6d ., 4, 23 


geoc .. . . 

. 22 

geunnen . . 

. 80 

godcund • . 

. 109 

geogu« . . 

22, 106 


ti . 112 

godspellere . 

. 34 

geond . . . 

. 127 

gewåt . . 

. 91 

gol . . . 

. 87 

geong ... 


gewicodon . 

. 36 

gold . . . 

. 16 

georne . lO, 


gewill . . 

. 105 

goldhord , , 

. 134 

geote . . . 

. 92 

gewilnung , 

. 106 

goldhordian , 

. 134 

geow, . . 

. 3 

gewinn , 

. 118 

gos . . . 

. 43 

gerecednys . 

. 35 

gewis . .' . 

. 46 

grafe . . . 

69, 87 

gerihtlæcan < 

. . 113 


. 100 

gram . . . 

. 129 

gés . . . . 


gewite . , . 

. 91 

grand . . . 

. 89 

gesamnung . 

. 36 

gewrit . . . 

. 39 

grecisc . . 

. 108 

gesawon . . 

. 82 

gewuna . 

. 103 

greow . . 

. 85 

gesceådwis . 

. 117 

geyfelian . . 

. 112 

grétan . . , 

. 74 


. 107, 

geyrsian . . 

. 111 

grinde ^ . 

. 89 


ge|)afian . . 

. 3 

gripe . . . 

. 91 

gesceaft , . 

, . 39 

ge|)auian . . 

. 3 

grof . . . 

69, 87 

gesceapan » . 

. 87 

gej)eåh . . 

. 92 

growe . . 

. 85 

gesceåte , , 

. 85 

gepeo . . . 

. 92 

grund , . 

. 124 

gesceod , 

. 109 

ge|)61it . . 

14, 106 

græg . . . 

. 9 

gesceot . . 

. 85 

gif. . . . 

. 131 

gyfan . , . 

. 81 

gescy . . . 

. 100 

gifan . . . 

12, 83 

gylden . . 

16, 108 

gescyldan , • 

. 100 

gifta . . . 

. 38 

gylt . . . 

. 106 

gese . • ♦ 

. 133 

gifu . . , 

. 41 

gyman . 

. 19 

geseåh , , 

. 83 

gilpan . . . 

. 60 

gymeleås , . 

. 106 

geseald , 

. 48 

git . . . . 

. 53 

gymelyst . , 

. 106 


, 83 

gitsian . . . 

. 72 

gymen . . 

. 104 


. 83 

gitsung , 

. 106 

gyngest . . 

. 51 

gesibsurn , . 

. 108 

giung . . 

. 11 

gyngre . . 

. 51 



glad . . . 

. 91 

gyngste * . 

. 51 

gesomming . 

. 107 

gladian . 

. 111 

gyrdel . . . 

. 103 

gesund . 

. 101 

gled . . . 

. 54 

gyt . . . . 

. 50 

gesweorce . 

. 89 

glide . . 

. 91 

gærs . . . 


gesweostra (-u 

) . 40 

glæd . . 

. 9, 48 

gæst . . . 

9, 18 

. 87 

glæs . . 

. 9,38 

gesworeii , , 

gesyhiJ . , 

. 106 


. 48 

Habban . , 


gesælig . . 

. 48 

gnåd . . , 

. 91 

hål .. 5, 16 

, 19, 46 

ges æld . . 

. 101 

gnage . . . 

. 86 

hålettan . , 

. 113 

getåcnung . 

. 54 

gnide . . 

. . 91 

hdlge , . , 

. 43 


Verbal iMdex. 

hålgianP. 72, 107,111 

heofon . P, 

11, 35 

hra^or ♦ ♦ 

♦ P. 49 

hålgung . 

, . 107 

heofoncund . 

. 109 

hreåm , ^ 


håhg . . 

. . 48 

heold . . . 


hreås . ♦ 

, . 9S 

liåm . . 

. . 19 

heonon . 

. 111 

hreåw ^ ^ 

. . 92 


. . 109 

heord . 12, 

16, 19 

hredd . ^ 

, . 20 

hånd . . 

. . 37 

heorte . 

31, 32 

hreosan ^ 

, 17, 93 

liåte . . 

. . 84 

heow . . 

. 85 

hreowe « ^ 

♦ . 92 

håtian . , 

72, 112 

her . . 9, 102, 110 


♦ . 112 

hatte . . 

. . 84 

here . . 

9, 112 

hrine ♦ » 

. . 91 

he . . . 

. . 53 

heretoha . , 

. 124 

hring ♦ ^ 

♦ ♦ 12 

heåfod . 

3, 12, 38 

hergian ^ ♦ 

. 112 

hrure ♦ ^ 

. . 93 

heåfod-leålitras . 116 

het. . , . 

. 84 

hryman ♦ 

105, 112 


. . 116 

hi . . . . 

3, 53 

hryre ♦ * 

♦ . 17 


. . 116 

hider , , 

. 102 

hræd * ^ 

♦ 16, 49 


. . 116 

hig . , . . 

3, 53 

hrædlice « 

♦ . 96 

heåk . . 

51, 98 

hiofori . . . 

. 11 

hrædlicre ♦ 

♦ . 96 


. . 115 

hit. . . . 

. 53 

hræfen , ^ 

* ♦ 21 

heåhfæder . 

. . 116 

hivvræden ♦ . 

. 104 

hrægel ♦ ^ 

. . 51 

heåhnes . 

. . 98 

hlade , , , 

, 86 

hii . ♦ ♦ 

. ♦ 59 


. . 116 

hlåford . , , 

♦ 122 

hugu ♦ » 

♦ ♦ 61 


. . 116 

hleåpe ♦ ♦ ♦ 

. 85 

hund ^ ^ 

. . 64 

heåhsetl . . 

. 115 

hleåt ♦ » , 

. 92 

hundred ♦ 

. . 38 


. . 115 

hleop ♦ ♦ ♦ 

, 85 

hunta ^ ^ 

♦ . 36 

heald . . . 

. 112 

hleote . ♦ , 

♦ 92 

huntatJ ♦ ♦ 

. . 106 

healdan 16 

84, 101 

hlihhe ♦ ♦ ♦ 

, 86 

huntnatJ ♦ 

. ♦ 106 

healf . . 

. . 66 

hlisa ♦ ♦ ^ 

♦ 31 

hus ♦ , ^ 

* 5,8, 

heålice , 

. . 98 

hlisbære * + 

, 108 

hwå ♦ ^ ^ 

59, 102 

healp . . 

. . 89 

hldd . ^ , 

. 86 

hwanon ♦ 

♦ ♦ 111 


98, 112 

hloh ♦ ♦ ^ 

♦ 86 

hwar , ♦ 

♦ ♦ 110 

heard . . 


lilot ♦ ♦ ♦ 

. 12 

hwearf ♦ ♦ 

♦ . 89 


. 115 

hiyp ♦ ♦ ♦ 

^ 105 

hwelc 4. ♦ 

. ♦ 59 

heåuod . 

, 3 

hnåh , ♦ ^ 

♦ 91 

hweorfe ♦ 

♦ . 89 

heawe . . 

. . 85 

hnecca ♦ ♦ ♦ 

♦ 12 

hwi ♦ , ^ 

. ♦ 120 

hebban 75, 8 

1, 87, 93 

hnige ♦ ^ ♦ 

♦ 91 

hwider ^ 

102, 110 

heddern . 

. 107 

hof , , , 

87, 93 

hwilum 4 

♦ ♦ 110 

hefe . . 

. 81 

hogian ♦ ^ 

. 75 

hwit ♦ ♦ 

♦ . 12 

heg . . . 

. 34 

hoh ♦ ♦ ♦ ^ 

. 85 

hwylc ♦ ♦ 

59, 102 

hehst . . , 

. 51 

hon ♦ * ^ 

84, 85 


. * 61 

helpe , . 

. 89 

tiors 4 - ♦ ■ ^ 

♦ 34 

:iwæl ♦ ♦ 

, 34, 36 

heng . . . 

. 84 

hrån , ^ ^ 

. 91 

iwær ♦ ♦ 

60, 110 

hed . . . 

. 53 

hrab'e ♦ * ♦ 


hvæt ♦ 18, 4S, 59 

Verbal Index. 


hwæte . P 

. 24, 34 

iett . . 

. P. 11 

lecgan P, 

16, 75, 77, 

hwæthweganunges 61 

ile . . 

. . 57 


hwæt hweguninga 61 

inc . , 

. . 53 

lede . . 

. . 77 

hwætJer . 69 

60, 131 

incer , . 

53, 55 

lendenu , 

. . 39 

hwæ^re . . 

. 59 

incit . , 

. . 53 

leng . . 

23, 51, 96 

hwæSer pe . . 

Jie 130 

inn ♦ , 

. . 51 


. . 107 

hwæthugu . 

. 61 

inne . 

, . 111 

lengest . 

. . 51 

hwæthwegu (- 

a) . 61 

innemest . 

. . 51 

lengre . 

. 51, 96 

hy . . . 

. 3 


. . 51 

lengst . 

. 51, 96 

hycgan . . 

. 76 


. . 51 


. . .105 

hyhst . » . 

. 51 

inn-on , 

. . 128 

leof . . 

. . 32 

hyldan , 

. 112 

innor . . 

. . 51 

leofian . 

. . 75 

hynan , » 

. 112 

innofJ . , 

. . 106 

leogan . 

. 68, 92 

hyran , 19, 

70, 10,1 

intmgan . 

. . 129 

leoht 12, 

16, 21, 46 

hyrdan . 

. 103 

into . . 

. . 128 

leorning-cniht , 64 

hyrde 4, 16, 

19, 23, 

is . . . 

, . 4 

leo« . . 

. . 11 

27, 103 

iiigotJ , . 

. . 11 

lese . . 

. . 83 

hyrde . . . 

. 4 


. . 75 

hyre . . . 

. 53 

liåcnian , 

. . 112 

licettan . 

. . 113 

hyrre . . * 

. 51 

lad . . 

. . 36 

licgan 12, 

16, 75, 83 

hyrsumian . 

. 124 

lagu . 40, 

41, 107 


hyt . . . 

. 3 

lamb , . 

. . 34 


. . 110 

hæfde . . . 

. 10 

land . . 

. . 34 

lichoma . 

, . 31 

hæfer . « 

. 35 

lang . . 

. 2, 51 

lictun . . 

, . 126 

hæftling . , 

. 104 

lange . 51, 

96, 110 

lif . . . 

. . 17 

hæl . . . 

. 134 

langlife . 

. . 107 

lifer . . 

. . 37 

hælan , , 

. 67 

langsum . 

. 108 

liifæstan . 

. . 115 

hælen d . . 

. 103 

lår . . 1( 

), 16, 36 

liggan . 

. . 13 

hælu , i 

. 41 

late . . 

. 51 

lig« . . 

. . 17 

hæmed . 

. 107 

lator . 4 

. . 51 

lio« . . 

. . 11 

hær . . . 

9, 18 

latost . . . 

. 51 

li« . . . 

. . 17 

hgéren , , 

. 109 

la« . . 

. .113 

li«an . 

. 92, 113 

hæriht * , 

. 109 

latJian , , 

. . 72 

logon . . 

. . 81 

hætan * » 

. 112 

leåc \ . 

. . 68 

loh . . 

. 81,86 

hætol • k 

. 108 

leåf . . . 

12, 33 

long . . 

. . 2 

hætu . » i 


leåg . . , 

. 68 

Mcan . , 

. . 68 

hætien * 4 

. 48 

leåh . , 

. 92 


. 70, 71 


. 108 

leåhtras . 

. . 116 

lufu . . 

. 25, 41 


leån . . 1£ 

>, 81, 86 


. . 108 

Ic . . . 

. 53 

leas . , . 

19, 46 

lus . . 

. . 42 

ié . . . . 

. 38 

leåt . . 

. . 92 

lustbære . 

. . 108 


Verbal Index. 

lute . 

. . P. 92 

mealite . P. 21, 79 

nionaS . P. 

36, 106 

lime . 

. . 3 

mealt . . 

. 89 

moste . . 

. 79 

lybban . 

17, 76, 87 

mearc . . 

. 36 

mot . . . 

79, 80 

lyfan . 

. . . 19 

mearh . - . 

. 19 

moJ)ge . , 

. 134& 


. . . 11 


. 89 

munt . . 

. 129 


. . 11 

méd . . 

. 5 

murne . , 

. 89 

lyft . 

. . . 24 

medu . , 

. . 40 

mus . 

. 42 

lyht . 

. . . 16 

meh . 

. . 53 

muti . , 15 

22, 35 

lys . 

. . . 42 

melewe . 

. . 40 

mu&a . . 

. 35 

lysan . 

. . . 16 

melte . . 

. . 89 

mycel , 

47, 51 

lystan . 

. . . 124 

melu . . 

. . 40 

myngian . . 

. 72 

lytel . . 

. 47, 51 


. 40 

myrtJ . , ] 

106, 126 


. . .111 

men , 

, . 16 

mys . 

, 42 


. . . 104 

mennisc . 

. 108 

mæden . . 


læce . 

. . . 34 

metan . 9 

, 39, 82 

mædenliåd . 

. 105 

Isédau . 

18, 75, 113 

raétan . 

67, 74 

mæg . . . 

34, 79 

læg . ^ 

. 83, 113 

mete , . 

. . 34 

mægden , . 

. 17 


. 18, 73 

miclian . 

. 111 

mægen . . 

39 104 


. , . 104 

mid , 

8, 128 

mæger . . 

. 48 

læs . 

. . . 51 

midd . . 

. . 51 

mægleås . . 

. 115 

læs . 

. . . 83 


. . 51 

mægræden . 

. 104 

læsse . 

. . . 51 

mid ealle 

. 111 

mæg'(J . , 

. 17 

læst . 

. . . 51 

midlen . 

. . 104 


. 61 

læt . . 

. 48, 51 

midmest . 

. 51 

mænigeo (-u) 


lætan 9, 

18, 69, 70, 


i . 128 


81, 82 

mid |)y . 

. 130 

mærsian . . 

. 112 


... 51 

mige . . 

. 91 


. nå 

lætre . 

. . . 51 

miht . 37, 

79, 106 

mæst . . 

. 51 

milite . . . 
mihti . . 

. 79 
. 3 

mæt . . . 
mætS , . 

. 82 
. 17 

Ma . . 

. 23, 51 


., 70,72 

mihtig . 



inacian . 

niaga . 

. , . . 25 


. 107 

Ni . . . 

. 133 


. . . 79 

min . 

. 55 

nabban . 


måli . 

. . . 91 

misdæd , 

. 99 

nafu . 

. 41 

man . 

. 2, 40, 61 

misfon , 

85, 99 

någon . . 

. 79 


. . .117 

mislic . , 

. 99 

nåh . . . 

. 79 


. . . 61 

mislician . 

. 99 

nåiit . . . 

. 61 


Id .. 66 

mislædan . 

. 99 

nå hwær , . 

. 133 


. . . 103 

missian . 

. . 99 

nalles . , 

. 133 


. . .106 

mon . . 

. 2. 40 

nama . . 

24, 31 

måre . 

. . . 51 

mona , . , 

. 25 

nån , 

61, 99 

Verbal Index. 



noriJor ♦ ♦ P. Sirbn-ufan • 4 
nunnan-mynster 114 onweg » 
-''^~- l7 onwredn 

♦ . . 104 

♦ ♦ ♦ 51 
17, 78, 99 

♦ . . 51 

♦ ♦ . 84 
. . . 79 

17, 79, 80 
. * . 39 
» « • yy 

0£ . . 

of-diine 4 
ofer ♦ • 
oferniod 4 

92 ofstiiige ♦ 
of|)yrst ♦ 
om 4 4 
on 4 4 4 
ond 4 4 

84 ondræde 4 



onf6 4 4 

ongan ^ 




ongite 4 

ongon 4 





4 4 109 
4 4 134 
2, 128 
4 ♦ 106 
4 ♦ 124 
4 ♦ 2 
. , 84 
4 4 84 
, 84, 85 
4 4 88 
10, 127 
4 . 83 

orcedpunga ^ 

ord ,44 

ormod ♦ ^ 

orsorg 4 ^ 

orsorgnes ♦ 

ortruwian ^ 

oxa 4 4 4 

opdon 4 ♦ ♦ 

opertwega 4 

61 o|)er påra 4 

99 o« , , 4 ^ 

133 ofJeowan 4 4 

oSer 4 14, 61 

otJfleon 4 4 

oSfæstan 4 ♦ 

o^re 444 

otJsacan 4 ^ 

O'^wendan ^ 

ocJyrnan ^ 4 

op^e 4^4 

o|)tJe ne ♦ 4 

oSiJe - 


P. 128 
4 111 
4 99 
4 110 
8, 21 
4 99 

99, 109 
4 99 
♦ 99 
4 25 
4 99 
4 130 
4 130 
4 128 
4 99 

4 99 
4 99 
4 120 
4 99 
4 99 
4 99 
♦ 15 
4 60 

4 130 



Piegere , 

4 103 

pleoli 4 4 

4 39 

plihtan 4 

4 75 

pluccian 4 

4 76 

preost 4 

4 19 


4 105 

pæ^ 4 4 

4 34 

rcld 4 
råp 4 
reåc ^ 
read , 

98 reåf . 

99 reåfere 

4 41 
4 91 

4 93 
4 19 
4 34 
4 103 

Verbal Index, 

reafUc • . 

P, 105 

sanc . . P. 

3, 113 

scyle . 

* • 

P. 79 

récan . . . 

. 77 

sand . . . 

. 2 

scyp . 

. , 

. 133 

reccan 75,76,77,93! 

sang . . . 

3, 88 



. 87 

reccean . . 

. 76 

sangestre . . 

. 104 


. 34 

récels . . . 

. 105 

sår ... 

7, 112 



. . 51 

ren . . , 

16, 17 

sårgian . . 

. 112 



. . 51 

reng . . . 

. 17 

saul . . . 

7, 11 



. . 13 

reéce . . . 

. 92 

såwe . . . 

. 85 



. . 83 

reord . . » 

. 21 

sawel . . . 

. 37 

se . . 

. , 


reow . . . 

. 85 

sawl , , . 

. 11 

seåc . 


. . 92 

rest . . . 

. 38 

sawul . . 7, 

11, 37 



. . 22 

restant . . . 

. 95 

scace . . . 

. 86 



. . 40 

ric ... . 

. 52 


. 5 

searu . 


. . 40 

rice . 26, 

27, 38 

scafe . . . 

. 87 



. . 40 

ricsian . . 

4, 72 

scan . . . 

11, 91 



17, 77 


90, 91 


. 85 

secgan 12,2 


riht , . . 

21, 74 

sceåf . . . 

. 92 

séc« . 


. . 17 


. 74 

sceal . 22, 

79, 80 

segen . 

. . 104 

rihte . . . 

. 110 


. 117 



. . 12 


. 117 


. 117 



. . 73 

rilitwillend . 

. 46 

sceamol , . 

. 103 



. . 17 

rihtwis . , 


sceanui . . 

. 41 

self . . 


. 3, 54 


. 103 

sceån 10, 11 

, 22, 91 

sellan . 


• 3,20 

rinan . . 

16, 95 

sceåp . . . 

. 34 



. . 113 

rincas . . , 

. 21 

scear . . . 

. 83 



3, 7, 75 

ring . . . 

. 3 

sceåt . , 

. 2 



56, 59 

ringe . . . 

. 3 


67, 72 

seéc . 


20, 46 

rit ... . 

. 80 


. 72 

seolf . 


. 3, 54 

rixian . . . 

. 4 


. 106 



, . 130 

r6n:iane . . 

. 41 

sceod . , 

. . 85 



. . 81 

rémanisc . . 

. 108 





. . 3 

rdmware . . 

. 41 

sceop . . 

. 87 



. . 85 

r6we . . , 

. 85 

sceort . . 

. 51 



18, 93 

raédan . . , 

. 95 

sceortlice . 


setl . 


. . 107 


. 34 

sceotan l3, 

22, 87 

settan . 


75, 113 

rædestre . 

. 104 

seere . . 

. 83 

se-be . 

. . 57 

rédfæst ., . 

. 117 

scét . . . 

. 2 

sib . . 


. - 37 

yæpan . . 

. 74 

scine . . 

. 91 



. . 40 

ræpling . . 

. 104 

scinlåc . 

. 105 

sigan . 



ræran . . 

. 113 


. 38 

sige . 


. . 103 

ræsan . . 

. . 75 

scipman . 

. . 117 


. . 114 


. 22 



. . 117 

Sdh . . . 

scoc . . . 

. 86 


. . 101 

68, 91 


. 87 

simle . 


. . 101 

samcucu . 


scolu . . 

. 41 

sin . . 


. . 55 


. 101 

scop . . 

. . 87 



. . 113 

samnian . 

. . 72 

scrud . . 

. 17 

singe . 


. . 88 


. 102 

scrydan . . 

17, 75 



. . 101 


. 102 

sciife . . 

. 92 



. .101 

samråde . 

. 102 


3, 79 


i' 101 

sam - - sam . 

. 131 


. . 105 

sio . . 


. . 11 

samwis . . 

. 101 

scyld . . . 


sittan . 


83, 113 

samwyrcan . 

. 102 


. . 107 


. . 133 

Verbal Index. 


»i« . . p. 

22, 66 

sprece . . P. 82i 

sum . . 

. P. 61 

si« . . . . 

, 51 

sprece-wise . .115 

sumor . . 

. . 40 

«i«mest . . 

. 51 

sprecol . . .108 


. . 113 

sitfor . . . 

. 51 

springe ... 89 


. . 17 

si»re . . . 

. 51 

spræc . . 24, 36 

sunne . . 

. . 31 

sipiJan . . . 

. 15 

spurne ... 89 

sunu . 25, 27, 40 

slåpe . . . 


ståh . 17, 81, 91 


. . 109 

slat . . . 

. 91 

stalu .... 115 

subern . 

. . 108 

sleån . . . 


Stan ... 16, 34 


. . 109 

slep . , . 

. 85 

Stan dan 68, 80, 87 


. . 110 

slidan . . . 

. 95 

staSolfæst . .117 

swå . 58, 

59, 1C2 

slife . . . 

. 91 

staSolfæstlice . Il7 

swå hwilc swå . 58 

slitau . . . 

4, 91 

staSolfæstnis . . Il7 


58, 60 

sliten . . . 

. 4 

stefen . . 36, 37 1 

swåhwæt . 

. . 60 

sl6h , . . 

22, 86 

stelan . 7, 83, 115 


. 58, 60 

slyh . . . 

. 81 

stellan ... 77 

swå hwætSer 

swå 58 

slæp . . . 

. 115 

stemne ... 37 

swå lange swå . 59 

slæpem . . 

. 115 

stenst .... 80 

swan d . 

. . 89 

slæpti . . . 

. 81 

steorfe ... 89 

svrang , , 

. . 89 


. 49 

steorra . . 26,30 

swape . . 

. . 85 

småt ., . . 

. 91 

steppe . . . 87 

swå swå 

58, 130 

smeåc . . 

. 92 

sticcels . . . 105 

swå J)eåh 

. . 130 

smeoce . . 

. 92 

sticcemælum . llO 


. . 89 

smite . . . 

. 91 

sticel . . . .103 

swealt . , 

. . 89 

smiti . . . 

23, 34 

stigan . 17, 81, 91 

swefe . . 

. . 83 


. 117 

stince .... 89 


. . 104 

smæl . . 

47, 49 

stod ... 68, 87 


. . 89 


. 92 

stop . ... 87 

swelle . . 

. . 89 

snoru . . 

. 41 

storm .... 16 

swelte . . 

. . 89 

snytro . . 

. . 41 

stow ... 8, 36 

sweoll , . 

. . 89 

soden . . 

. 18 

strand ... 24 

sweop . . 

. . 85 

séhte . . 

. . 17 

strang .... 51 


3, 19, 33 

somnian . 

. 72 

stranglice . .51 

sweoster . 

. 3, 40 

sond . ♦ 

. 2 

strangor ... 51 


. 3, 46 

song . . 

. 90 

streåm . . . 19 


. . 87 

sorg . . 

. 3 

streccan . . , l7 

swica . . 

. . 103 

sorh . . 

. 3 

strelite ... 17 

swift . . 

. . 46 

so« . . 14 

, 22, 46 

strengest . . . 5l 

swilc , . 

. . 102 


. . 117 

strengre ... 51 

swilce . . 

. . 131 


. . 110 

strengs . . . 106 


. 89, 95 

s6«sagoI , 

. . 108 

stræt .... 24 


. . 89 

sé^es . , 

. . 110 

stunta . . . .122 


. . 89 

spån . . 

. . 88 

stypel . . . .103 

swinge , 

. . 89 

spane . . 

. . 87 

styrman ... 16 

swingele . 

. . 107 

spatl . . 

. . 107 

stæf . 10, 34, 35 

switJ . . 

. 49, 50 


. . 89 

stæfcræft . . .117 

swifJe . 49, 50, 110 

speon . . 

• . 87 

stcél-hrånas . .115 

swiiJor . . 

• . 50 

speow . . 

. . 85 

staénen . . 16, 108 

swore . 

. . 87 

spillan . 

. . 74 

steéniht . . .109 

swurd . . 

. . 3 

spinne . .. 

. . 88 

stærf .... 89 

swustor . 

. . 3 

spiwe . . 

. . 91 

stær-writere . , ll4 


. . 110 

spon . . 

. . 87 

siice . ... 92 

1 swutelian , 

. . 111 

spowe . . 

. . 85 

sufoll. . ... 71 

1 swutelung 

. . 106 


Verbal Index. 

swutol , 

, . P. 3 


P. 92 


. P. 115 

swylc . 

57, 58, 59 


. 48 


. . 115 


; . 58 


. 107 


. . 114 


. . . 83 

tdweard . 109, 128 


n . 115 

swær . 

. . . 48 


. 100 


. . 114 


. . . 48 


. 100 


L . 114 


. . 58 

to\YriSan . . 

. 100 


. . 128 

swæSer, . svvå . 58 




. . 99 


. . . 81 

to J)on J)æt . 

. 131 


. . 98 

sylen . 

, . . 104 

to |)æs . . 

. 128 

iUngehyrt ♦ 

. . 109 

sylf . . 

. . 3, 54 

to-S . . . 

22, 40 


. 79, 93 


. . . 108 

tredan . . 

69, 82 


. . 98 

sylian 3, 

20, 70, 71 

treow 20, 26, 



. . 117 

syn . . 

. . . 37 

treowen , . 

. 108 


. . 112 


. . 117 

treowS , , 

. 106 


. . 98 


. 72, 112 

tråd . . . 


unsib . . 

. . 98 

synleås . 
sæ . . 

. . 117 
24, 37, 38 

tii .... 

. 63 


. . 98 

tiin .... 

. 99 

. . 117 


. . . 17 

tunge . . . 

. 30 


. . 98 


. . 103 

tungel . . 

21, 39 

unsælan . 

. . 98 

sægde . 

. • . 17 

tungol . , , 

. 21 


. . 37 


. 36, 106 

turf . . . 

. 42 

untynan . 

. . 99 

sælf)a , 

. . 58 

tusc . . . 

. 36 

unweorS . 

. . 121 

sænire • 

. . . 52 

tuwa , 

. 66 

up . . . 

. . 51 

sæt . . 

. 83, 113 

tuxas . . , 

. 36 

upp • . . 

. . 112 

tweonung , 
twifeald . . 

. 131 

uppe . . 

. . 111 

T, . 

. 66 


. . 128 

. 5, 32 

twifealdlice . 

. 66 

ure . . . 

. . 55 

tåcen , 

. 19, 39 

twifealdnes . 

. 66 

urnon . . 

. . 88 

tuena . 

. . . 32 


. 66 

user . . 

. . 55 

talian . 

. . . 73 

t\vig. . . . 

. 38 


. . 53 

tån . , 

. . . 32 


. 66 


. . 53 

tåuni . 

. . 32 

tyccen . 

. 39 

usser . . 

. . 55 

tcdh . 

. 2, 92 

tyhtle . . . 

. 107 

ut . . 5, 

51, 112 

téh . . 

. . 2 

tyrf . . . 
tyrst . . . 

. 42 
. 80 

ute . . . 
liteweard . 

. . 111 


. 67, 77 

. . 51 

teoge . 

. . . 92 

tæcan , . . 

. 93 


. . 111 


. . 12 

. . 92 

. 80, 83 

teer .... 

. 83 

uton (utan) 
ut-on , . 
litor . . 

. . 132 

teen . 

. . 128 

tere . . 

Ufere . . 

. . 51 

tid . . . 

4, 8, 37 

. 51 


. . 51 

tiid . , , 

. . 4 

ufeweard . . 
ufor . . . 

. 51 
. 51 

. 98 

uSe . . . 

. . 79 

tilian . 

. . 125 
. . 31 

tima . , 

Wi . . 

tin . . . 

. . 8 


. 99 

. . 5 

to . . . 

. . 128 

unc . . . 

. 21 

vvace. .. . 

. . 86 

todræfan . 

. . 100 

uncer . . . 

. 55 

wacian , . 

76, 113 


. . 73 


. 98 

wacse . . 

. . 87 




. 99(wade. . .• 

. . 86 

to-einnes . 

. . 128 


. 98 

waldend . 

. . 103 


. . 128 

nnder • . . 

. 128 


. . 88 


. . 91 


. 114 

wana . . . 

47, 99 


. . 91 

underfon , . 

. 115 

wand . » 

. . 89 

Verl)al Index. 


wanMl . . 
waroS . . 
wåst . . 
wåt . .. . 
v.e . . . 
weal . . 
wealdan . 
Avealdend' . 
weall . . 
^Teallan 85, 
wearp . . 
weax , . 
weaxe . . 
weccan 74, 
weccean , 
wédan . , 
weg . . . 

welig . . 
•wende . , 
wéiist pli . 
■weod . . 
weold . . 
weoll . . 


, 99 

. 106 
. 79 

79, 80 

. 53 

. 104 


. 36 

. 124 









20 1 

, 36 













weorc 16, 19, 34, 112 
weorpe . . 89, 90 
weor|>scipe 34, 

•weoi'5 . 

20, 85, 

w er dan 
werlic , 
wesan . 
weste . 
Avif . . . 
wiilåc , 
wiflic . 









wiht . 

winde . 
winne . 
wise , . 
wisse . . 
wiste . . 
wit . . . 
witan . . 
wite . . . 
witega . . 
wiue . . 
wifS . . . 
wiSerian , 
wiiiforan . 
witJinnan . 
wiSsace . 
wiSs\i5an . 
wiSsutan . 
ui'Sæftan . 
vvlåt . . 

P. 42, 61 1 

. . 123 

17, 20,78 

112, 124 1 

. 8: 

. 89 

. 108 

., 26,40 

. 113 

. 105 

. 31 

. 80 

. 79 

. 53 

17, 79 

38, 112 

. 129 

, 104 

. 114 

. 112 

. 3 

. 129 

. 100 

. 100 

. 100 

. 100 

. 100 

. 100 

100, 103 



\v6c . 














. 127 

. 128 

. 86 

. 116 

. 127 

. 127 

. 91 

. 91, 103 

. 86, 113 

. . . 87 

20, S6, 125 

... 38 

, 20, 105 
16, 22, 33 

. 37 

. 41 

. 91 

. 68 

. 22 

. 92 
13, 47 

. 82 


wreo . . 

wrige . . 


writan 22, 39, 



wrolit . . 


wuce . 

wudu . . 


wuduwa . 

wuduwe , 

vvulit . , 

wundor . 




wurS . . 

wurSfull . 

wylon . , 

wylisc , . 


wylni . 

wyrcan 16, 70. 

wyrcean , 


wyrm. • 



wyrs^ . . 




wæcan . 

wædla . . 



wæii . . 



wæstni . 




w æterian . 

P. 7.T 
. 92 

. 91 

. 89 

68, 87 

. 103 

. 92 

. 106 

13, 47 

7, 31 

. 40 

. 114 

. 31 

. 31 

42, 61 

22, 39 

. 124 

. 72 

. 90 


. 117 

36, 104 

. 108 

. II3 

. 105 


. 23 

. IO3 

. 22 

• II2 

. 51 

. 51 

. lli 

51, 9o 

46, IO7 

74, II3 

, . 4r 

. 105 

, . Is 

. . 17 

. . 39 

'34, 105 
, . 108 
21, 39 
■ . 103 
. . 111 

Yfel 39, 47, 48, 51 
yfele . . . 49, 51 
yfelian . . .112 
yfeniest ... 51 


Verbal Index. 

ylc . . P 

. 33, 57 

peofman . P. Il7 

'^ærsc ... P. 80 

yldan . . 

. . 112 

|)eoh .... 39 

I>ær--^ær . . 53 

yldest . . 

. . 51 

|)e6s .... 56 

fæt . 56,57,59,102, 

yldo . . . 

. 41 

J)e6te .... 92 


yldra . . 

. 16, 20 

^eow 20,35,104,114 

Pætte ... 57 

yldre . . 

. . 51 

ijjeowa ... 35 

ymbe (ymb) 

. 127 

||)eow-boren . . Il4 

ymbhwyrft . 

. 106 

|)eovvd6m . . l05 

Æ .... 37 


. 127 

|)eowen . . . l04 

yppan . . 

. 112 

|)eowet . . . 106 

æc 2 

yrfenuma . 

. 103 

|)eowIiåd . . 105 

æcer . 2, 18, 23, 35 

yrman . . 

. 112 

|)eowian ... 72 

æfter . . 5l, 128 


. 106 

|)eowman . • ll7 

æftere ... 51 

yrnan . 20, 

88, 113 

Ijeowot . . . 106 

æfterfolgere . 103 


. . 46 

J)eowt ... 106 

æfterfyligend . ^ 103 


. 110 

|)ersce ... 89 

æftermest . . 51 

yrsiaii , 

. 111 

f)es . . . . 9, 56 

æfvTeard . . . 109 

yt . . . 

. 80 

|)e..|,e . . . 58 

æg .... 39 

ytan , . . 

. 112 

f)ider . . 102, llO 

æghwd ... 60 

ytemest . . 

. 51 

|)in .... 55 

ægll^vanon . . 102 

yteren . . 

. 108 

|)incan ... 77 

æghwider • • 102 

ytst . . . 

. 80 

J)inen . . 16, 104 

æghwylc . 6, 60, 102 

{)ing ... 14, 34 
|)is . . . . 56 

æghwær . . 102 

:h . . . 

æghwæt ... 60 

. 118 

f)islic ... 57 

æghwæSer , . 60 

)an . . . 

. 56 

|)olian ... 73 

æg^er ... 62 

jances . • 

. 110 

|)on .... 56 

ægSerge--ge 62,130 

;>anon . 102, Hl 

|)onne . . . 118 

ælit .... 106 

■ )ara . . . 

. 110 

|)orfte ... 79 

ælc . . . . 61 

je . . . 

. 58 

J)rifyldan . • 112 

ælgréne ... 102 

)eåli . . . 

. 131 

|)ringe ... 89 

ælgylden . .102 


. 77 

|)ryh .... 12] 

ælinihtig . . l02 

learf . , 

19, 79 

|)rymfæst . . 117 

ælj)e6dig . . 108 

Seat . . . 

. 92 

|)rynis ... 37 

æne .... 66 

jeaw . . . 

. 35 

bræd .... 18 

ænig . 16, 61, 108 

■ jeccan . . 

67, 77 

bd . . . 14, 53 

ænlép ... 61 

■ tegen 


)urfe . . 79, 124 

ænlypig ... 61 

»egenscipe . 

. 105 

jurh . . 12, 127 

ær . . . 51, 128 

peli . . . 

. 53 

jurst ... 109 

ærer .... 51 

Jjen . . . 

16, 104 

mrstig . . • 48 

cérest .... 51 

j^encan . . 

. 77 

)us .... 14 

ærnan . . . 113 

|)eiicean . . 

. 14 

•jweån . . 81, 86 

aéror • . . . 5l 

|)e ne . . 

. 60 

jwok . . .86 

ærost .... 51 

J)eng . . . 

. 17 

jy 56 

sérre . . . .51 

jenian . . 

. 111 

^jylic .... 57 

æsc . . . . 9 

;)e6d . 14, 

36, 104; 

jyllic .... 57 

æt ... 4, 9, 128 


. 116 

jylæs be . . 131 

æt .... 4, 81 

Seoden . . 

. 104 

.yslic . . . . 57i 

ætgædere . .123 


. 116 

^ystru . . . 39 

ætiirån ... 124 


. 116 

3æni .... 56 1 

æthwega ... 61 

|)e6d-wita . 

. 116 

jæne .... 56 1 

ætJeling . . . 103 

|e6f . . . 

. 134! 

lær . 14, 18,58, 102! 

æSm . . » . 14 

Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. 
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Oct. 2006 



1 1 1 Thomson Park Drive 
Cranberry Township. PA 16066 




fl 11111 1111') 


O 003 239 462 O